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to use the word magazine in the sense of a riodical of miscellaneous literature. The specially antiquarian, b1 ra hical and historical features, which make this magazine so va ua le a store-house for information for the period it covers, were dropped in 1868, when an “ entirely new series," a miscellany of light literature was successively edited by Gowing, Joseph Hatton and'Joseph Knight.

Many other magazines were produced in consequence of the success of these two. It will be sufficient to mention the following: The Scots Magazine(1739*1817)was the first ublished in Scotland; from 1817 to 1826 it was styled the Edinburg Magazine. The Universal Magazine (1747) had a short, if brilliant, career; but the European Magazine, founded by James Perry in 1782, lasted down to 1826. Of more importance than these, or than the Royal Magazine (17591771) was t e Monthly Magazine (1796—1813), with which Priestley and Godwin were original y connected. uring thirty years the Monthly was conducted by Sir Richard Phillips, under whom it became more statistical and scientific than literary. Class magazines were represented by the Edinburgh Farmer's Mo azine (1800—1825) and the Philosoplhmil Magazine (1798), establis ed in London by Alexander Tilloc ; the latter at first consisted chiefly of translations of scientific articles from the French. The following periodicals, all of which date from the 18th century, are still ublished: the Gospel Magazine (1766, with which is incorporated the ritish Protestant), the Wesle on Methodist Magazine (1778), Curtis's Botanical Magazine (1786 , Evangelical Magazine (1793; since 1905 the Evangelical British Missionary). the Philoso hical Magazine (1798), now known as the London, Edinburgh and ublin Philosophica Magazine.

The increased influence of this class of periodical upon public opinion was first apparent in Blackwood's Edinbur h Magazine, founded in 1817 by the publisher of that name, andgcarried to a high degree of excellence by the contributions of Scott, Lockhart, Hogg, Maginn, Syme and John Wilson (“Christopher North"), John Galt and Samuel Warren. It has always remained Liberal in literature and Conservative in politics. The New Monthly Magazine is somewhat earlier in date. It was founded in 1814 by the London publisher, Colburn, and was edited in turn by Campbell, Theodore Hook. Bulwer-Lytton and Ainsworth. Many of Carlyle's and Thackeray’s pieces first appeared in Fraser's Magazine (1830), long famous for its personalities and its gallery of literary portraits. The Metropolitan Magazine was started in opposition to Fraser, and was first edited by Campbell, who had left its rival. lt subsequently came into the hands of Captain Ma att, who printed in it many of his sea-tales. The British Magazine (1832— 1849) included religious and ecclesiastical information. From Ireland came the Dublin Universin Magazine (1833). The regular price of these magazines was half a crown; the first of the cheaper ones was Tait‘s Edinburgh Magazine (1832—1861) at a shilling. It was Radical in politics, and had Roebuck as one of its founders. Bentley's Miscellany (1837—1868) was exclusively devoted to novels, lith literature and travels. Several of Ainsworth's romances, il ustrated by Cruikshank, first saw the light in Bentley. The Nautical Magazine (1832) was addressed special] to sailors, and Colburn's United Service Journal (1829) to bot services. The Asiatic Journal (1816) dealt with Oriental sub'ects.

From 1815 to 1820 a number of low-price and unwholesome periodicals flourished. The Mirror (1823—1349), a two-penny Ch Pulp illustrated magazine, begun by John Limbird, and

P the Mechanics Magazine (1823) were steps in a better "anon" direction. The political agitation of 1831 ed toa further popular demand, and a supply of chea and healthy serials for the readin multitude commenced with hambers's Journal (1832), the Penny agazine (1832—1845) of Charles Knight, and the Saturday Magazine (1832-18 ), begun by the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. The rst was published at I’d. and the last two at 1d. Knight secured the best authors and artists of the day to write for and illustrate his ma azine, which, though at first a commercial success, may have ha the reason of its subsequent discontinuance in its literary excellence. At the end of 1832 it had reached a sale of 200,000 in weekly numbers and monthly parts. It came t6 an end in 1845 and was succeeded by Knight's Penny Magazine (1845), which was stopped after six monthly parts. These periodicals were followed by a number of penny weeklies of a lower tone, such as the Family Herald (1843). the London Journal (1845) and U0 d's Miscellany. In 1850 the sale of the first of them was place at 175,000 copies, the second at 170,000, and Lloyd's at 95,000. In 1846 fourteen penny and three half-penny magazines, twelve social journals, and thirty-seven book-serials were produced every week in London. A further and permanent improvement in cheap weeklies for home reading may be traced from the foundation of Howitt's Journal (1847—1849), and more es ially Household Words (1850), conducted by Charles Dickens, A the Year Round (1859), by the same editor, and afterwards by his son, Once A Week (1859), and the Leisure Hour (1852). The plan of Notes and Queries 18 9), for the purpose of inter-communication among those intereste in special points of literary and antiquarian character, has led to the

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adoption of similar departments in a great number of newspa ers and periodicals. and, esides several imitators in England, t ere are now parallel journalsin Holland, France, and Italy.

Shillin monthlics began with Macmillan (1859). the Cornhill (1860), rst edited by Thackeray, and Temple Bar (1860). St James's Magazine (1861), Belgravia (1866), St Paul's (1867—1874), London Society (1862), and Tinsley's (1867) were devoted chiefly to novels and ight reading. Sixpenny illustrated magazines commenced with Good Words (1860) and the gainer (1861), both religious in tendency. In 1882 Fraser change its name to Longman's Magazine, and was popularized and reduced to sixpence. The Cornhill followed the same example in 1883, reducing its price to sixpence and devoting its pages to light reading. The English Illustrated Magazine (1883) was brought out in competition with the American Harger's and Century. The Pall Mall Magazine followed in 1893. f the artistic periodicals we may signalize the Art Journal (184 ). Portfolio (1870), Magazine of Art (1878—1904), Studio (1893). onnoisseur (1901), and Burlington (1903). The Bookman (1886), for a combination of po ular and literary qualities, and the Badminton (1895), for s rt, 21 so deserve mention. One of the most characteristic deve opments of later journalism was the establishment in 1890 of the Review of-Reviews by W. T. Stead. Meanwhile the number of cheap periodicals increased enormous! , such as the weekly Tit-bits (1881), and Answers (1888), and refuse illustrated magazines appeared, like the Strand (1891), earsons (1396). 01' Windsor (1895). Professions and trades now have not only their general class-periodicals, but a special review or magazine for every section. In 1910 the magazines and reviews published in the United Kingdom numbered 2795. Religious periodicals were 668; 338 were devoted to trade; 361 to sport; 691 re resented the

rofessional classes; 51 agriculture; and 218 were juveni e periodicals.

he London monthhes were 797 and the quarterlies 155.

