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kings of Aragon, who in 1349 founded a university at Perpignan. When Louis XI. occupied Roussillon as security for money advanced by him to the king of Aragon, Perpignan resisted the French arms for a considerable time, and only yielded through stress of famine (March 15, 1475). Roussillon was restored to Aragon by Charles VIII. and Perpignan was again besieged in 1542 under Francis 1., but without success. Later on, however, the inhabitants, angered by the tyranny and cruelty of the Spanish governor, surrendered the town to Louis XIII. The citadel held out until the 9th of September 1642, and the place has ever since belonged to France, to which it was formally ceded by the treaty of the Pyrenees (1659). In 1602 the bishopric of Elne was transferred to Perpignan. ,

See P. Vibal, Perpignan depuis les origines jusqu’ a nos jours (Paris, 1898).

PERQUISITE (Lat. perquisitum, that which has been acquired by careful search; perquirere, to search diligently), a term properly used of the profits which accrue to the holder of an office over and above the regular emoluments; also, in law, the casual profits, such as accrue by heriots, fines, reliefs, &c., to a lord of a manor above the yearly revenue from the copyholds. The word is used generally of the casual profits allowed by custom to servants or other employés from superfluous articles which the employer has enjoyed the use of or which are supposed not to be needed.

PERRAULT, CHARLES (1628—1703), French author, was born in Paris on the 12th of January 1628. His father, Pierre Perrault, was a barrister, all of whose four sons were men of some distinction: Claude (1613—1688), the second, was by profession a physician, but became the architect of the Louvre, and translated Vitruvius (1673). Charles was brought up at the College de Beauvais, until he chose to quarrel with his masters, after which he was allowed to follow his own bent in the way of study. He took his degree of liceneié en droit at Orleans in 16 51, and was almost immediately called to the Paris bar, where, however, he practised for a very short time. In 1654 his brother became receiver-general of Paris, and made Charles his clerk. After nearly ten years of this employment he was, in 1663, chosen by Colbert as his secretary to assist and advise him in matters relating to the arts and sciences, not forgetting literature. He was controller-general of the department of public works, member of the commission that afterwards developed into the Academic des inscriptions, and in 1671 he was admitted to the Académie frangaise. Perrault justified his election in several ways. One was the orderly arrangement of the business affairs of the Academy, another was the suggestion of the custom of holding public séances for the reception of candidates. Colbert’s death in 1683 put an end to Perrault’s official career, and he then gave himself up to literature, beginning with Saint Paulin evéque de N ole, avec une tpttrc chrétienne sur la penitence, et une ode aux nouveaux convertis. The famous dispute of the ancients and moderns arose from a poem on the Siécle de Louis to Grand (1687), read before the Academy by Perrault, on which Boileau commented in violent terms. Perrault had ideas and a will of his own, and he published (4 vols., 1688-1696) his Paralleledes anciens et des modernes. The controversy that followed in its train raged hotly in France, passed thence to England, and in the days of Antoine Houdart de la Motte and Fénelon broke out again in the country of its origin. As far as Perrault is Concerned he was inferior to his adversaries in learning, but decidedly superior to them in wit and politeness.

It is not known what drew Perrault to the composition of the only works of his which are still read, but the taste for fairy stories and Oriental tales at court is noticed by Mme de Sevigné in 1676, and at the end of the 17th century gave rise to the fairy stories of Mlle L’Héritier de Villaudon, whose Bigarrures ingenieuses appeared in 1696, of Mme d’Aulnoy and others, while Antoine Galland’s translation of the Thousand-and-One Nights belongs to the early years of the 18th century. The first of Perrault’s contes, Grisélidis, which is in verse, appeared in 1691, and was reprinted with Peau d’dne and Les Souhaits ridicules, also in verse, in a Reeueit de pieces curieuses—published at the


Hague in 1694. But Perrault was no poet, and the merit of these pieces is entirely obscured by that of the prose tales, La Belle au bois dormant, Petit chaperan rouge, La Barbe bleue, Le Chat botté, Les Fées, Cendrillon, Riquct a la houPfle and Le Petit Poucet, which appeared in a volume with 1697 on the title-page, and with the general title of H istoircs ou contes du temps passe avec des moralités. The frontispiece contained a placard with the inscription, Contes de ma mere l’oie. In 1876 Paul Lacroix attributed the stories to the authorship of Perrault’s son, P. Darmancour, who signed the dedication, and was then, according to Lacroix, nineteen years old. Andrew Lang has suggested that the son was a child, not a young man of nineteen, that he really wrote down the stories as he heard them, and that they were then edited by his father. This supposition would explain the mixture of naiveté and satire in the text. Perrault's other works include his Memoires (in which he was assisted by his brother Claude), giving much valuable information on Colbert’s ministry; an Enéide travestie written in collaboration with his two brothers, and Les H 0mmes illustres qui out from en France Pendant ce siéele (2 vols., 1696—1700). He died on the 16th of May 1703, in Paris. His son, Perrault d’Arma-Court, was the author of a well-known book, Contes des fées, containing the story of Cinderella, &c.

