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yields most of the peridot of commerce but it is now identified with the island of St John, or Isle Zeboiget, in the Red Sea, where it occurs, as shown by M. J. Couyat, in an altered dunite, or olivine rock (Bull soc. franc. min., 1908). This is probably the Topaz Isle, 101mm; firms, of the ancients. It is generally held that the mineral now called topaz was unknown to ancient and mediaeval writers, and that their rorrrdfiov was our peridot. Such was probably the Hebrew pitdah, translated topaz in the Old Testament. Dr G. F. Kunz has suggested that the peridots of modern trade are largely derived from old jewelry. The famous shrine of the Three Kings in Cologne Cathedral contains a large peridot, which has commonly been regarded as an emerald. It is notable that pebbles of transparent olivine, fit for cutting, are und in the United States in Montana, Arizona and New

ico; in consequence of their shape and curiously pitted

rface they are known as “ Job's tears.” (F. W. R.*)

I PERIDOTITE, a plutonic holo~crystalline rock composed in

' large part of olivine, and almost or entirely free from feldspar. The rocks are the most basic, or least siliceous plutonic rocks, and contain much iron oxide and magnesia. Hence they have dark colours and a high specific gravity (3-0 and over). They weather readily and are changed to serpentine, in which process water is absorbed and enters into chemical combination with the silicates of magnesia and iron. In some peridotites, such as the dunites, olivine greatly preponderates over all other minerals. It is always in small, rather rounded crystals without good crystalline form, and pale green in colour. Most of the rocks of this group, however, contain other silicates such as augite, hornblende, biotite or rhombic pyroxene, and often two or three of these are present. By the various mineral combinations different species are produced, e.g. mica-peri'iotfte, hornblende-peridotite, enstatite-peridotite. Of the accessory minerals the commonest are iron oxides and chromite or picotite. In some peridotites these form segregations or irregular masses which are of importance as sources of the ores of chromium. Corundum occurs in small crystals in many North American peridotites and platinum and the nickel-iron compound awaruite are found in rocks of this class in New Zealand. Red garnet (pyrope) characterizes the peridotites of Bohemia. The diamond mines of South Africa are situated in pipes or volcanic necks occupied by a peridotite breccia which has been called kimberlite. In this rock in addition to diamond the following minerals are found, hypersthene, garnet, biotite, pyroxene (chromediopsidc), ilmenite, zircon, &c.

Some peridotites have a granular structure, e.g. the dunites, all the crystal grains being of rounded shape and nearly equal size; a few are porphyritic with large individuals of diallage, augite or hypersthene. Some are banded with parallel bands of dissimilar composition, the result probably of fluxion in a magma; which was not quite homogeneous. The great majority of the rocks of this group are poikilitic, that is to say, they contain olivine in small rounded crystals embedded in large irregular masses of pyroxene or hornblende. The structure is not unlike that known as ophitic in the dolerites, and arises from the olivine having first separated out of the liquid magma while the pyroxene or amphibole succeeded it and caught up its crystals. In hand specimens of the rocks the smooth and shining cleavage surfaces of hornblende and augite are dotted over with dull blackish green spots of olivine; to this appearance the name “ lustre-mottling ” has been given.

Mica-peridotites are not of frequent occurrence. A well-known rock from Kaltes Thai, Harzburg, contains much biotite, deep brown in thin section. Other examples are found in India and in Arkansas. Poikilitic structure is rarely well developed in this group. The “blue-ground" of Kimberley which contains the diamonds is a brecciform biotite-hy rsthene-peridotite with augite. In the north of Scotland. in severa places in Sutherland and Ross, there are peridotites with silvery yellow green biotite and large

lates of pale green hornblende: these have been called scyelites.

n the hornblende-peridotites lustre-mottling is often very striking. The amphibole may be colourless tremolite in small prisms, as in some varieties of serpentine from the Lizard (Cornwall); or pale green hornblende as in scyelite. In both these cases there is some

robability that the hornblende has developed, partly at least, rom olivine or augite. In sheared peridotites tremolite and


actinolite are very frequent. Other rocks contain dark brown hornblende, with much olivine; there may also be augite which is often intergrown perthitically with the hornblende. Examples of this type occur in North Wales, Anglesey, Cornwall, Cortland, New York, and many other localities. A well-known peridotite from Schriesheimer Tal in the Odenwald has pale brownish green am phibole in large crystals filled with small grains of olivine which are mostly serpentinized. Very often primary brown hornblende in rocks of this t pe is surrounded by fringes and outgrowths of colourless tremo ite which has formed as a secondary mineral after olivine. Complete pseudomorphs after olivine composed of a matrix of scaly talc and chlorite crossed by a network of tremolite needles, are also very common in some peridotites, especially those which have uridergone pressure or shearing: these aggregates are known as pi ite.

The peridotites which contain' monoclinic pyroxene may be divided into two classes, those rich in diallage and those in which there is much au ite. The diallage-peridotitcs have been called wehrlites; often t cy show excellent lustre-mottlin . Brown or green hornblende may surround the diallage, an hypersthene may occur also in lamellar intergrowth with it. Some of these roc s contain biotite, while a little feldspar (often saussuritic) may often be seen in the sections. Rocks of this kind are known in Hungary, in the Odenwald and in Silesia. In Skye the pyroxenebearing peridotites usually contain green chrome-diopside (a variety of augite distinguished by its le colour and the presence of a small amount of chromium). The augite-peridotites are grouped by German petrographers under the picrites, but this term has a slightly different signification in the English nomenclature (see PICRITE).