Indexes to En lish Periodicals—A large number of periodicals do not preserve iterary matter of permanent value, but the highclass reviews and the archaeological, artistic and scientific magazines contain a great mass of valuable facts, so that general and special indexes have become necessary to all literary workers. Lists of the separate indexes to partiCular series are given in H. B. Wheatley's What is an Index? (1879), W. P. Courtney's Register of National Bibliography (1905, 2 vols.), and the List of Books formin the Reference Library in the reading room of the British Museum (4th ed 1910, 2 vols).

AUTHOR1r1Es.--“ Periodicals," in the British Museum catalogue; Lowndes, Bibliogrlipher's Manual, by Hy. G. Bohn, (1864); Cat. of Periodicals in the oa'l. Lib., pt. i., “English Periodicals" (1878); Cat. of the Hope Collection of Early Newspapers and Essayists in the Bodl. Lib. (1865) ; Scudder, Cal. 0 Scientific Serials (1879); Andrews, Hist. of Brit. Journalism (1859); ucheval Clarigny, Hist. de la Presse en Anglelerre ct aux Etats Unis (1857); Madden, Hist. of Irish Period. Lit. (1867); J. Grant, The Great Metropolis, ii. 229—327; “ Periodical Essays of the Age of Anne," in N. American Rev. vol. xlvi.; Drake, Essays on the “ Spectator," “ Taller," 81c. (1810—1814); COurthope, Addison (“ Engl. Men of Letters," 1884); “ Forgotten Periodical Publications,” in Notes and Queries, 3rd series, vol. ix. p. 53; “Account of Periodical Literary Journals from 1681 to 1749," by S. Parkes, in Quart. Journ. of Sc., Lit., 80., xiii. 36, 289; see also Notes and Queries, lst series, vol. vi. pp. 327, 435; “Last Centu Magazines," in Fraser's Mag. Sept. (1876), p. 325; “ Periodica :4 during 1712-1832,," in Notes and Queries, 3rd series, vol. ix. p. 72, &c., x. 1 4; “ atholic Period. Lit., ' ib.. 5th series, vol. xi. 427, 494; “ Early oman Catholic Magazines," ib.. 6th series, vol. iii. p. 43, &c., iv. 211; Timperle , Ency. of Lit. Anec. (1842); C. Knight, The Old Printer and t Modern Press (1854). and Passages of a Working Life (1864—1865); Memoir of Robert Chambers (1872); the London Cot. of Periodicals, Newspapers, fro. (1844—1910); The Bookseller (February 1867, June and July 1868, August 18 4, July

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\V. L. Fletcher, Library Journal (1881), vi. 42, 166; “ Byways of Periodical Literature," Walford’s Antiq. Mag. (1887), xi. 17'/~186, xii. 65—74; Catalogue of Magazines 8%., recd. at the Melbourne Pub. Lib. (1891); “English Periodical Literature," by W. Ruhezrson Nicoll, Bookman (1835). vol. i.; “ The Periodical Press, 1855—1895," b T. H. S. Escott, ack'wood (18 4), pp. 156, 532; “ Bibliography of, Periodical Literature," by F. ampbell, The Library t 1898), viii. 49; “ Bibliogra hy of the British Periodical Press," by 1). Williams in Mitchell’s Newvvmper Directory (1902), p. 12—13; “ English Reviews," b A augh, Critic, vol. 40; “ xcursus 0n Periodical Criticism," intsbury, History of Criticism (1904). iii. 408—428. As regards the treatment of eriodicals in libraries see “Helps for Cataloguers of Serials," by . C. Bolton in Boston Bull. of Bibliograph (1897); “ Co-operative lists of periodicals," Library Journal, (1899;, xxiv. 29—32, “ Union List of Periodicals in Chicago Libraries," Public Libraries, Chicago (1900), v. 60; “ Care of Periodicals in a Libra ," b F. R. Jackson, Public Libraries, Chicago (1906), vol. xi. Compete ists of current British periodicals are included in Mitchell’s Newspaper Press Directory, Street's News aper Directory, and Willing's Press Guide, and a select list and ot er information are given in the Literary Year Book.