Except the tales, Perrault’s works have not recently been reprinted. Of these there are many modern editions, e.g. by Paul

acronx (1876), and by A. Lefébvre (“ Nouvelle collection Jannet," 1875); also Perrault's Popular Tales (Oxford, 1888), which contains the French text edited by Andrew Lang, with an introduction, and an examination of the sources of each story. See also I(-Ii8p5p6<;lyte Rigault, Hist. de la querelle des anciens et des modemes

1 .

PERRERS (or DE WINDSOR), ALICE (d. 1400), mistress of the English king Edward III., belonged probably to the Hertfordshire family of Perrers, although it is also stated that she was of more humble birth. Before 1366 she had entered the service of Edward’s queen, Philippa, and she appears later as the wife of Sir William de Windsor, deputy of Ireland ((1. 1384). Her intimacy with the king began about 1366, and during the next few years she received from him several grants of land and gifts of jewels. Not content with the great influence which she obtained over Edward, Alice interfered in the proceedings of the courts of law to secure sentences in favour of her friends, or of those who had purchased her favour; actions which induced the parliament of 1376 to forbid all women from practising in the law courts. Alice was banished, but John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, allowed her to return to court after the death of Edward the Black Prince in June 1376, and the parliament of 1377 reversed the sentence against her. Again attempting to pervert the course of justice, she was tried by the peers and banished after the death of Edward III. in June 1377; but this sentence was annulled two years later, and Alice regained some influence at court. Her time, however, was mainly spent in lawsuits, one being with William of Wykeham, bishop of Winchester, and another with her dead husband’s nephew and heir, John de Wi dsor.

PERRON, PIERR CUILLIER (1755—1834), French military adventurer in India, whose name was originally Pierre Cuillier, was born in 1755 at Chateau du Loire in France, the son of a cloth merchant. In 1780 he went out to India as a sailor on a French frigate, deserted on the Malabar coast, and made his way to upper India, where he enlisted in the rana of Gohad’s corps under a Scotsman named Sangster. In 1790 he took service under De Boigne, and was appointed to the command of his second brigade. In 1795 he assisted to win the battle of Kardla against the nizam of Hyderabad, and on De Boigne’s retirement became commander-in-chief of Sindhia's army. At the battle of Malpura (1800) he defeated the Rajput forces. After the defeat of Ujjain (1801) he refused to send his troops to the aid of Sindhia. His treachery on this occasion shook his position, and on the outbreak of war between Sindhia and the British in 1803 Perron was superseded and fled to the British camp. In the battles of Delhi, Laswari and Assaye, Perron's battalions were completely destroyed by Lord Lake and

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Sir Arthur Wellesley. He returned to France with a large fortune, and died in 1834.

( See H. Compton, European Military Adventurers of Hindustan 1892).

PERRON (a French word meaning properly a “large stone," Ital. petrone, from Lat. pclra, Fr. pierre, stone), in architecture, 1 term applied to a raised platform reached by steps in front of the entrance to a building. The grand flight of external steps entering the mansions of the medieval nobility or high officials was considered in itself a mark of jurisdiction, as it is said that sentence was there pronounced against criminals, who were afterwards executed at the foot of the steps—as at the Giant's Stairs of the Doge’s palace at Venice.

PERRONE, GIOVANNI (1794—1876), Italian theologian, was born at Chieri (Piedmont) in 1794. He studied theology at Turin and in his twenty-first year went to Rome, where he joined the Society of Jesus._In 1816 he was sent as professor of theology to Orvieto, and in 1823 was appointed to a similar post in the Collegium Romanum. From Ferrara, where he was rector of the Jesuit College after 1830, he returned to his teaching work in Rome, being made head of his old college in 18 50.7 He tookaleading part in the discussions which led up to the promulgation of the dogma of the Immaculate Conception (1854), and in 1869 was prominent on the Ultramontane side in the Vatican Council. His numerous dogmatic works are characteristic of orthodox modern Roman theology. They include Praclcctioner lheologicac (9 vols., Rome, 1835 sqq.), Praelccliones theologicae in compendium redadae (4 vols., Rome, 1845), Il Hermesiam'smo (Rome, 1838), Il Protestantismo e la regola di fcde (3 vols., 1853), De divinitate D. N. Jesu Christi (3 vols., Turin, 1870). He died on the 26th of August 1876.