The enstatite-peridotites are an important group represented in many parts of the world. Their rhombic pyroxene is often ve pale coloured but may then be filled with platy enclosures whic give it a metallic or hronzy lustre. These rocks have been called saxonites or harzburgites. When weathered the enstatite passes into platy masses of bastite. Picotite and chromite are common accessory minerals and diallage or hornblende may also be resent. Many of the serpentine rocks of the Lizard (Cornwall) yrshire and north-western Scotland are of this type. Examples are known also from Baste near Harzburg, New York and Maryland, Norway, Finland, New Zealand, 8LC. Often the enstatite crystals are of large size and are very conspicuous in the hand specimens. They may be porphyritic, or may form a coarsely crystalline matrix enclosing innumerable olivine grains, and then lustre-mottling is as a rule very well shown.

The lherzolites are rocks, first described from Lherz in the Pyrenees, consisting of olivine, chrome-diopside and enstatite, and accessory icotite or chromite. They are fine-grained, bright

reen in co our, often very fresh, and may be somewhat granulitic. The dunites are peridotites, similar to the rock of Dun Mountain, New Zealand, composed essentially of olivine in a finely granular condition. Man examples of this type are known in different parts of the worl , usually as local facies of other kinds of peridotite. In olivine-basalts of Tertiary age in the Rhine district small nodules of green olivine occur frequently. They are of rounded shapes and may be a foot in diameter. The structure is granular and in addition to olivine they ma contain chromite, spine] and magnetite, enstatite and chrome- iopside. Some geologists believe these to be fragments of dunite detached from masses of that rock not exposed at the surface; others consider that they are aggregations of the early minerals of the basalt magma, which were already crystallized before the liquid rock was emitted. _ I

The great majority of stony or lithmdal meteorites (aerolites) are rich in olivine and present many analo ies to the terrestrial peridotites. Among their minerals are hyperst ene (enstatitc)_augite and chrome-diopside, chromite, pyrite and trailite, nickeliferous iron and basic plagioclase feldspar. The structure of these meteorites is described as “ chondritic "; their minerals often occur as small rounded grains arranged in radiate clusters; this has very rarely been observed in ordinary peridotites. . _

Although many ridotites are known in which the constituent minerals are excel ently preserved, the malority show more or less advanced decomposition. The olivine is especially unstable and is altered to serpentine, while augite. hornblende and biotite are in large measure fresh. In other cases the whole rock is changed to an aggregate of secondary products. Most serpentines (q.r1.) arise in this way. (J. S. F.)

PERIER, CASIMIR PIERRE (r777—r832), French statesman, was born at Grenoble on the nth of October 1777, the fourth son of a rich banker and manufacturer, Claude Perier (1742-— 1801), in whose house the estates of Dauphiny met in r788. Claude Périer was one of the first directors of the Bank of France; of his eight sons, Augustin (1773—1833), Antoine Scipion (r7761821), Casimir Pierre and Camille (1781-1844), all distingurshed themselves in industry and in politics. The family removed to Paris after the revolution of Thermidor, and Casimir Joined

the army of Italy in 1798. On his father’s death he left the arm; and with his brother Scipion founded a bank in Paris, the speculations of which he directed while Scipion occupied himself with its administration. He opposed the ruinous methods by which the duc de Richelieu sought to raise the war indemnity demanded by the Allies, in a pamphlet Réficxions sur le projet d’empnml (1817), followed in the same year by Dcrm'éres réflexions . . . in answer to an inspired article in the Moniteur. In the same year he entered the chamber of deputies for Paris, taking his seat in the Left Centre with the moderate

opposition, and making his first speech in defence of the freedom,

of the press. Re-elected for Paris in 1822 and 1824, and in 1827 for Paris and for Troyes, he elected to represent Troyes, and sat for that constituency until his death. Périer's violence in debate was not associated with any disloyalty to the monarchy, and he held resolutely aloof from the republican conspiracies and intrigues which prepared the way for the revolution of 1830. Under the Martignac ministry there was some prospect of a reconciliation with the court, and in January 1829 he was nominated a candidate for the presidency of the chamber; but in August with the elevation to power of Polignac the truce ceased, and on the 15th of March 1830 he was one of the 221 deputies who repudiated the pretensions put forward by Charles X. Averse by instinct and by interest to popular revolution he nevertheless sat on the provisory commission of five at the hOteI-de-ville during the days of July, but he refused to sign the declaration of Charles X.’s dethronement. Périer reluctantly recognized in the government of Louis Philippe the only alternative to the continuance of the Revolution; but he was no favourite with the new king, whom he scorned for his truckling to the mob. He became president of the chamber of deputies, and sat for a few months in the cabinet, though without a portfolio. On the fall of the weak and discredited ministry of Laflitts, Casimir Périer, who had drifted more and more to the Right, was summoned to power (March 13, 1831), and in the short space of a year he restored civic order in France and re-established her credit in Europe. Paris was in a constant state of disturbance- from March to September, and was only held in check by the premier’s determination; the workmen’s revolt at Lyons was suppressed after hard fighting; and at Grenoble, in face of the quarrels between the military and the inhabitants, Périer declined to make any concession to the townsfolk. The minister refused to be dragged into armed intervention in favour of the revolutionary government of Warsaw, but his policy of peace did not exclude energetic demonstrations in support of French interests. He constituted France the protector of Belgium by the prompt expedition of the army of the north against the Dutch in August 1831; French influence in Italy was asserted by the audacious occupation of Ancona (Feb. 23, 1832); and the refusal of compensation for injuries to French residents by the Portuguese government was followed by a naval demonstration at Lisbon. Périer had undertaken the premiership with many forebodings, and overwork and anxiety prepared the way for disease. In the spring of 1832 during the cholera outbreak in Paris, he visited the hospitals in company with the duke of Orleans. He fell ill the next day of a violent fever, and died six weeks later, on the 16th of May 183 2.