UNITED STATES The two earliest American miscellanies were roduced almost simultaneousl . Spurred by the success of the Gen eman’s Magazine in England Benjamin Franklin founded the General Magazine (1741) at Philadelphia, but it expired after six monthly numbers had appeared. Franklin's rival, Andrew Bradford, forestalled him b three days with the American Magazine (1741) edited by ohn Webbe, which ran only to two numbers. Further attempts at hiladelphia in 1757 and 1769 to revive periodicals with the same name were both fruitless. The other re-revolutionary magazines were the Boston American Magazine 1743—1747), in imitation of the London Magazine; the Boston Weekly Magazine (1743); the Christian History (1743—1736,); the New York IndePendenl Reflector (17524754); the Boston e'w England Magazine (1758—1760), a collection of fugitive pieces; the Boston Royal American Magazine (1774~1775); and the Pennsylvania Magazine (1775—1776), founded by Robert Aitken, with the help of Thomas Paine. The Columbian Magazine (1786-1790) was continued as the Universal Asylum (1790—1792). Matthew Carey brought out the American Museum in 1787, and it. lasted until 1792. Among the other magazines which ran out a brief existence before the end of the century was the Philadelphia Political Censor or Monthly Review (1796—1797) edited by \Villiam Cobbett. One of the most successful was the Farmer's Weekly Museum (1790—1799), supported by perhaps the most brilliant staff of writers American periodical literature had yet been able to show, and edited by Joseph Dennie, who in 1801 began the publication of the Portfolio, carried on to 1827 at Philadelphia. For five years it was a weekly miscellany in quarto, and afterwards an octave monthly; it was the first American serial which could boast of so long an existence. Charles Brockden Brown established the New York Monthly Magazine (1799), which, changing its title to The American Review, was continued to 1802. Brown founded at Philadelphia the Literary Magazine (1803—1808); he and Dennie may be considered as having been the first American professional men of letters. The Anthology Club was established at Boston in 1803 by Phineas Adams for the cultivation of literature and the discussion of philosophy. Ticknor, Everett and Bigelow were among the members, and were contributors to the organ of the club, the monthl Anthology and Boston Review (1803—1811), the fore— runner of t e North American Review. In the year 1810 Thomas (Printing in America, ii. 292) informs us that 27 periodicals were issued in the United States. The first serious rival of the Portfolio was the Analeclic Magazine (1813-1820), founded at Philadelphia by Moses Thomas, with the literary assistance of W. Irving (for some time the editor), Paulding, and the ornithologist Wilson. In sfiite of a large subscrivtion list it came to an end on account of t e costly style of its production. The first southern serial was ' the Monthly Register (1805) of Charleston. New York possessed no periodical worthy of the city until 1824, when the Atlantic Magazine appeared, which changed its name shortly afterwards to the New York Monthly Review, and was supported by R. C. Sands and W. C. Bryant. N. P. Willis was one of the editors of the New York Mirror (1823—1842). Between 184oand 1850 Graham’s Magazine was the leading popular miscellany in the country, reaching at one time a circulation of about 3 ,000 copies. The first western periodical was the Illinois Monthly Iagazine (1830—1832), ublished, owned, edited and almost entirely written by James all, who followed with his Western Monthly Magazine (1833—1836), produced in a similar manner. In 1833 the novelist C. F, Hoffman founded at New York the Knickerbocker (1833—1860), which soon passed under the control of Timothy Flint and became extremely successful, most of the leading native writers of the next twenty ears having been contributors. Equally popular was Putnam's Mont y Magazine (185 —1857,1867—1869). Itwasrevivcdin 1906—1910. TheDial(184o~ 18 3, Boston, the organ of the tranxendentalists, was first edited by Iargaret Fuller, and subsequently by R. W. Emerson and G. Ripley. Other magazines were the American Monthly Magazine (1833—1838), the Southern Literary Messenger (1834), Richmond, the Gentleman's Magazine (1837—1840), and the International Magazine (1850—1852), edited by R. \V. Griswold. The Yale Literary Magazine dated from 1836. The Merchants' Magazine was united in 1871 with the Commercial and Financial Chronicle. First in order of date among the current monthly magazines comes the New York Harfler's NewMonthlyMagazine(185o).theearliestexistingillustratedAmeritnn serial, then the Boston Atlantic blonthly (1857), with which Was incorporated the Galaxy (1866) in 1878, famous for its editors Lowell, Howells and T. B. Aldrich, and its contributors O. W. Holmes, Longfellow, Whittier and others. Next came Lippincott’s Magazine (1868) from Philadelphia, and the Cosmopolitan'( 1886) and Scribner's Monthly (1870, known as the Century Illustrated Magazine since 1881) from New York. These were followed by Scribner’s Magazine (1887), the New England Magazine (1889). the Illustrated Review of Reviews (1890), McClure's Magazine (1891), the Bookman (1895), the World's Work (1902), the American agazine (1906) succeeding Frank Leslie's Papillar llrlonthly, and il'lunsey's Magazine (1889). All are illustrated, and three in particular, the Century, Scribner‘s and Harper’s, carried the art of wood-engraving to a high standard of excellence. The first attempt to carry on an American review was made by Robert Walsh in 1811 at Philadelphia with the quarterly American


Review of History and Politics, which lasted only a couple of years. Still more brief was the existence of the General Rn ository and Review (1812), brought out at Cambridge by Andrews orton with the help of the professors of the university, but of which only four numbers appeared. Niles's Weekly Register (1811—1848) was political, historical and literary. The North American Review, the oldest and most famous of all the American reviews, dates from 1815, and was founded by William Tudor, a member of the previously mentioned Antholo Club. After two 'ears’ control Tudor handed over the review to t ie club, then styl the North American Club, whose most active members were E. T. Channing, R. H. Dana and Jared S arks. In 1819 E. Everett became the editor; his brother Alexan er acquired the property in 1829. The roll of contributors numbers almost every American writer of note. Since 1879 it has been published monthly (except in Sept. 1906—Sept. 1907, when itappeared semi-monthly). The American Quarterly Review (1827—1837), established at Philadelphia b Robert Walsh, came to an end on his departure for Europi. he Southern Quarterly Review (1828— 1832), conducted by H. garé, 5. Elliot and G. W. Simms in defence of the politics and finance of the South, enjoyed a shorter career. It was resuscitated in 1842, and lived another thirteen years. These two were followed by the Democratic Review (18 38—1 852). the American Review (1845—1849), afterwards the American Whig Review (1850— 1852), the Massachusetts Quarterly Review (1847—1 850) , and a few more. The New Englander (1843—1892), the Biblical Re ertory and Princeton Review (1825), the National Quarterly Review (91860) and the New York International Review (1874—1833). may also be mentioned. The critical weeklies of the past include the New York Literary Gazette (1834—1835, 1839), De Bow's Review (1846), the Literar World (1847—1853), the Criterion (1855—1856), the Round Tab (186 —1864). the Citizen (1864—1873), and Appleton's Journal (1869). The eading current monthlics include the New York Forum (1886), Arena (1890), Current Literature (1888), and Bookman, the Chicago Dial (1880), and the Greenwich, Connecticut, Literary Collector. Foremost among the weeklies comes the New York Nation (1865). ’ r Religious periodicals have been extremel numerous in the United States. The earliest was the Thealogic Magazine (1796—1798). The Christian Examiner dates from 1824 and lasted down to 1870. The Panoplist (1805) changed its name to the Missionary Herald, re resentin the American Board of Missions. The Methodist ll agazine ates from 1818 and the Christian Disciple from 1813. The American Biblical Resbository (18 1—1850), a quarterly, was united with the Andover Bibliotheca Sacra (1843) and with the Theological Eclectic (1865). Brownson’s Quarterly Review began as the Boston Quarterly Review in 1838, and did much to introduce to American readers the works of the modern French philosophical school. Other serials of this class are the Protestant EpiscoPal Quarterl Review (1854), the Presbyterian Magazine (1851—1860), the Cat olic World (1865), the Southern Review (1867), the New Jerusalem hiagazine (1827), American Baptist Magazine (1817), the Church Review (1848), the Christian Review (1836), the Universalist Quarterly (1844). Current religious quarterlies are the Chicago American Journal of Theology and the Oberlin Bibliotheca Sacra. The Chicago Biblical World is published monthly.