PBRROT, SIR JOHN (c. 1527—1592), lord deputy of Ireland, was the son of Mary Berkley, who afterwards married Thomas Perrot, a Pembrokeshire gentleman. He was generally reputed to be a son of Henry VIII.,'and was attached to the household of William Paulet, rst marquess of Winchester. He was in this way brought to the notice of Henry VIII., who died, however, before fulfilling his promises of advancement, but Perrot was knighted at the coronation of Edward VI. During Mary’s reign he suffered a short imprisonment on the charge of harbouring his uncle, Robert Perrot, and other heretics. In spite of his Protestantism he received the castle and lordship of Carew in Pembrokeshire, and at the beginning of Elizabeth’s reign he was entrusted with the naval defence of South Wales. In 1570 Perrot reluctantly accepted the newly created post of lord president of Munster. He landed at Waterford in February of the next year, and energetically set about the reduction of the province. In the course of two years he hunted down James Fitzmaurice Fitzgerald, whose submission he received in 1572. Perrot resented the reinstatement of Gerald Fitzgerald, 15th earl of Desmond, and after vainly seeking his own recall left Ireland without leave in July 1573, and presenting himself at court was allowed to resign his office, in which he was succeeded by Sir William Drury. He returned to his Welsh home, where he was fully occupied with his duties as vice-admiral of the Welsh seas and a member of the council of the marches. Although in 1578 he was accused by the deputy-admiral, Richard Vaughan, of tyranny, subversion of justice and of dealings with the pirates, he evidently retained the royal confidence, for he was made commissioner for piracy in Pembrokeshire in 1578, and in the next year was put in command of a squadron charged to intercept Spanish ships on the Irish coast.

The recall of Arthur Grey, Lord Grey de Wilton, in 1582, left vacant the office of lord deputy of Ireland, and Perrot was appointed to it early in 1584. Sir John Norris became lord president of Munster and Sir Richard Bingham went to Connaught. Perrot’s chief instructions concerned the'plantation of Munster, where the confiscated estates, some 600,000 acres in extent, of the earl of Desmond were to be given to English landlords at a nominal rent, provided that they brought with them English farmers and labourers. Before he had had time to embark on this enterprise he heard that the Highland clans


of Maclean and MacDonnell were raiding Ulster at the invitation of Sorley Boy MacDonnell, the Scoto-Irish constable of Dunluce Castle. He marched into Ulster, but Sorley Boy escaped him, and crossed to Scotland, only to return later ,with reinforcements. The lord deputy was roundly abused by Elizabeth for undertaking “ a rash, unadvised journey,” but Sorley Boy was reduced to submission in 1586. In 1585 Perrot succeeded in completing the “ composition of Connaught,” a'scheme for a contract between Elizabeth and the landholders of the province by which the queen should receive a small quitrent. During his career as lord deputy he had established peace, and had deserved well of Elizabeth. But a rash and violent temper, coupled with unsparing criticism, not to say abuse, of his associates, had made him numerous enemies. A hastily conceived plan for the conversion of the revenues of St Patrick’s Cathedral, Dublin, to provide funds for the erection of two colleges, led to a violent quarrel with Adam Loftus, archbishop of Armagh. Perrot had interfered in Bingham’s government of Connaught, and in May 1587 he actually struck Sir Nicholas Bagenal, the knight marshal, in the council chamber. Elizabeth decided to supersede him in January 1588, but it was only six months later that his successor, Sir William Fitzwilliam, arrived in Dublin. After his return to England his enemies continued to work for his ruin, and a forged letter purporting to be from him to Philip II. of Spain gave colour to an accusation of treasonable correspondence with the queen’s enemies, but when he was tried before a special commission in 1592 the charge of high treason was chiefly based on his alleged contemptuous remarks about Elizabeth. He was found guilty, but died in the Tower in September 1592. Elizabeth was said to haVe intended his pardon.

A life of Sir John Perrot from a MS. dating from the end of Elizabeth's reign was printed in 1728. Sir James Perrot (1571— 1637), writer and politician, was his illegitimate son.

PERRY, MATTHEW CALBRAITH (1794—1858), American naval ofiicer, was born in South Kingston, Rhode Island, on the 10th of April 1794. He became a. midshipman in 1809, and served successively in the schooner “ Revenge ” (then commanded by his brother, Oliver H. Perry) and the frigate “ President.” In 1813 he became a lieutenant, and during the War of 1812 served in the frigate “ United States ” (which, when abandoned by Perry, was blockaded in the harbour of New London, Connecticut), the “ President " and the “ Chippewa.” Soon after the war Perry was assigned to the Brooklyn (New York) navy yard, where he served till 1819. He became: a commander in 1826, and during 1826—1830 was in the recruiting service at Boston, where he took a leading part in organizing the first naval apprentice system of the United States navy. He was promoted in 1837 to the rank of captain (then the highest actual rank in the United States navy), and in 1838—1840 commanded the “ Fulton II.,” the first American steam war vessel. He also planned the “ Missouri " and the “ Mississippi," the first steam frigates of the United States navy, and was in command of the Brooklyn navy yard from June 1841 until March 1843, when he assumed command of a squadron sent to the African coast by the United States, under the Webster-Ashburton treaty, to aid in suppressing the Slave trade. This command of a squadron entitled him to the honorary rank of commodore. On the 23rd of October 1846, during the Mexican War, Perry, in command of the steam vessels “ Vixen ” and “ McLane," and four schooners, attacked and captured Frontera, at the mouth of the Tobasco river, then pushed on up the river and (on the 24th) captured the town of Tobasco,thereby cutting off Mexico from Yucatan. He relieved Commodore David Conner at Vera Cruz on the 21st of March 1847, and after a two days’ bombardment by a battery landed from the ships the city wall was breached sufficiently to admit the entrance of troops.