His Opinions e! discours were edited by A. Lesieur (2 vols., 1838); C. Nicoullaud published in 1894 the first part (Casimir-Périev, dépulé dc l'opposilion, 1817—1830) of a study of his life and policy; and his ministry is exhaustively treated by Thureau-Dangin in vols. i. and ii. (1884) of his H isloire de la monarchie dejuillet.

His elder son, Aucusrr: V1cron LAURENT CASIMIR Pfinn-zn (181 1—1876), the father of President Casimir-Périer (see CasrmnPfinmu), entered the diplomatic service, being attached successively to the London, Brussels and St Petersburg embassies, and in 1843 became minister plenipotentiary at Hanover. In 1846 he resigned from the service to enter the legislature as deputy for the department of Seine, a constituency which he exchanged for Aube after the Revolution of 1848. On the establishment of the Second Empire he retired temporarily from public life, and devoted himself to economic questions on which he published a series of works, notably Les Finance: e! la


polilique (1863), dealing with the interaction of political institutions and finance. He contested Grenoble unsuccessfully in 1863 against the imperial candidate, Casimir Royer; and failed again for Aube in 1869. In 1871 he was returned by three departments to the National Assembly, and elected to sit for Aube. He was minister of the interior for a few months in 1871—1872, and his retirement deprived Thiers of one of the strongest elements in his cabinet. He also joined the shortlived ministry of May 187 3. He consistently opposed all efforts in the direction of a monarchical restoration, but on the definite constitution of the republic became a life senator, declining MacMahon’s invitation to form the first cabinet under the new constitution. He died in Paris on the 6th of June 1876.

For the family in general see E. Choulet, La Famillc CasimirPérier (Grenoble, 1894).

PERIGEE (Gr. wept, near, 717“, the earth), in astronomy that point of the moon’s orbit or of the sun’s apparent orbit at which the moon or sun approach nearest to the earth. The sun’s perigee and the earth’s perihelion are so related that they differ 180° in longitude, the first being on the line from the earth toward the sun, and the second from the sun toward the earth. The longitude of the solar perigee is now 101°, that of the earth’s perihelion 281°.

PERIGORD, one of the old provinces of France, formed part of the military government of Guienne and Gascony, and was bounded on the N. by Angoumois, on the E. by Limousin and Quercy, on the S. by Agenais and Bazadais, and on the W. by Bordelais and Saintonge. It is now represented by the departments of Dordogne and part of Lot-et-Garonne. Périgord was in two divisions: Périgord blanc (cap. Périgueux) and Périgord noir (cap. Sarlat). In the time of Caesar it formed the civilas Petrocoriorum, with Vesunna (Périgueux) as its capital. It became later part of Aquilam'a secunda and formed the pagus pelragoricus, afterwards the diocese of Périgueux. Since the 8th century it had its own counts (see the Hisloire généalogique of P. Anselme, tome iii.), who were feudatories of the dukes of Aquitaine and in the 13th century were the vassals of the king of England. In the 15th century the county passed into the hands of the dukes of Orleans, and in the 16th came to the family of d’Albret, becoming Crown land again on the accession of Henry IV.

See Dessalles, Hisloire du Périgord (1888), the Bulletin of the Société historique e! urche'olog' ue du Périgord (1874 seq.), l’lnvmlaire sammaire dela “ Collection de érigord " in the Bibliothéque nationale (1874); the Dictiannaire topographi ue du departement de la Dordagne by the Vicomte de Gourgues (1873?.

PERIGUEUX, a town of south-western France, formerly capital of the old province of Périgord, now chief town of the department of Dordogne, 79 m. E.N.E. of Bordeaux, on the railway between that city and Limoges. Pop. (1906), 28,199. The town, situated on an eminence on the right bank of the Isle, is divided into three parts. On the slope of the hill is the medieval town, bordered south-east by the river and on the other three sides by esplanades and promenades; to the west is the modern town, which stretches to the station; to the south of the modern town is the old Roman town or cite, now traversed by the railway.