Among istorical periodicals may be numbered the American Register (1806—1811), Stryker's American Register (1848—18 1), Edwards's American Quarterly Register (1829—1843),v the New England Historical and Genealogical Register (1847), Folsom’s Historical Magazine (1857), the New York Genealo ical Record (1869), and the Magazme of American History (1877). here is also the Lancaster, Pennsylvania, American Historical Review, issued quarterly.

Many serial ublications have been almost entirely made up of extracts from nglish sources. Perhaps the earliest example is to be found in Select Views of Literature (1811—1812). The Eclectic Magazine (1844) and Littell's Living Age (1844) may be mentioned.

In 1817 America possessed ony one scientific periodical, the Journal of Mineralogy. Professor Silliman established the journal known by his name in 1818. Since that time the American Journal of Science has enjoyed unceasing favour. The special periodicals of the day are very numerous. Amon the most representative are: the Popular Science Monthly, New Work; the monthly Boston Journal of Education; the quarterly American Journal of Mothematics, Baltimore; the monthly Cassier’s Ma azine (1891), New York; the monthl American Engineer (1893), New York; the monthl House and arden, Philadelphia; the monthly Astrophysical Journ , commenced a-s Sidereal Messenger (1882), Chicago; the monthly American Chemical Journal, Baltimore; the monthly American Naturalist, Boston; the monthly American Journal a the Medical Sciences, Philadel hia; the monthly Outing, New Yor ; the weekly American Agricu turist, New York; the quarterly Metaphysical tllagazine (1895) New York; the bi-monthly American Journal of Sociology, Chicago; the bi-monthl American Law Review, St Louis; the monthly Banker's illagazine, ew York; the quarterly American Journal of Philology (1880), Baltimore; the monthly Library Journal (1876), New York; the monthly Public Libraries, Chicago; the weekly Scientific American, New York; the quarterly American Journal of Archaeology (1885), New York. _ v

The number of periodicals devoted to light literature and to female readers has been, and still remains, extremely large. The earliest


in the latter class was the Lady's Magazine (1792) of Philadelphia. 1‘ he Lowell Ofiering (1841) was written by factory girls of Lowell ( .11.), Mass. Godey's Lady's Book was long po ular. and the Ladies I ome Journal (1883) and the Woman's Home ompanion (1893) are now current. Children's magazines originated with the Young Misses' Magazine (1806) of Brooklyn; the New York St Nicholas (monthly) and the Boston Youlh's Companion (weekly) are prominent juveniles.

The total of American periodicals mentioned in the Guide by H. O. Severance and C. H. Walsh (1909, Ann Arbor), is 5136 for the year 1908.

AurH0R1r1as.—The eighth volume of the Tenth Report of the United States Census (1884) contains a statistical report on the newspaper and periodical press of America by S. N. D. North. See also Cucheval Clarigny, I'Iistoire de la presse en Angleterre et aux Etats Unis (1857); H. Stevens, Catalogue of American Book: in the Library of the British Museum (1866), and American Books with Tails to 'em (1873); 1. Thomas, History of Printing in America (Albany, 1874) ; J. Nichol, American Literature (1882); “ Check List of American Magazines," in Library Journ., xiv. 373; G. P. Rome" 8: Co.'s American Newspaper Directory (New York); A. R. Spofi'ord, Book or all Readers (1900); F. W. Faxon's Check list of American and nglish Periodicals (Boston, 1908). Many American libraries co-operate in issuing joint or union lists of periodicals. See list of these as well as lists of s ecial indexes in A. B. Kroeger's Guide to Reference Books (2nd ed., 0ston, 1908).

Indexes to Periodicals.-—The contents of English and American periodicals of the last 100 years are indexed in the followin publications: W. F. Poole's Index to Periodical Literature (1 02—1881, revised ed., Boston, 1891); 1st supplement. 1882—1887, by W. F. Poole and W. l. Fletcher, 1888; 2nd supplement, 1887-1892, by W. I. Fletcher, 1893; 3rd supplement, 1892—1896, by W. I. Fletcher and F. O. Poole, 1898; 4th supplement, 1897—1902, 1902; 5th 511p lement, 1902—1907, 1908; Poole's Index, abridged edition, by I. Fletcher and M. Poole (Boston, 1901); Ist supplement, 1900—1904 (Boston. 1905); The Co-operalive Index to Periodicals (1885—1894, ed. “1. I. Fletcher, 1886—1894); The Annual Literary Index, including Periodicals, ed. by W. I. Fletcher and R. R. Bowker (New York, 10 vols., 1892—1907); “Index of Periodicals for 1890,” &c. (Review of Reviews), by Miss Hetherington (13 vols., 1891-1902); Q. P. Indexes; C otgreavc's Contents Subject I ndex to General and Periodical Literature (1900); Cumulative Index to a Selected list of Periodicals, begun in the Cleveland Public Library in 1896 and 1897 by W. H. Brett, merged in 1903 with the Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature (8 vols., 1901—1908, ed.by A. L. Guthrie, Minneapolis. U.S.); Magazine Subject Index, by F. W. Faxon (Boston. 1908). continued quarterly in Bulletin 0 Bibliography. which in 1907 began a magazine subject index;

lectic Library Catalogue (Minneapolis, 1908), issued quarterly.


Canadian eriodicals have reached a higher standard than in any other ritish self-governin colony. Like that of South Africa, the press is bi~lingual. he first Canadian review, the Quebec Magazine (1791—1793), was published quarterly in French and English. It was followed by the British American Register (Quebec, 1803), L'Abcille canadiennc (Montreal, 1818), edited by H. Meziére, the Canadian Magazine (Montreal, 1823—1825), the Canadian Review (Montreal, 1824-1826), La Bibliotht‘que canadienne (Montreal, 1825—1830), continued as L'Observaleur (1830—1831), and the llrlagasin du Bas-Canad (Montreal, 1832). The three latter were edited by Michel ibaud. The Literary Garland (Montreal, 1838—1850), edited by John Gibson, was for some time the onl ' English magazine published in Canada. Later magazines were L Echo du cabinet du lecture paroissial (Montreal, 1859), 15 vols.; Le Foycr canadien (Quebec, 1863—1866), one of the most interesting French-Canadian reviews; La Revue canadienne, which was started at Montreal in 1864, and contained the best writings of contemporary French-Canadian littératcurs; La Revue de M ontréal (1877-1881), edited by the abbé T. A. Chandonnet; the Canadian Journal (Toronto), commenced in 1852 under Henry Youle Hind and continued by Daniel Wilson; L'Abeille (Quebec, 18 8—1881), and the Canadian Monthly (Toronto. 1872—1882). The Bystander (Toronto, 1880—1883), was edited by Gnldwin Smith. Le Canada francais (Quebec, 1888—1891), edited by the staff of the Laval University, and Canadiana (1889—1390). were important historical and literary reviews. Contemporary magazines are the Canadian Ala azine (1893), the Westminster, both produced at Toronto, La blouvelle- France (Quebec), the Canada blonlhly (London, Ontario), and the University Magazine, edited by Professor Macphail, of the McGill University.