Commodore Perry’s distinctive achievement, however, was his negotiation in 1854 of the treaty between the United States and Japan, which opened Japan to theinfluences of western civilization. Perry sailed from Norfolk, Virginia, on the 24tl", of November 1852,in the “Mississippi.” He reached Hong-Kong on the 7th of April and on the 8th of July dropped anchor off the city of Uraga, on the western shore of the Bay of Yedo with the “ Susquehanna,” his flagship, the “Mississippi,” and the sloops-of-war “ Saratoga ” and “ Plymouth.” On the 14th of July, accompanied by his officers and escorted by a body of armed marines and sailors (in all about 300 men), he went ashore and presented to commissioners especially appointed by the shogun to receive them, President F illmore’s letters to the em— peror, and his own credentials. A few days later the American fleet sailed for Hong-Kong with the understanding that Perry would return in the following spring to receive the emperor’s reply. On the 11th of February, accordingly, he reappeared in the Bay of Yedo with his fleet—this time composed of the “ Susquehanna,” “ Powhatan ” and “ Mississippi,” and the sailing vessels “ Vandalia," “ Lexington "and “ Southampton,” and despite the protests of the Japanese selected an anchorage about 12 m. farther up the bay, nearly opposite the present site of Yokohama, and within about 10 m. of Yedo (Tokyo). Here, on the 3ist of March 1854, was concluded the first treaty (ratified at Simoda, on the zist of February 1855, and proclaimed on the 22nd of June following) between the United States and Japan. The more important articles of this treaty provided that the port of Simoda, in the principality of Idzu, and the port of Hakodate, in the principality of Matsmai, were constituted as ports for the reception .of American ships, where they could buy such supplies as they needed; that Japanese vessels should assist American vessels driven ashore on the coasts of Japan, and that the crews of such vessels should be properly cared for at one of the two treaty ports; that shipwrecked and other American citizens in Japan should be as free as in other countries, within certain prescribed limits; that ships of the United States should be permitted to trade at the two treaty ports under temporary regulations prescribed by the Japanese, that American ships should use only the ports named, except under stress of weather, and that privileges granted to other nations thereafter must also be extended to the United States. Commodore Perry died in New York City on the 4th of March 1858.

A complete and readable account of this expedition, and its results. scientific as well as political, com iled from the journals and reports of Commodore Perry and his officers, was published by the United States government under the title, Narrative o the ExPedr'tion of an American Squadron to the China Sea: and apart (3 vols., \Vashington, 1856). The first volume of this work, containing commodore Perry's narrative, was also published separately. A brief biography of Per is included in Charles Morris 5 Heroes r‘rgrthe Navy 1'11 America (lghiladel hia. and London, 1997). See also

illiam E. Griffis's Matthew C bratth Perry, 0 Typical American Naval Oflicer (Boston, 1887).

PERRY, OLIVER HAZARD (1785—1819), American naval officer, was born at South Kingston, Rhode Island, on the 23rd of August 1785. He entered the navy as midshipman (1799) with his father, Christopher Raymond Perry (1 761—1818), a captain in the navy, and saw service against the Barbary pirates. At the beginning of the War of 1812 he was in command of a flotilla at Newport, but was transferred (Feb. 1813) to the Lakes. He served with Commodore Chauncey, and then was sent from Lake Ontario to Lake Erie, where he took up the chief command at the end of March 1813. With the help of a strong detachment of oflicers and men from the Atlantic coast be equipped a squadron consisting of one brig, six fine schooners and one sloop. Other vessels were laid down at Presque Isle (now Erie), where he concentrated the Lake Erie fleet inJuly. When Captain Perry appeared off Amherstburg, where Captain Robert Heriot Barclay (d. 1837), the British commander, was lying with his squadron, he had a very marked superiority. Captain Barclay, after a hot engagement—the Battle of Lake Erichin which Captain Perry’s flagship the “Lawrence,” a brig, was so severely shattered that he had to leave her, was completely defeated. Perry commanded the “ Java ” in the Mediterranean expedition of 1815— 1816,_and he died at Port of Spain in Trinidad on the 231d of August 1819, of yellow fever contracted on the coast of Brazil.

See .0. H. Lyman. Commodore 0. H. Perry and the War on the Lake: (New York, 1905).


PERRY, a city and the county-seat of Noble county, Oklahoma, U.S.A., 30 m. N. by E. of Guthrie. Pop. (1900), 3351 (399 negrocs); (1910) 3133. Perry is sewed by the Atchison, Topeka 81 Santa Fe railway and by the St Louis & San Francisco system. It is the commercial centre of a large agricultural and stock-raising region, which produces cotton and grain. Perry was settled in 1889.

PERRY (from Fr. point, from Pairs, a pear), an alcoholic beverage, obtained by the fermentation of the juice of pears. The manufacture is in all essentials identical with that of CIDER (q.-v.).