Three bridges connect Périgueux with the left bank of the Isle, where stood Vesunna, the capital of the Petrocorii. Hardly a trace of this old Gallic town remains, but not far off, on the Plateau de la Boissiére, the rampart of the old Roman camp can still be traced. On the right bank of the Isle, in the Roman city, there have been discovered some baths of the rst or 2nd century, supplied by an aqueduct four miles long, which spanned the Isle. A circular building, called the “ Tower of Vesunna,” 68 ft. in diameter and 89 ft. in height, stands at what was formerly the centre of the city, where all the chief streets met It is believed to have been originally the cella or main part of a temple, probably dedicated to the tutelary deities of Vesunna. Of the amphitheatre there still remain huge fragments of wall and vaulting. The building had a diameter of 1312 ft., that of the arena being 870 ft.; and, judging from its construction. must be as old as the 3rd or even the 2nd century. The counts of Périgueux used it for their chateau, and lived in it from the 12th to the end of the 14th century. In 1644 it.was given over by the town to the Order of the Visitation, and the sisters took from it the stones required for the construction of their nunnery. The most remarkable, however, of the ruins of the cité is the Chateau Barriére, an example of the fortified houses formerly common there. Two of its towers date from the 3rd or 4th century, and formed part of the fortified enceinte; the highest tower is of the 10th century; and the part now inhabited is of the 11th or 12th century, and was formerly used as a burial chapel. The bulk of the chateau is of the 12th, and some of the windows of the 16th century.

The chief medieval building in the cilé is the church of St Etienne, once the cathedral. It dates from the 11th and 12th centuries, but suffered much injury at the hands of the Protestants in the religious wars when the tower and two of the three cupolas were destroyed. The choir and its cupola were skilfully restored in the 17th century. A fine carved wooden reredos of the 17th century and a tomb of a bishop of the 12th century are to be seen in the interior. In the medieval town, known as Le Puy-St-Front, the most remarkable building is the cathedral of St Front, which, till its restoration, or rather rebuilding, in the latter half of the 19th century when the old features were to a great extent lost, was of unique architectural value. It bears a striking resemblance to the Byzantine churches and to St Mark’s at Venice, and according to one theory was built from 984 to 1047, contemporaneously with the latter (977—1085). It consists of five great cupolas, arranged in the form of a Greek cross, and conspicuous from the outside. The arms of the cross are 69 ft. in width, and the whole is 184 ft. long. These cupolas, 89 ft. high from the keystone to the ground, are supported on a vaulted roof with pointed arches after the manner characteristic of Byzantine architecture. The pointed arches imitated from it prepared the way for the introduction of the Gothic style. Adjoining St Front on the west are the remains of an old basilica of the 6th century, above which rises the belfry, the only one in the Byzantine style now extant. It dates from the 11th century, and is composed of two massive cubes, placed the one above the other in retreat, with a circular colonnade surmounted by a dome. To the south-west of St Front, the buildings of an old abbey (11th to 16th century) surround a cloister dating chiefly from the 13th century. Of the fortifications of Puy St Front, the chief relic is the Tour Mataguerre (14th century). \

Périgueux is seat of a bishop, prefect and court of assizes, and has tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a chamber of commerce and a branch of the Bank of France. Its educational establishments include a lycée for boys, training colleges for both sexes and a school of drawing. The trade of the town is in pigs, truffles, flour, brandy, poultry and pies known as pdtés dc Périgord. I '

Vesunna was the capital of the Petrocorii, allies of Vercingetorix when Caesar invaded Gaul. The country was afterwards occupied by the Romans, who built a second city of Vesunna 0n the right bank of the Isle opposite the site of the Gallic town. The barbarian invasion brought this prosperity to a close. St Front preached Christianity here in the 4th century and over his tomb there was raised a monastery, which became the centre of the new town called Le Puy St Front. The cité was pillaged by the Saracens about 731, and in 844 the Normans devastated both quarters. The new town soon began to rival the old city in importance, and it was not until 1240 that the attempts of the counts of Périgord and the bishops to infringe on their municipal privileges brought about a treaty of union. During the Hundred Years’ War, Périgueux was twice attacked by the English, who took the cilé in 1356; and the whole town was ceded to them by the Treaty of Brétigny, but returned to the French Crown in the reign of Charles V. The county passed by marriage into the hands of Anthony of Bourbon, father of Henry IV., and was converted by the latter into royal domain. During the Huguenot wars Périgueux was frequently

eleven years of age, of Ridolfo Ghirlandajo.


a stronghold of the Calvinists, who in 1575 did great destruction there, and it also suffered during the troubles of the Fronde. ‘

PERIHELION (Gr. 1repi, near, ‘71)“.08‘, sun), in astronomy, the point of nearest approach of a body to the sun. (See ORBIT.)

PERIM, a British island in the strait of Bab-el-Mandeb, at the entrance to the Red Sea, and 96 111. W. by S. of Aden. Perim is 2 m. from the Arabian shore, is about 3% m. long with an average breadth of over a mile and covers some 7 sq. 111.

There is a good harbour with easy entrance on the south side

with a depth of water from 25 to.3o it. It is largely used by mercantile vessels as a coaling-station and for taking in stores, including fresh water and ice. Perim, the Diodoros island of the Periplus, was, in consequence of the French occupation of Egypt, garrisoned from 1799 to 1801 by a British force. In view of the construction of the Suez Canal and the‘ increasing importance of the Red Sea route to India the island was annexed to Great Britain in 1857, fortified and placed under the charge of the Aden residency. In 1861 a lighthouse was built at its eastern end. Submarine cables connect the island with Aden, Egypt and Zanzibar. Population, including a garrison of 50 sepoys, about 200. - ~ ' ‘