See H. . Morgan, Bibliotheca canadensis (1867), “Canadian Ma azines, ’ by G. Stewart, Canadian Monthly, vol. xvii.; “ Periodical iterature in Canada," by J. M. Oxlcy, North Am. Rev. (1888); P. Gagnon, Essai de bibliogra hie canadienne (1895), and S. E. Dawson, Prose Writers of Cana a (1901).

5011111 AFRICA

The earliest magazine was the South African Journal, issued by the poet Pringle and John Fairbairn in 1824. It was followed by the South African Quarterly Journal (1829—1834), the Cape of Good Hope Literary Gazelle (1830—1833). edited by A. J. Jardine, the Cape


of Good Hope Literary Magazine (1847-1848), edited by J. L. Fitzpatrick, and the Eastern Province Monthly Magazine, published at Grahamstown in 1857—1858. A Dutch periodical called Elpis, algemecn tijdschnjt voor Zuid Ajrika (1857—1861) appealed to the farming community. The Eastern Province Magazine was issued at Port Elizabeth in 1861—1862, and the South ill/rican Magazine appeared in 1867—1868. The Orange Free State agazine, the only English ma azinc published at Bloemfontein, was issued in 1877—1878; an: the E. P. Magazine was published at Grahamstown in 1892— 1897. The Cape Monthly Magazine, the most important of the periodicals, was issued from 1857 to 1862, and was again continued under the editorshi of Professor Noble from 1870 to 1881. The Cape Illustrated agazine (1890-1899) was edited by Professor J. Gill. In Durban the Present Century was started in 1903, and the Natal Magazine was issued at I’ietermaritzburg in 1877. The weekly New Era (1904—1905) was succeeded by the South African Magazine (1906—1907); both were edited by C. H. Crane. The A rican Monthly (Grahamstown, 1907) and the State of South Africa ( ‘a Town, 1909) are monthly reviews, while the South African Ra ' way blagazine (1907) is of wider interest than its name denotes.

Sec S. Mendelssohn, South African Bibliography (2 vols., 1910); and E. Lewin, Catalogue of the Port Elizabeth Library (2 vols., 1906 .


New South Wales.——The Australian Magazine was ublished monthly at S dney in 1821-1822. This was follow by the South Asian egistcr (1827), the Australian Quarterly Journal (1828), edited by the Rev. P. N. Wilton, the New South Wales Magazine (1833), the New South Wales Literary, Political and Commercial Advertiser (1835), edited b the eccentric Dr Lhotsk , Tegg's Monthly Magazine (1836), the uslralian Magazine (1838), the New South Wales Magazine (1843), the Australian Pcnny Journal (1848) and many others. The Sydney University .Magazine (1855), again published in 1878—1879, and continued as the Sydney University Review, is the first magazine of a high literary standard. The Sydney Magazine of Science and Art (1857) and the Month (1857) were short-lived. Of later magazines the Australian (1878— 1881), Aurora australis (1868), and the Sydney Magazine (1878), were the most noteworthy. Of contemporary magazines Dalgety's Review is mainly agricultural, the Australian Magazine (1909) and the Lone Hand (1907) are popular, and the Science of Man is an anthropological review.

See Australasian Bibliography (Sydne', 1893); G. B. Barton, Literature of N. S. W. (1866); E. A. Pet crick, Catalogue of Books Relating to Australasia (1899).

Victoria—The Port Phillip Magazine (1843) must be re arded as the first literary venture 1n Victoria. This was followed y the Australia Felix Illa azine (1849)1 and the Australasian Quarterly Reprint 0850—1851? both published at Geelong, the Illustrated Australian llfagazine (1850—1852), the Australian Gold-Digger’s Monthly Ivlagazme (1852—1853), edited b ' James Bonwick, and the Melbourne Monthly Magazine (1855—1856. The Journal of Australasia (1856—1858), the Australian Monthly Illagazine (1865-1867), which contained contributions from Marcus Clarke and was continued as the Colonial Monthly (1867—1869), the Melbourne Review (1876-—1885) and the Victorian Review (1879—1886) ma also be mentioned. The Imperial Review, apparently the work 0 one pen, has been published since 1879; the Pastoralisls' Review a peals more especially to the agricultural communit '. A Library Record of Australasia was published in 1901—1902. 11 Australian edition of the Review 0 Reviews is published at Melbourne.

See “ Some Iagazines of Early Victoria," in the Library Record of Australasia, Nos. 2—1;, (1901). .

South Australia.—T e South Australian Llagazine was issued monthly in 1841—1843, the Adelaide Ma ozine (1845), the Adelaide Miscellany (1848—1849), and the Wanderer in 1853. The South Australian Twopcnny Magazine was published at Plymouth, England, in 1839, and the South Australian Miscellany and New Zealand Review at London in the same year.

See T. Gill, Bibliography of South Australia (1886).

Tasmania.—The first magazine was Murray's Austral-Asiatic Review, ublished at Hobart in 1828. The Hobart Town Magazine appeared3 in 1833-1834, and the Van Diemen's Land Monthly Magazine in 18235.

New Zealan .—The New Zealand Magazine, a quarterly, was published at Wellington in 1850. In 1857 a peared the New Zealand Quarterly Review, of little local interest, ollowed by Chapman's New anland Monthly Magazine (1862), the Southern Monthly Illagazine (1863), the Delphic Oracle (1866—1870), the Sloic (18'1), the Dunedin Review (188 ), the Literary Magazine (1885), the our latter being written by G. S. Grant, an eccentric genius, the Monthly Review (1888—1890), the New Zealand Illustrated Magazine (1899-190 ), chiefly devoted to the light literature of New Zealand subjects, t e Maori Record (1905—1907), and the Red Funnel, published since 1905.

See T. M. Hocken, Bibliography of New Zealand (1909).