PERRYVILLE, a town of Boyle county, Kentucky, U.S.A., about 10 in. W. of Danville. Pop. (1910), 407. Here on the 8th of October 1863 General Braxton Bragg, in command of the Confederate army of the Mississippi of about 16,000 men, with which he had invaded Kentucky, faced about in his slow retreat across the state and gave battle to the Union army of the Ohio of about 40,000 (of whom only about 22,000 were actually engaged) commanded by Major-General Don Carlos Buell. Bragg’s order to attack was disregarded by Major-General Leonidas Polk, who preferred adopting the “ defensive-offensive " rather than engage all of Buell’s force. Bragg himself came on the field about roa.m. and repeated his orders for an attack, but it was 2 p.m. before there was an actual engagement. Then after much delay on Polk's part the Confederate army joined battle with McCook’s corps. The Confederate lines were broken and driven back through Perryville, where caissons, ammunition wagons and 140 officers and men were captured. Darkness had now come on, and in the night Bragg withdrew. His losses were reported as 510 killed, 2635 wounded and 25: missing. The Union loss was 845 killed, 2851 wounded and 515 captured or missing. The battle was drawn tactically, but strategically it was a Union victory and it virtually closed Bragg‘s unsuccessful Kentucky campaign, which is sometimes called the Perryville campaign.

PERSEPOLIS, an ancient city of Persia, situated some 40 m. N.E. of Shiraz, not far from where the smali river Pulwar flows into the Kur (Kyrus). The site is marked by a large terrace with its east. side leaning on Kuhi Rahmet (“the Mount of Grace ”). The other three sides are formed by a retaining wall, varying in height with the slope of the ground from 14 to 41 ft ' on the west side a. magnificent double stair, of very easy steps, leads to the top. On this terrace are the ruins of a number of colossal buildings, all constructed of dark-grey marble from the adjacent mountain. The stones were laid without mortar, and many of them are still in situ. Especially striking are the huge pillars, of which a number still stand erect. Several of the buildings were never finished. F. Stolze has shown that in some cases even the mason’s rubbish has not been removed.l These ruins, for which the name Kizil minare or Chihil menare (“ the forty columns or minarets ”), can be traced back to the 13th century, are now known as Takhti Jams/lid (“ the throne of Jamshid”). That they represent the Persepolis captured and partly destroyed by Alexander the Great has been beyond ‘ dispute at least since the time of Pietro della Valle.2

Behind Takhti Jamshid are three sepulchres hewn out of the rock in the hillside, the facades, one of which is incomplete, being richly ornamented with reliefs. About 8 m. N.N.E., on the opposite side of the Pulwar, rises a perpendicular wall of rock, in which four similar tombs are cut, at a considerable height from the bottom of the valley. The modern Persians call this place Nakshi Rustam (“ the picture of Rustam ”) from the Sassanian reliefs beneath the opening, which they take to be a representation of the mythical hero Rustarn. That the

1Cf. J. Chardin, E. Kaempfer, C. Niebuhr and W. Ouseley. Niebuhr's drawings, though good, are, for the purpOSes of the architectural student, inferior to the teat work of C. Texier, and still more to that of E. Flandin and . Coste. Good sketches, chiefly after Flandin, are given by C. Kossowicz, Inscription“ palaeoPersicae (St Petersburg, 18"2). In addition to these we have the hotographic plates in P. Stolze's Persepzilis (2 vols., Berlin, 1882 .

’ Lettera X V. (ed. Brighton, 1843), ii. 246 seq.


occupants of these seven tombs were kings might be inferred from the sculptures, and one of those at Nakshi Rustam is expressly declared in its inscription to be the tomb of Darius Hystaspis, concerning whom Ctesias relates that his grave was in the face of a rock, and could only be reached by means of an apparatus of ropes. Ctesias mentions further, with regard to a number of Persians kings, either that their remains were brought “ to the Persians,” or that they died there.1 Now we know that Cyrus was buried at Pasargadae (q.v.) and if there is any truth' in the statement that the body of Cambyses was brought home “ to the Persians ” his burying-place must be sought somewhere beside that of his father. In order to identify the graves of Persepolis we must bear in mind that Ctesias assumes that it was the custom for a king to prepare his own tomb during his lifetime. Hence the kings buried at Nakshi Rustam are probably, besides Darius, Xerxes I., Artaxerxes I. and Darius II. Xerxes II., who reigned for a very short time, could scarcely have obtained so splendid a monument, and still less could the usurper Sogdianus (Secydianus). The two completed graves behind Takhti Jamshid

would then belong to Artaxerxes II. and Artaxerxes III. The

unfinished one is perhaps that of Arses, who reigned at the longest two years, or, if not his, then that of Darius III. (Codomannus), who is one of those whose bodies are said to have been brought “ to the Persians ”’ (see ARCHITECTURE, fig. 12). Another small group of ruins in the same style is found at the village of Hajjiibad, on the Pulwar, a good hour’s walk above Takhti Jamshid. These formed a single building, which was still intact goo years ago, and was used as the mosque of the then existing city of Istakhr.