PERINO DEL VAGA (1500-1547), a painter of the Roman school, whose true name was P15111110 (or P112110) Buomcconsr. He was born near Florence on the 28th of June 1500. His father ruined himself by gambling, and became a soldier in the invading army of Charles VIII. His mother dying when he was but two months old, he was suckled by a she-goat; but shortly afterwards he was taken up by his father’s second wife. Perino was first apprenticed to a druggist, but soon passed into the hands of a mediocre painter, Andrea da Ceri, and, when Perino rapidly surpassed his fellow-pupils, applying himself especially to the study of Michelangelo’s great cartoon. Another mediocre painter, Vaga from Toscanella, undertook to settle the boy in Rome, but first set him to work in Toscanella. Perino, when he at last reached Rome, was utterly poor, and with no clear prospect beyond journey-work for trading decorators. He, however, studied with great severity and spirit from Michelangelo and the antique, and was eVentually entrusted with some of the subordinate work undertaken by Raphael in the Vatican. He assisted Giovanni da Udine in the stucco and arabesque decorations of the loggie of the Vatican, and executed some of those small but finely composed Scriptural subjects which go by the name of “ Raphael’s Bible ”— Raphael himself furnishing the designs. Perino’s examples are: “ Abraham about to sacrifice Isaac,” “Jacob wrestling with the Angel,” “Joseph and his Brethren,” the “Hebrews crossing the Jordan,” the “ Fall and Capture of Jericho,” “ Joshua commanding the Sun to stand still,” the “ Birth of Christ,” “His Baptism ” and the “ Last Supper.” Some of these are in bronze-tint, while others are in full colour. He also painted, after Raphael's drawings, the figures of. the planets in the great hall of the Appartamenti Borgia. Perino exhibited very uncommon faculty in these works and was soon regarded as second only to Giulio Romano among the great paintcr’s assistants. To Raphael himself he was always exceedingly respectful and attentive, and the master loved him almost as a son. He executed many other works about Rome, always displaying a certain mixture of the Florentine with the Roman style.

After Raphael’s death in 1520 a troublous period ensued for Perino, with a plague which ravaged Rome in 1523, and again with the sack of that city in 1527. Then he accepted an invitation to Genoa, where he was employed in decorating the Doria Palace, and rapidly founded a quasi-Roman school of art in the Ligurian city. He ornamented the palace in a style similar to that of Giulio Romano in the Mantuan Palazzo del Te, and frescoed historical and mythological subjects in the apartments, fanciful and graceful arabesque work, sculptural and architectural details—in short, whatever came to hand. Among the principal works are: the “ War between the Gods and Giants,” “ Horatius Cocles defending the Bridge,” and the “ Fortitude of Mutius Scaevola." The most important work of all, the “Shipwreck of Aeneas,” is no longer extant. From Genoa Perino twice visited Pisa, and began some painting in the cathedral. Finally he returned to Rome, where Paul III. allowed him a regular salary till the painter’s death. He retouched many of the works of Raphael, and laboured hard on his ownaccount, undertaking all sorts of jobs, important or trivial. Working for any price, ‘he made large gains, but fell into mechanical negligence. Perino was engaged in the general decoration of the Sala Reale, begun by Paul 111., when his health, undermined by constant work and as constant irregularities, gave way, and he fell down dead on the 19th of October 1547. He is buried in the Pantheon.

Perino produced some excellent portraits, and his smaller oil pictures combine with the manner of Raphael something of that of Adrea del Sarto. Many of his works were engraved, even in his own lifetime. Daniele Ricciarelli, Girolamo Siciolante da Scrmoneta, Luzid Romano and Marcello Venusti (Mantovano) were among his principal assistants. (W. M. R.)

PERINTHUS (Turk. Eski Eregli, old Heraclea), an ancient town of Thrace, on théPropontis, 22 m. W. of Selymbria, strongly situated on a small peninsula on the bay of that name. It is said to have been a Samian colony, founded about 599 B.C. According to Tzetzes, its original name was Mygdonia; later it was called Heraclea (Heraclea Thraciae, Heraclea Perinthus). It is famous chiefly for its stubborn and successful resistance to Philip II. of Macedon in 340; at that time it seems to have been more important than Byzantium itself.

PERIOD (Gr. nepiobos, a going or way round, circuit, wept, round, and 666s, way, road), a circuit or course of time, a cycle; particularly the duration of time in which a planet revolves round its sun, or a satellite round its primary, a definite or indefinite recurring interval of time marked by some special or peculiar character, e.g. in history, literature, art, &c.; it is so used of a division of geological time. Particular uses of the word are for the various phases through which a disease passes, the termination or conclusion of any course of events, the pause at the end of a completed sentence, and the mark (.) used to signify the same (see PUNCTUATION).

PERIODICAIS, a general term for literary publications which appear in numbers or parts at regular intervals of time— as a rule, weekly, monthly or quarterly. The term strictly includes “newspapers” (q.v.), but in the narrower sense usually intended it is distinguished as a convenient expression for periodical publications which difier from newspapers in not being primarily for the circu,tion of news or information of ephemeral interest, and in being issued at longer intervals. In modern times the weekly journal has become so much of the nature of a newspaper that it seldom can be called a periodical in this sense. The present article chiefly deals with publications devoted to general literature, literary and critical reviews and magazines for the supply of miscellaneous reading. In the article SOCIETIES ((7.2).) an account is separately given of the transactions and proceedings of learned and scientific bodies. Year-books, almanacs, directories and other annuals belong to a distinct type of publication, and are not referred to here.