_ In Jamaica the Columbian Magazine was founded at Kingston 1n 1796 and ceased publication in 1800. Two volumes were ublished of a New Jamaica Magazine which was started about 1798. The Jamaica Magazine (1812—1813), the Jamaica Monthly Magazine (1844—1848), and the Victoria Quarterly (1889—1892), which contained many valuable articles on the West Indies, were other magazines. The West Indian Quarterly was published at Georgetown, British Guiana, from 1885 to 1888. At Georgetown was also published the well-known Timehri (1882—1898) which contained many important historical articles. In Trinidad the Trinidad Monthly Magazine was started in 1871, and the Union Magazine in 1892.

Malta had a Malta Penny Magazine in 1839—1841, and the Revue historique et littéraire was founded in Mauritius in 1887. Man ma azmes dealing with the colonies have been published in Englan , suc as the Colonial Magazine (1840-1843).

See F. Cundall, Bibliographia Jamaicensis (1902-1908).


Calcutta—The first Indian periodical was the Asiatick Miscellany (Calcutta, 178 —1789), probably edited by F. Gladwin. The Calcutta Monthly egister was published in 1790, and the Calcutta Monthly Journal from 1798 to 1841. Among other early Calcutta magazines were the Asiatic Observer (1823—1824). the Quarterly Oriental Magazine (1824—1827), and the Royal Sgortin Magazine (1833—1838). The Calcutta Literar Gazette was pu lishe in 1830—1834, and the Calcutta Review, stil the most important serial of the ndian Empire, first appeared in 1846 under the editorship of Sir J. W. Kaye. '

Bombay.—The Bombay Magazine was started in 1811 and lasted but a short time. The Bombay Quarterly Magazine (1851—1853) gave place to the Bombay Quarterly Review, issued in 1855.

Madras.—Madras had a Journal of Literature and Science and the Oriental Magazine and Indian Hurkuru (1819). The Indian Antiquary was started at Bombay in 1872 and still continues. Of other contemporary magazines the Hindustan Review (Allahabad), the Modern Review (Calcutta), the Indian Review (Madras), the Madras‘Review, a quarterl first published in 1895, and the Calcutta University Magazine (1894!), are important.

Ceylon—In Ceylon t e Religious and Theological Magazine was started at Colombo in 1833, the Colombo Ma azine in 1839, the Ceylon Magazine in 1840, and the Investigator at andy in 1841. Of contemporary magazines the Tropical Agriculturist was started in 1881, the Ceylon iterar Register (1886—18 6), afterwards the Monthly Literary Register an the Ceylon National Review in 1893. In Burma the quarterly Buddhism appeared in 1904. Singapore had a Journal of the Indian Archipelago from 1847 to 1859, and the Chinese Repository (1832—1851) was edited at Carton by Morrison.

See " Periodical Literature in India," in Dark Blue (1872—1873).


We owe the literary journal to France, where it soon attained to a degree of importance unapproached in any other country. The first idea may be traced in the Bureau d'adresse (1633~1642) of Théophraste Renaudot, giving the proceedings of his conferences upon literary and scientific matters. About the year 1663 Mézeray obtained a privilege for a regular literary periodical, which came to nothing, and it was left to Denis de Sallo. counsellor of the parliament of Paris and a man of rare merit and learnin , to actually carry the project into effect. The first number 0 the Journal des savants appeared on the 5th of January 1665, under the assumed name of the sieur d'I-Iédouville. The graspectus

romised to give an account of the chief books published t roughout Europe, obituary notices, a review of the progress of science, besides legal and ecclesiastical information and other matters of interest to cultivated persons. The criticisms, however, wounded alike authors and the clergy, and the journal was suppressed after a career of three months. Colbert, seeing the ublic utility of such a periodical, ordered the abbé Gallois, a contributor of De Sallo's, to re-establish it, an event which took place on the 4th of January 1666. It lingered nine years under the new editor, who was replaced in 1675 by the abbé dc la Ro ue, and the latter in his turn by the president Cousin, in 1686. mm 1701 commenced a new era for the Journal, which was then ac uired by the chancellor de Pontchartrain for the state and place under the direction of a commission of learned men. Just before the Revolution it developed fresh activity, but the troubles of 1792 caused it to be discontinued until 1796, when it again failed to appear after twelve numbers had been issued. In 1816 it was definitely re-established and replaced under government patronage, remaining subject to the chancellor or arde-des—sceaux until 1857, when it was transferred to the contro of the minister of public instruction. Since 190x the organization of the publication has changed. The state subsidy havin been withdrawn, the Institute voted a yearly subscription 0 10,000 francs and nominated a commission of five members, one for each section, who managed the Journal. Since 1909, however, the various sections have left to the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres the entire direction of the Journal, while still paying the annual subsidy. It now restricts itself to publishing contributions relating to antiquities and the middle ages and Oriental studies.


Louis Au uste de Bourbon, sovereign prince of Dombes, havin transferred is rliameut to Trévoux, set up a printing press, an was persuaded y two jesuits, Michel le Tellier and Philippe Lalleman, to establish the Mémoires pour servir a l'histoire des sciences et des arts (1701—1767), more familiarly known as the Journal des T re'voux, long the best-informed and best-written journal in France. One feature of its career was its constant appeal for the literary assistance of outsiders. It was continued in a more popular style as Journal des sciences et des beaux-arts (1768—1775) by the abbé Aubert and by the brothers Castilhon (1776-1778),and as Journal de littérature, des sciences, et des arts (1779—1782) by the abbé


The first I l periodical was the Journal du palais (1672) of Claude Blondeau an Gabriel Guéret, and the first devoted to medicine the Nouvelles découvertes dans toutes les rties de la médecine (1679) of Nicolas de Blégny, frequently spo en of as a charlatan, a term which sometimes means simply a man of many ideas. Religious periodicals date from 1680, and the Journal ecclésiastigue of the abbé de la Roque, to whom is also due the first medical Journal (1683). The prototype of the historico-literary periodical may be discovered in La Clef du cabinet des Prince: de l'EuroPe (1704—1706), familiarly known as Journal de Verdun, and carried on under various titles down to 1794. >