Since Cyrus was buried in Pasargadae, which moreover is mentioned in Ctesias as his own city,a and since, to judge from the inscriptions, the buildings of Persepolis commenced with Darius I'., it was probably under this king, with whom the sceptre passed to a new branch of the royal house, that Persepolis became the capital‘ (see PERSIA: Ancient H istary, V. 2) of Persia proper. As a residence, however, for the rulers of the empire, a remote place in a difiicult alpine region was far from con-* venient, and the real capitals were Susa, Babylon and Ecbatana. This accounts for the fact that the Greeks were not acquainted with the city until it was taken and plundered by Alexander the Great. Ctesias must certainly have known of it, and it is possible that he may have named it simply Hépaat, after the people, as is undoubtedly done by certain writers of a somewhat later date.5 But whether the city really bore the name of the people and the country is another question. And it is extremely hazardous to assume, with Sir H. Rawlinson and J. Oppert, that the words and Pdrsd, “ in this Persia,” which occur in an inscription on the gateway built by Xerxes (D. l. 14), signify “ in this city of Parsa," and consequently prove that the name of the city is identical with the name of the country. The form Persepolis (with a play on 'n‘épms, destruction) appears first in Cleitarchus, one of the earliest, but unfortunately one of the most imaginative annalists of the exploits of Alexander.

It has been universally admitted that “ the palaces ” or “the palace ” (rd. Baalhew.) burned down by Alexander are those now in ruins at Takhti Jamshid. From Stolze’s investigations it appears that at least one of these, the castle built by Xerxes, bearsevident traces of having been destroyed by fire. The locality described by Diodorus after Cleitarchus corresponds in important particulars with Takhti Jamshid, for example, in being supported by the

1 This statement is not made in Ctesias (or rather in the extracts of Photius) about Darius II., which is probably accidental; in the case of Sogdianus, who as a usurper was not deemed worthy of honourable burial, there is a good reason for the omission.

’ Arrian, iii. 22, 1.

8Cf. also in particular Plutarch, Artax. iii., where Pasargadae is distinctly looked on as the sacred cradle of the dynasty.

4 The story of Aelian (H. A. i. 59), who makes Cyrus build his royal palace in Persepolis, deserves no attention.

‘50 Arrian (iii. 18, r, 10), or rather his best authority, King Ptolemy. So, a ain, the Babylonian Bcrossus, shortly after Alexander. See C emens Alex, Admon. ad genus, c. 5, where, with Georg Hoffmann (Pars. Md'rtyrer, 137), ml 15 to be inserted before Hépeals, and this to be understood as the name of the metropolis.

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mountain on the east.“ There is, however, one formidable difficulty. Diodorus says that the rock at the back of the palace containing the royal sepulchres is so steep that the bodies could be raised to their last resting-place only by mechanical appliances. This is not true of the graves behind Takhti Jamshid, to which,as F. Stolze expressly observes, one can easily ride up; on the other hand, it is strictly true of the graves at N akshi Rustam. Stolze accordingly started the theory that the royal castle of Persepolis stood close by Nakshi Rustam, and has sunk in course of time to shapeless heaps of earth, under which the remains may be concealed. The vast ruins, however, of Takhti Jamshid, and the terrace constructed with so much labour, can hardly be anything else than the ruins of palaces; as for temples, the Persians had no such thing, at least in the time of Darius and Xerxes. Moreover, Persian tradition at a very remote period knew of only three architectural wonders in that region, which it attributed to the fabulous queen Humai (Khumai)—the grave of Cyrus at Murgab, the building at Hajjiabad, and those on the great terrace.’ It is safest therefore to identify these last with the royal palaces destroyed by Alexander. Cleitarchus, who can scarcely have visited the place himself, with his usual recklessness of statement, confounded the tombs behind the palaces with those of Nakshi Rustam; indeed he appears to imagine that all the royal sepulchres were at the same place.

In 3:6 B.C. Persepolis was still the capital of Persis as a province of the great Macedonian Empire (see Diod. xix, 21 seq., 46 ; probably after Hieronymus of Cardia, who was living about 316). The city must have gradually declined in the course of time; but the ruins of the Achaemenidae remained as a witness to its ancient glory. It is probable that the principal town of the country, or at least of the district, was always in this neighbourhood. About A.D. zoo we find there the city Istakhr (properly Stakhr) as the seat of the local governors. There the foundations of the second great Persian Empire were laid, and Istakhr acquired special importance as the centre of priestly wisdom and orthodoxy. The Sassanian kings have covered the face of the rocks in this neighbourhood, and in part even the Achaemenian ruins, with their sculptures and inscriptions, and must themselves have built largely here, although never on the same scale of magnificence as their ancient predecessors. The Romans knew as little about Istakhr as the Greeks had done about Persepolis —and this in spite of the fact that for four hundred years the Sassanians maintained relations, friendly or hostile, with the empire.