The first literary periodical in English was the Mercurius librarius, or a Faithful Account of all Books and Pamphlets (1680), a mere catalogue, )ublished weekly or fortni htly in London. followed by Weekly lemorials for the Ingenious iElan. 16, 1681—1682 to Jan. 15, 1683), which was more of the ty of the Journal des Savant: (see un er FRANCE below), whence it bbrrowed many contributions. Of the History of Learning (1691)—an0ther with the same title came out in 1694—0nly a few numbers appeared, as the conductor, De la Crose, started the monthly Works of the Learned (Au . 1691 to April 1692), devoted principally to continental scholarship. The monthly Compleat Library (1692 to 1694) was a venture of John Dunton; the monthly Memoirs for the Ingenious (169%), edited by J. de la Crose, r n for 12 months, and another with t e same title appeared in the following year. only to enjoy a briefer career. The first periodical of merit and influence was the History of the Works of the Learned (1699—1712), largely consisting of descriptions of foreign books. The Memoirs of Literature, the first English review consisting entirely of original matter, ublished in London from 1710 to 1714, had for editor Michel de la oche, a French Protestant


refugee, who also edited at Amsterdam the Bibliotheque angloise (1717-1719), and subsequently Memoires littéraires de la Grande Bretagne (1720—1724). Returning to England in 1725, he recommenced his New Memoirs of Literature (1725-1728), a monthly, and in 1730 a Literary Journal. Dr Samuel Jcbb started Bibliotheca literaria (1722—1724), to appear every two months, which dealt with medals and antiquities as well as with literature, but only ten numbers appeared. The Present State of the Republic]: of Letters was commenced by Andrew Reid in January 1728, and completed in December 1736. It contained not only excellent reviews of English books but papers from the works of foreigners. Two volumes came out each year. It was successful, as also was the Historic literaria (1750—1734) of Archibald Bower.1 The Bee, or Universal Wee/at Pamphlet (1733—1735) of the unfortunate Eustace Budgcll, and t e Literary Magazine (1735—1716), with which Ephraim Chambers had much to do, were 5 ort-lived. The last named was continued in 1737 as the History of the Works of the Learned, and was carried on without intermission until 1743, when its place was taken bv A Literary Journal (Dublin, 1744—17 9), the first review published in lrcland. The Museum (1746) o R. Dodsley united the character of a review of books with that of a literary ma azine. It came out fortnightly to the 12th of September 1747. lthough England can show nothing like the Journal des savants, which has flourished almost without a break for two and a half centuries, a nearly complete series of reviews 3f English literature may be made up from 1681 to the present ay. '

After the close of the first quarter of the 18th century the literary periodical be n to assume more of the style of the modern review, and in 1749 t e title and the chief features were united in the Month! Review, established by Ral h Griffiths,’ who conducted it until 1803, whence it was edited y his son down to 1825. It came to an end in 1845. From its commencement the Review dealt with science and literature, as well as with literary criticism. It was Whi in politics and Nonconformist in theology. The first series ran mm 1749 to December 1789, 81 vols.; the second from 1790 to 1815, 108 vols.; the third or new series from 1826 to 1830, 15 vols.; and the fourth from 1831 to 1845, 45 vols., when the magazine stopped. There is a general index (1749—1789) 3 vols, and another (1790—1816). 2 vols.

The Tory party and the established church were defended in the Critical Review (1756—1817), founded by Archibald Hamilton and supported by Smollett, Dr Johnson and Robertson. Johnson contributed to fifteen numbers of the Literary Magazine (1756—1 58). The reviews rapidly increased in number towards the end of the century. Among the principal were the London Review (1775-1780), A New Review (1782—1786), the En lish Review (1783—1796),incorporated in 1797 With the Analytica Review (1788—1799), the AntiJacobin Review and Magazine (1798—1821), and the British Critic (1793—1843), the organ of the High Church party, and first edited by Archdeacon Narcs and Beloe.

These periodicals had now become extremely numerous, and many of the leading London publishers found it convenient to maintain their own articular organs. It is not a matter of surprise, tliereforc, that the authority of Q“'"'”“' the reviews should have fallen somewhat in public estimation. The time was ripe for one which should be quite independent of the booksellers, and which should also aim at a higher standard of excellence. As far back as 1755 Adam Smith, Blair and others had produced an Edinburgh Review which only ran to two numbers, and in 1773 Gilbert tuart and William Smellie issued during three years an Edinburgh Magazine and Review. To Edinburgh is also due the first high-class critical journal, the Edinburgh Review, established in October 1802 by Jeffrey, Scott, Homer, Brougham and Sydney Smith. lt created a new era in periodical criticism, and assumed from the commencement a wider ran e and more elevated tone than any of its predecessors. The first e itor was Sydney Smith. then Jefi'rey for many years, and later editors were Macvc Napier, William Empson, Sir G. C. Lewis, Henry Reeve and the on. Arthur Elliot. Its buff and blue cover was adopted from the colours of the Whig party whose political Eignci les it advocated. Among its more famous contributors were

rd rougham, Sir \Valter Scott, Carlyle, Hazlitt and Macaulay. Scott, being dissatisfied with the new review, persuaded John Murray, his London publisher, to start its brilliant Tory com titor, the Quarterly Review (Feb. 1809), first edited by William 'if’ford, then by Sir J. T. Coleridge, and subsequentl by . G. Lockhart, Rev. Whitwell Elwin. W. M. Macpherson, Sir lle. mith, Rowland Prothero and G. W. Prothero. Among the contributors in successive years were Canning, Scott (who reviewed himself). Robert Southey,