Literary criticism was no more free than political discussion, and no person was allowed to trespass either upon the domain of the Journal de: savants or that of the Mercure de France (see NEWSPAPERS) without the payment of heavy subsidies. This was the origin of the clandestine ress of Holland,and it was that country which for the next hun red years supplied the ablest periodical criticism from the ns of French Protestant refugees. During that period thirty-one Journals of the first class proceeded from these sources. From its commencement the Journal des savants was pirated in Holland, and for ten years a kind of joint issue made up with the Journal des Trévoux appeared at Amsterdam. From 1764 to 1775 miscellaneous articles from difierent French and Eng ish reviews were added to this reprint. Ba le, a born 'ournalist and the most able critic of the day, conceive the plan 0 the Nouvelles de la république des lettres (1684—1718), Wthh at once became entirely successful and obtained for him during the three years of his control the dictatorship of the world of letters. He was succeeded as editor by La Roque, Barrin, Bernard and Leclerc. Bayle's method was followed in an equally meritorious riodical, the Histoire des ouvrages des Savant: (1687—1704) of . Basnage de Beauval. Another continuator of Bayle was Jean Lcclerc, one of the most learned and acute critics of the 18th century, who carried on three reviews—the Bibliothe ue universelle et histori ‘ (16861693), the Bibliotheque choisie 1703—1713), and the ibtiotheque ancienne et moderne (1714—1727). They form one series, and, besides valuable estimates of new books, include original dissertations, articles and biographies like our modern learned magazines. The Journal littéraire (1713—1722, 1729—1736) was founded by a society of young men, who made it a rule to discuss their contributions in common. Specially devoted to English literature were the Bibliothe%ue anglaise (1716—1 28), the Mémoires litte'raires de la Grande retagne (1720-1724 , the Bibliotheque britannigue (1733—173 ), and the Journal britannique (1750—1757) of Maty,l who took or his principle, " pour penser avec hberté il faut penser seul." One of these Dutch-printed reviews was L'Euro savante (1718—1720), founded chiefly by Themiseul de Saint- yacinthe, with the intention of placing each se rate department under the care of a specialist. The Bibliothezaue ermanique (1720—1740) was established by Jacques Lenfant to o for northern Europe what the Biblioth8que britannique did for England. It was followed by the Nouvelle bibliotheque germanique (1746—1759). The Bibliotheque raisonnée des ouvrages des savants (1728P1758) was supplementary to Leclerc, and was succeeded by the Bibliotheque des sciences et des beaux-arts (1754—1780). Nearly all of the precedin were produced either at Amsterdam or Rotterdam, and, althoug out 0 place in a precise geographical arrangement, really belong to France by the close ties of language and of blood.

Taking up the exact chronologlcal order again, we find the success of the English essay-papers ed to their prompt introduction to the Continent. An incomplete translation of the SPcctator was

ublished at Amsterdam in 1714, and many volumes of extracts rom the Taller, Spectator and Guardian were issued in France early in the 18th century. Marivaux brought out a SPectateur Francois (1722), which was coldly received; it was followed by fourteen or fifteen others, under the titles of La Spectotrice (1 28— 1730), Le Radoteur (I775). Le Babillard (1778-1779). 81c. f a similar character was Le Pour et le conlre (1723—1740) of the abbé Prévost, which contained anecdotes and criticism, with s cial reference to Great Britain. Throughout the 18th century, in rance as in England, a favourite literary method was to wnte of social subjects under the assumed character of a foreigner, generally an

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Oriental, with the title of Turkish SPy, Lettres chinoises, &c. These productions were usually issued in periodical form, and, besides an immense amount of worthless tittle-tattle, contain some valuable matter.

During the first half of the century France has little of importance to show in periodical literature. The Nouvelles ecclésiastiques (1728—1803) were first printed and circulated secretly by the Jansenists in opposition to the Constitution unigenitus. The Jesuits retaliated with the Supplément des nouvelles ecclésiastiques (1734— 1748). The promising title may have had something to do with the temporary success of the Mémoires secret: de la republique des lettres (1744-1748) of the marquis d‘Argens. In the Observations sur les écrits moderne: (1735—174 ) Desfontaines held the gates of Philistia for eight years against t e Encyclopaedists, and even the redoubtable Voltaire himself. It was continued by the Jugements sur quelques ouvrages nouveaux (17 —1745). The name of F réron,

rhaps the most vigorous enemy oltaire ever encountered, was ong connected with Lettres sur quelgues écrits de ce temps (174%— 1754), followed by L'Année littéraire (1 54—1790). Among t e contributors of Fréron was another manu acturer of criticism, the abbé de la Porte, who, having quarrelled with his confrére, founded Observations sur la littérature moderne (1749-1752) and L'Observateur littéraire (1758—1761).

A number of special organs came into existence about this period. The first, treating of agriculture and domestic economy, was the Journal économique (1751—1772); a Journal de commerce was founded in 1759; periodical biography may be first seen in the Nécrologe des hommes célebres de France (1764—1782); the political economists established the Ephémérides du citoyen in 1765; the first Journal d'éducation was founded in 1768, and the Courrier de la mode in the same ear; the theatre had its first organ in the Journal des thédtres (1770i; in the same year were reduced a Journal de musi ac and the Encyclopedic militaire; t e sister service was supp ied with a Journal de marine in 1778. We have already noticed several journals specially devoted to one or other foreign literature. It was left to Fréron, Grimm, Prévost and others in 1754 to extend the idea to all foreign productions, and the Journal élranger (1754-1762) was founded for this purpose. The Gazette littéraire (1764—1766), which had Voltaire, Diderot and SaintLambert among‘ its editors, was intended to swamp the small fry by criticism; t e Journal des domes (1759-1778) was of a light magazine class; and the Journal de monsieur (1776—1783) had three

hases of existence, and died after extending to thirty volumes. The Mémoires secret: Pour servir a l'histoire de la répiiblique des lettres (1762—1787), better known as Mémoires de Bachaumont, from the name of their founder, furnish a minute account of the social and literary history for a period of twenty-six years. Of a similar character was the Correspondance littéraire secrete (1774—1793), to which Métra,was the chief contributor. L'Esprit des Journaux (1772—1818) forms an important literary and historical collection, which is rarely to be found complete.

The movement of ideas at the close of the century may best be traced in the Annales politi ues, civiles, et littéraires (1777—1792) of Linguet. The Décade p ilosophique (year V., or 1796/1797), founded by Ginguené, is the first Periodical of the magazine class which appeared after the storms o the Revolution. It was a kind of resurrection of good taste; under the empire it formed the sole refuge of the opposition. By a decree of the 17th of January 1800 the consulate reduced the number of Parisian journals to thirteen, of which the Décade was one; all the others, with the exception of those dealing solely with science, art, commerce and advertisements, were suppressed. A report addressed to Bona arte by Fiévéel in the year XI. (1802/1803) furnishes a list of fi ty-one of these periodicals. In the year XIII. (1804/1805) only seven nonpolitical serials were permitted to appear.