At the time of the Arabian conquest Istakhr ofieredadesperate resistance, but the city was still a place of considerable importance in the rst century of Islam (see CALIPHATE), although its greatness was speedily eclipsed by the new metropolis Shiraz. In the 10th century Istakhr had become an utterly insignificant place, as may be seen from the descriptions of Istakhr, a native (c. 950), and of Mukaddasi (c. 985). During the following centuries Istakhr gradually declines, until, as a city, it ceased to exist. This fruitful region, however, was covered with villages till the frightful devastations of the 18th century; and even now it is, comparatively speaking, well cultivated. The “ castle of Istakhr ” played a conspicuous part several times during the Mahommedan period as a strong fortress. It was the middlemost and the highest of the three steep crags which rise from the valley of the Kur, at some distance to the west or north-west of Nakshi Rustam. We learn from Oriental writers that one of the Buyid (Buwaihid) sultans in the roth century of the Flight constructed the great cisterns, which may yet be seen, and have been visited, amongst others, by James Morier and E. Flandin. W. Ouseley points out that this castle was still used in the 16th century, at least as a state prison. But when Pietro della Valle was there in 1621 it was already in ruins.

6The name of this mountain too, lemma» 6pm, is identical with Shdhkfih, which is at least tolerably well established by W. Ouseley (ii. flag) as a'synonym of Kfihi rahmel. _ _ q

7 especially Hamza lsp., 38;Tabari, r. 690, 816 (cf. T. Noldeke, stchichle der 'Perser . . . aus . . . Tabari, p. 8). The ruins at

Takhti jamshid are alluded to as the work of Humii in connexion with an event which occurred shortly after A.D. 200.

‘ Brsuoanruv.—E. Flandin and P. Coste, Voyage en Parse (1843—1847); F. Stolze, Die Achaemenidischen mid Sassanidischen Denkmfiler and Inschriften van Persepolis, &c. (1882); G. Perrot and C. Chipiez, Histoire de l'art dam l'antiquité,v. (1890). See also DARIUS; PansrA: Ancient History; and CALIPHATE.

(Tn. N.;A. n. s.)

PERSEUS, in Greek legend, son of Danae and Zeus. When Perseus was grown to manhood Polydectes, king of Seriphus, cast his eye on Danae; and, in order to rid himself of the son, exacted of him a promise that he would bring him the head of the Gorgon Medusa. The Gorgons dwelt with their sisters the Graeae (the grey women) by the great ocean, far away in the west. Guided by Hermes and Athena, Perseus came to the Graeae. They were three bags, with but one eye and one tooth between them. Perseus stole the eye and the tooth, and would not restore them till the Graeae had guided him to the Nymphs, from whom he received the winged sandals, a wallet (xifiuns, resembling a gamekeeper’s bag) and the helmet of Hades, which rendered him invisible. Thus equipped and armed by Hermes with a sharp sword like a sickle, he came upon the Gorgons as they slept, and cut off Medusa’s head, while with averted eyes he looked at her reflection which Athena showed him in the mirror of her shield. Perseus put the Gorgon’s head in his wallet and fled, pursued by Medusa’s sisters, to Ethiopia, where he delivered and married Andromeda (q.v.). With her he returned to Seriphus in time to rescue .his mother and Dictys from Polydectes, whom he turned to stone with all his court by showing them the Gorgon’s head. The island itself was turned to stone, and the very frogs of Seriphus (50 ran the proverb) were dumb (Aelian, Nat. am'm. iii. 37). Perseus then gave the head of Medusa to Athena, and, with Danae and Andromeda, hastened to Argos to see his grandfather, Acrisius, once more. But before his arrival Acrisius, fearing the oracle, had fled to Larissa in Thessaly. Thither Perseus followed him, and at some funeral games held in honour of the king of that country unwittingly slew his grandfather by the throw of a quoit, which struck him on the foot. Ashamed to return to Argos, Perseus gave his kingdom to Megapenthes (Acrisius’s nephew), and received from him Tiryns in exchange. There he reigned and founded Mideia and Mycenae, and became the ancestor of the Persides, amongst whom were Eurystheus and Heracles.

The legend of Perseus was localized in various places. Italy claimed that the chest containing Danae and Perseus drifted ashore on the Italian coast (Virgil, Aen. vii. 372, 410). The Persian kings were said to have been descended from Perses a son of Perseus, and, according to Pausanias of Damascus,‘ he taught the Persians to worship fire, and founded the Magian priesthood. His cult was transferred to the kings of Pontus, for on coins of Amisus he is represented with the features of Mithradates Eupator. Like Andromeda, Hesione, the daughter of Laomedon, king of Troy, was rescued by Heracles from a seamonster, and both stories have been interpreted of the sun slaying the darkness, Andromeda and Hesione being the moon, which the darkness is about to devour. In one version of the story of Hesione, Heracles is said to have spent three days, like Jonah, in the belly of the beast, and it is noteworthy that the Greek representations of Andromeda’s monster were the models for Jonah’s fish in early Christian art. Its bones and Andromeda’s chains were shown on a rock at Joppa. Perseus appears on coins of Pontus and Cappadocia, and of Tarsus in Cilicia, which he was said to have founded. The legend of St George was influenced by the traditions current regarding Perseus in Syria and Asia Minor. -'

For the slaying of the Medusa, see F. H. Knatz, uomodo Persci fabulam artifice: graeci e! romam' tractaven'nt (r893 ; and, on the whole story, E. S. Hartland, The Legend of Perseus (1894—1896).