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Sir John Barrow, J. Wilson Croker, Isaac Disraeli, A. W. Kinlglake, Lord Salisbury and W. E. Gladstone.1 The Westminster eview (1824), established b the followers of Jeremy Bentham, advocated radical reforms in c urch, state and legislation. In 1836 it was joined to the London Review (1829), founded by Sir William Molesworth, and then bore the name of the London and Westminster Review till 1851, when it returned to the original title. Other quarterly reviews worth mentioning are the Eclectic Review (1805— 1868), edited down to 1834 by Josiah Conder (1789—1855) and supported by the Dissenters; the British ' (1811—1825; the Christian Remembrancer (1819—1868); the RetrosPective Review (1820—1826, 1828, 185 —1854), for old books; the Forei n Quarterly Review (1827—1846), a terwards incorporated with the estminster; the Foreign Review (1828—1829) ; the Dublin Review (1836), a Roman Catholic organ; the Foreign and Colonial Quarterly Review (1843— 1847); the ProsPective Review (1845—1855), given up to theology and literature, previously the Christian Teacher (1835—1844); the North British Review (1844—1871); the British Quarterly Review (1845), successor to the British and Foreign Review (1835—1844); the New Quarterly Review (1852—1861), the Scottish Review (1853—1862), published at Glasgow; the Wesleyan London Quarterly Review (1853— ); the National Review (1855—1864); the Diplomatic Review (1855—1881); the Irish Quarterly Review (1851—1859), brou ht out in Dublin; the Home and Foreign Review (1862—1864); the ine Arts Quarterly Review (1863—1865); the New Quarterly Magazine (1873—1880); the Catholic Union Review (1863—1874); the Anglican Church Quarterly Review (1875); Mind (1876), dealing with mental philosophy; the Modern Review (1880—1884); the Scottish Review (1882); the Asiatic (garterly Review (1886; since 1891 the Imperial and Asiatic Quarterly ' ); and the Jewish Quarterly Review.

The monthly reviews include the Christian Observer (1802—1857),

conducted by members of the established church 11 n evangelical principles, with Zachary Macaulay as tne first editor; "Hume" and the Monthly Repository (1806—18 7), originally urely theological, but after coming into the ban 5 of the Rev. UV. J. Fox made entirely literary and political. The Fortnightly Review (1865), edited successively by G. H. Lewes, John Morley, T. H. S. Escott, Frank Harris, Oswald Crawfurd and W. L. Courtney, was intended as a kind of English Revue des deux mondes. Since 1866 it has ap eared monthly. The Contemporary Review (1866), long edited by ir Percy Bunting, and the Nineteth Century (1877), founded and edited by Sir James Knowles (q.v.), and renamed Nineteenth Century and After in 1900, are similar in character, consisting of signed articles by men of mark of all opinions upon questions of the day. The National Review (188 ), edited successively by Alfred Austin, W. Earl Hodgson, and L. Maxse, is alone in taking editorially a pronounced party line in pa itics as a Conservative organ. Modern Thought (18 9—1884), for the free discussion of political, religious and social su jects, and the Modern Review (1892—1894) may also be mentioned. Other monthlies are the Indian Magazine (1871); the Irish Monthly (Dublin, 1873); the Gaelic Journal (Dublin, 1882); the A rican Review (1892) and the Empire Review (1900). The Monthly eview (1900—1908), edited till 1904 by Henry Newbolt, was for some years a notable addition to the high class literary monthlies.

The weekly reviews dealing generally with literature, science and art are the Literary Gazette (1817—1862), first edited b William {serdam the Athenaeurn (1828), founded b ames Silk Wuules’ uckingham, but successfully establishe by C. W. Dilke, and ion edited in later years by Norman MacColl (1843—1904), and afterwar s by Mr Vernon Rendall; and the Academy (1869). Among those which also include political and social topics, and are more particularly dealt with under NEWSPAPERS, may be mentioned, the Examiner (1808-1881), the Spectator (1828), the Saturday Review (1855), the Scots or National Observer (1888—1897), Outlook (1898), Pilot (1900—1903), and Speaker (1890), which became the Nation.

Soon after the introduction of the literary journal in England, one of a more familiar tone was started bv the eccentric John Dunton in the Athenian Gazette, or Casuistical Mercury, resolving all the most Nice and Curious Questions (1689—1690 to 1695—1696), afterwards called The Athenian Mercury, a kind of forerunner of Notes and Queries, being a nny weekly sheet, with a quarterly critical supplement. In this last part the publisher announces that it will be continued “ as soon as ever the glut of news is a little over." Dunton was assisted by Richard Sault and Samuel Wesley. Defoe's Review (1704—1713) dealt chiefly with politics and commerce, but the introduction in it of what its editor fittingly termed the “scandalous club " was another step nearer the papers of Steele and the periodical essayists, the first attempts to create an organized popular opinion in matters of taste and manners. These little papers, rapidly thrown oli for a temporary purpose, were destined to form a very important

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part of the literature of the 18th century, and in some respects its most marked feature. Although the frequenters of the clubs and coffee-houses were the persons for whom the essay-papers were mainly written, a proof of the increasin refinement of the age is to be found in the fact that now for t e first time were women specially addressed as part of the reading public. The