Between 1815 and 1819 there was a constant struggle between freedom of thought on the one hand and the censure, the police and the law officers on the other. This 0 pression led to the device of “semi-periodical" publications, oi) which La Minerve francaise (1818—1820) is an instance. It was the Satire Ménippée of the Restoration, and was brought out four times a year at irregular intervals. Of the same class was the Bibliothbque historique (1818—1820), another anti-royalist organ. The censure was re-established in 1820 and abolished in 1828 with the mono ly. It has always seemed impossible to carry on successfully in rance a review upon the lines of those which have become so numerous and important in England. The Revue britannique (1825—1 01) had, however, a long career. The short-lived Revue francaise 1828—1830), founded by Giiizot, Rémusat, De Broglie, and the doctrinaires, was an attempt in this direction. The well-known Revue des deux mondes was established in 1829 by Segur-Dupeyron and Mauroy, but it ceased to appear at the end of the year, and its actual existence dates from its acquisition in 1831 by Francois Buloz,2 a masterful editor,

under whose energetic management it soon achieved a world-wide reputation. The most distinguished names in French literature have been among its contributors, for whom it has been styled the “vestibule of the Academy." It was preceded by a few months by the Revue de Paris (1829—1845), founded by Véron, who introduced the novel to periodical literature. In 1834 this was purchased 'b Buloz, and brought out concurrently with his other Revue. hile the former was exclusively literary and artistic, the latter dealt more with hiloso by. The Revue indépendante (18411848) was founded by ierre eroux, George Sand and Viardot for the democracy. The times of the consulate and the empire were the subjects dealt with by the Revue de l‘empi're (1842—1815;). In Le Corres/aondant (1843), established by Montalembert and e Falloux, the Catholics and Legitimists had a valuable supporter. The Revue contemfloraine (1852), founded by the comte de Belval as a royalist organ, had joined to it in 1856 the Athenaeum francais. The Revue germanigue (185(8) exchanged its exclusive name and character in 1865 to the evue moderne. The Revue européenne (1859) was at first subventioned like the Revue contemporaine, from which it soon withdrew government favour. The Revue nationale (1860) appeared quarterly, and succeeded to the Magazin de librairie (1858).

The number of French periodicals, reviews and magazines has enormously increased, not only in Paris but in the provinces. In Paris the number of periodicals ublished in 1883 was 137 ; at the end of 1908 there were more t an 3500 of all kinds. he chief

current periodicals may be mentione in the following order. The list includes a few no longer published. Archaeology.—-Revue arcliéologique (1860), bi-monthl ; Ami

des monuments (1887); Bulletin de numismatigue (1891 ; Revue biblique (1892); L‘Année épigraphique (1880)—a sort of supplement to the Cor us inscriptionum latinarum; Celtica (1903)—~common to France an England; Gazette numismatique frangaise (1897 ;Revue sémiti ue d‘épigraphie et d'histoire ancienne (1893); Bulletin monumenta , bi-monthly; L’Intermédiaire, weekly, the French “ Notes and Queries," devoted to literary and antiquarian questions.

Astronomy.—Annuaire astronomique et météorologi ue (1901); Bulletin astronomique (1884), formerly published un er the title Bulletin des sciences mathématiques et astronomiques.

Bibliography—Annular de bibliographic théologique (1888); Le bibliographe moderne (1897); Bib iographie anatomique (1893); Bibliographic scienti ue {rancaise (1902); Bulletin des bibliotheques et des archives (1884 ; Bu letin des livres relatifs d l'A méri no (1899); Courrier des bibliotheques (1910); Repertoire méthodique e l'histoire moderne et contemporaine de la France (1898); Répertoire niéthodique du moyen age frangais (1894); Revue bibliographigue et criti ue des langues et littératures romanes (1889); Revue des bi liothb es 1891); Polybiblion: revue bibliographique universelle, mont ly; Revue générale de bibliographic francaise, bi-monthly.

Children's Mafazines.—L’Ami de la jeunesse; Le Jeudi de la jeunesse, week y.

Fashions.—La Mode illustrée; Les Modes, monthly.

Fine Arts—Les Arts (1902); Gazette des beaux-arts (1859), monthly, with Chronique des arts; Revue de l'art ancien et moderne (1897) monthly; L‘Art décoratif, monthly, Art at decoration, monthly; L'Art our lous, monthly; La Décoration, monthly; L'A rchitecture— joiirna of the Soc. centrale des Architectes francais, weekly; L'Art (1875) is no longer published.

Geo raphy and Colonies.——Bulletin de
An s de geographic (1891), with useful
Nouvelles éograpliiques—supplement to the
La Vie co oniale (1902); La Geographic, monthly, published b
Soc. de Géographie (1900); Revue de géographie, monthly;
geographique internationale, monthly.

History.—For long the chief organs for histo and archaeology were the Bibliotheque de l'écale des chartes (1835 , ap ring every two months and dealing with the middle ages, an the Cabinet historique (1855), a monthly devoted to M55. and unprinted documents. The Revue historique (1876) appears bi-monthly; there is also the Revue d-‘histoire moderne et contemfloraine.

Law and Jurisprudence.—Annales de droit commercial (1877); Revue algérienne et tunisienne de législation et de jurisprudence (1885); Revue du droit Public et de la science Politique (1894); Revue générale du droit international Public (1894).

Literary Reviews.—The Revue des deux mondes and the Correspondent have already been mentioned. One of the first of European weekly reviews is the Revue critique (1866). The Revue politique et littéraire, successor to the Revue des cours littéraires (1863) and known as the Revue bleue, also appears weekly. Others of interest are: Antée, revue mensuelle de littérature (1'1)O ); L'A rt et la vie (1892); Cosmopolis (18 6); L'Ermilage (1890); Le ercure de France, série moderne (1890 , a magazine greatly valued in literary circles; La Revue de Paris, fortnig tly (1894). and the Nouvelle Revue (1879)—

géogra hie historique; uarter y bibliography; our du monde (1891); the evue

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a compositor, and by translating from the English earned sufficient to purchase the moribund Revue des deux mondes, which acquired its subsequent position in spite of the t rannical editorial behaviour of the proprietor. Buloz is said to ave eventually enjoyed an income of 365,000 francs from the Revue.

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