PERSEUS, in astronomy, a constellation of the northern hemisphere, called after the Greek legendary hero. it is mentioned by Eudoxus (4th century B.C.) and Aratus (3rd century B.c.);

1 Author of a history of Antioch; he is quoted by John Malalas, Chronogra hia, pp. 37—38, ed. Bonn (1831). Nothing further is knonggff im (see C. W. Mi'rller, Fragmento historicorum graecorum, 1V. 4 .


Ptolemy and Tycho Brahe catalogued 29 stars, Hevelius 46. The most important member of this constellation is B Pcrsei or Algol (47.1)), a famous variable star. 0 Persei is a triple star, composed of one 4th magnitude star and two of the 10th magnitude; p Persei is an irregular variable, with a range in magnitude of 3-4 to 4-1. Nova Persei is a “ new ” star discovered in 1887 and subsequently recognized on Harvard plates by Mrs Fleming in 1895; another new star was discovered by Anderson on the arst of February 1901, which, after increasing in magnitude, gradually became fainter and ultimately disappeared. There is a nebula surrounding Nova Pcrsei (1901) which was photographed at Yerkes observatory in September 1901; a pair of star clusters, appearing as a bright patch in the Milky Way; and the meteoric swarm named the Perseids, which appear in August and have their radiant in Perseus. (See METEOR.) PERSEUS 0F MACEDONIA (b. c. 212 B.C.), the last king of Macedonia, eldest son of Philip V. He had his brother Demetrius killed, and thus cleared his way to the throne in 179. War broke out with Rome in 171 13.0. when P. Licinius Crassus was sent to attack him. Perseus defeated Crassus at Callinicus in Thessaly, but in 168 he was annihilated at Pydna by L. Aemilius Paulus. He was led in triumph through Rome, and died in captivity at Alba F ucens. (See MACEDONIA.) PERSHORE, a market town in the Evesham parliamentary division of Worcestershire, England, 113 m.W.N.W.of London and 7 S.E. of Worcester by the Great Western railway. Pop. (1901), 3348. The station is I} m. from the town. Market gardening and fruit-growing (especially plums) are carried on and agricultural implements are manufactured. The churches of the two parishes of Holy Cross and St Andrew face one another across a road. Holy Cross is a remnant of a mitred abbey of Benedictines, said to have been founded about 970 by King Edgar, on the site of a Mercian religious settlement. There remain only the fine Early English choir, with Decorated additions, the Norman south transept and the majestic Decorated tower; while slight fragments of a Norman nave are seen. PERSlA, a kingdom of western Asia, bounded on the N. by the Caspian Sea and the Russian Transcaucasian and Trans— caspian territories, on the E. by Afghanistan and Baluchistan, on the S. by the Arabian Sea and the Persian Gulf, and on the W. by Turkish territory. Long before the Christian era the satrapies of Darius comprehended roughly an immense range of territory, from the Mediterranean to the Indus and from the Caucasian chain and Jaxartes to the Persian Gulf and Arabian Ocean. In the 17th and 18th centuries AD. the conquests of 'Abbas and Nadir kept up these boundaries more or less on the east, but failed to secure them on the west, and were limited to the Caucasus and Oxus on the north. Persia of the present day is not only, in the matter of geographical definition, far from the vast empire of Sacred Writ and remote history, but it is not even the less extensive dominion of the Safawi kings and Nadir Shah. It may be said, however, to comprise now quite as much settled and consolidated territory as at any period of its political existence of which we can speak, with authority. Boundaries—The region of Ararat presents a good starting point for the definition of the western and northern frontiers of Persia. A line 20 m. in length from a point on the river Aras, in 39° 45' N. and 44° 40’ E. to Mt Ararat, in the south-westerly direction, divides Persia from Russia. Southwards from Mt Ararat the PersoTurkish frontier extends about 700 m. to the mohth of the Shatt e1 Arab in the Persian Gulf in 30° N. and 48° 40’ E., but is undefined with the exception of the western boundary of the little district of Kotur. A mixed commission was appointed in 1843 for the settlement of the Perso-Turkish frontier. The labours of this commission resulted in the Erzerum treaty of 1847, by which both powers abandoned some lands and agreed to appoint commissioners to define the frontier. The commissioners met in 1849, 1850 and 1851 at Bagdad and Muhamrah without arriving'at any result. In 1851 Lord Palmerston proposed that the general line of frontier should be traced by the agents of Turkey and Persia at Constantinople, assisted by the

Western Frontier.

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