Taller'was commenced b Richard Steele in 1709, and Taller. ac. issued thrice a week unti 1711. The idea was at once

extremely popular, and a dozen similar pa rs were started within the year, at least one half bearing colourab e imitations of the title. Addison contributed to the Taller, and together with Steele established and carried on the Spectator (1710—171 ), and subsequently the Guardian (1713). The newspaper tax en orced in 1712 dealt a hard blow at these. Before this time the daily issue of the SPectator had reached 3000 copies; it then fell to 1600; the price was raised from a rm to two nce, but the pa r came to an end in 1714. Dr Dra e ( ssays illtifitr. of the Ramblzg, &c., ii. 490) drew u an im rfect list of the essayists, and reckoned that rom the atler to ohnson's Rambler, durin a riod of forty-one years, 106 pers of this description were puilisiigd. Dr Drake continued t e list down to 1809, and described altogether 221 which had appeared within a hundred years. The followin is a list of the most considerable, with their dates, founders and c ief contributors :—

Tatler (April 12, 1709 to Jan. 2, 1710—1711), Steele, Addison, Swift, Hu hes, &c.; Spectator (March 1, 1710—1711 to Dec. 20, 1714), Addison, teele, Budgell, Hu hes, Grove, Pope, Parnell, Swift, &c.; Guardian (March 12,1713 to ct. 1, 171d),8teele, Addison, Berkeley, Pope, Tickell, Budgell, &c.; Rambler ( arch 20, 1750 to March 14, 1752), Johnson; Adventurer (Nov. 7, 1752 to March 9, 1754), Hawkesworth, Johnson, Bathurst, Warton, Chapone; World (Jan. , 1 53 to Dec. 0, 1756), E. Moore, earl of Chesterfield, R. 0. Cam ri ge, earl of rford, Soame Jen ns, &c.; Connoisseur ( an. 31, 175 to Sept. 30, 1756), Colman, T ornton, Warton, earl 0 Cork, 81c; dler (April 15, 1758 to April 5, 1760), Johnson, SirJ. Reynolds and Bennet Langton; Bee (Oct. 6, 1759 to Nov. 24, 1759), O. Goldsmith; Mirror (Jan. 231,3 1779 to May 27, 1780), Mackenzie, Craig, Abercromby, Home, annatyne, &c.; Lounger (Feb. 5, 1785 to Jan. 6, 1787), Mackenzie, Crai , Abercromby, Tytlcr; Observer (1 85 to 1790), Cumberland; Loo er-on (March 10,,1792 to Feb. 1, 1794 ,W. Roberts, Beresford, Chalmers.

As from the “ mphlet of news " arose the weekly paper wholly devoted to the circulation of news, so from the eneral newspaper was specialized the weekly or monthly review 0? literature, antiquities and science, which, when it included Moder?" essay-papers, made up the magazine or miscellaneous Ms“ “‘ repository of matter for information and amusement. Several monthly publications had come into existence since 1681, but perhaps the first germ of the magazine is to be found in the Gentleman's Journal (1691—1694) of Peter Motteux, which, besides the news of the month, contained miscellaneous prose and poetry. Dr Samuel ¥Ilebb included antiquarian notices as well as literary reviews in

is Bibliotheca literaria (1722—1724), previously mentioned, but the Gentleman's Magazine, founded in 17 1, full established, through the tact and ener of the publisher dwar Cave (q.v.), the t pe of the ma zine, rom that time so marked a feature of En ish periodical iterature. The first ideq is due to Motteux, from w om the title, motto and general plan were borrowed. The chief feature in the new venture at first consisted of the analysis of the journals, which Cave undertook rsonally. Prizes were offered for poetry. In April 1782 the leading metropolitan ublishers, jealous of the interlzyer ave, started the London a azine, or Gentleman's Mont y Intelligencer (1732—1784), which halfa long and prosperous career. The new magazine closely copied Cave's title, plan and aspect, and bitter war was lon waged between the two. The rivalry was not without benefit to t e litera public, as the conductors of each used every effort to improve their own review. Cave introduced the practice of giving en ravings, maps and portraits, but his greatest success was the ad ition of Samuel Johnson (q.v.) to the regular staff. This took lace in 1738, when the latter wrote the preface to the volume for t at year, observing that the magazine had “ given rise to almost twent imitations of 1t. which are either all dead or ve little regarded. ' The plan was also imitated in Denmark, Swe en and Germany. The Gentleman’s Magazine was continued b Cave's brother-in-law, David Henry, afterwards by John Nichos and his son.2 Cave appears to have been the first

2 The first series of the Gentleman’s Magazine or Trader's Monthly Intelligencer, extended from January 1731 to December 1735, 5 vols.; the Gentleman's Magazine and Historical Chronicle from January 1736 to December 1807, vols. 6—77; new series, January 1808 to December 1835, vols. 78—103; new series, 1834—1856, 45 vols.; new (third) series, 1856—1863, 19 vols.; new (fourth) series, 1866— 1868, 5 vols. A general in ex to the first twenty vols. appeared in 1753. S. Ayscough brought out an index to the first fifty-six vols., 1731—1786 (1789), 2 vols., and one by J. Nichols, 1787—1818 (1821), 2 vols. A complete list of the lates and woodcuts (1731—1813) was published in 1814, and anot er list (1731-1818), in 1821. The Gentleman's Magazine Library, being a classified collection of the chief contents of the Gentleman's Magazine, from 1731 to 1868, is now being edited by Mr G. L. Gomme (1883, &c., vols. 1—17).

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