صور الصفحة

same age, half as much; while a Bombassi is to be got for 14, being chosen merely for hysical strength. They are never sol , save on importation, thoug at times t ey are given away. . . . l have never seen a Persian unkind to his own horse or his slave, and when overtaken by poverty he will first sell his shirt, then his slave.

“ in commercial morality, a Persian merchant will compare not unfavourably with the huropean generally. . . . To the poor, Persians are unostentatiously generous; most of the rich have regular pensioners, old servants, or poor relations who live on their bounty; and though there are no Workhouses, there are in ordinary times no deaths from starvation; and charity, though not or anized, is general. . . . Procrastination is the attribute of all ersians, 'to-morrow ' being ever the answer to any proposition, and the ‘to-morrow' means indefinite delay. A great dislike is shown generally to a written contract binding the parties to a fixed date; and, as a rule, on breaking it the Persian always appeals for and ex ects delay and indefinite days of grace. . . .

‘ Persians are clean in their rsons, washing themselves and their garments frequently. The ersian always makes the best of his appearance; he is ve neat in his dress, and is rticular as to the sit of his hat and t e cut of his coat. All Persians are fond of animals, and do not treat them badly when their own property.

" Cruelty is not a Persian vice; torture and punishments of an ifnusual and painful nature being part of their judicial system. There are no vmdictive punishments, such as a solitary confinement, penal servitude for long terms of years, &c. Seldom, indeed, is a man imprisoned more than twelve months, the rule being that there is a eneral jail delivery at the New Year. Royal clemency is frequently shown, often, perhaps, with want of judgment."

Costumc.——The costume of the Persians may be shortly described as fitted to their active habits. The men invariably wear an unstarched shirt of cotton, sewn with white silk, often, particularly in the south of Persia, elaborately embroidered about the neck. It fastens in front by a flap, having two small buttons or knots at the left shoulder, and seldom comes below the hips. It has no collar, and the sleeves are loose. The lower orders often have it dyed blue; but the servant and upper classes always prefer a white shirt. Silk shirts are now seldom seen on men. Amon the very religious during the mourning month (“ Muharram ”) t e shirt is at times dyed black. The “ zir-jamah," or trousers,l are of cloth among the higher classes, particularly those of the military order, who affect a arment of a tightness approaching that worn by Europeans. e ordinary “ zir-jamah " are of white, blue or red cotton, very loose, and are exacth similar to the pyjamas worn by Euro ns in India. They are eld up by a thin cord of red or green sik or cotton round the waist, and the labouring classes, when engaged in heavy or dirty work, or when runnin , generally tuck the end of these garments under the cord, which eaves their legs bare and free to the middle of the thigh. The am litude of this rt of his attire enables the Persian to sit without iscomfort on his heels; chairs are only used by the rich, great or Europeanized. Over the shirt and “ zir-jamah " comes the “ arkhalik," generally of quilted chintz or print, a closely-fitting garment, collarless, with ti ht sleeves to the elbow, whence, to the wrist, are a number of little metal buttons, fastened in winter, but not in summer. Above this is the “ kamarchin," a tunic of coloured calico, cloth, Kashmir or Kermfin shawl, silk, satin or velvet (gold embroidered, or otherwise), according to the time of the gear and the purse and position of the wearer. This, like the “ ark alik," is open in front, and shows the shirt. It sometimes has a small standing collar, and is double-breasted. It has a pocket-hole on either side, giving access to the pockets, which are always in the “ arkhalik," where also is the breast-pocket in which watch, money, jewels, and seals are kept. The length of the “ kamarchin " denotes the class of the Wearer. The military and ofiicial classes and the various servants wear it short, to the knee, while fops and shar rs wear it even shorter. Priests, merchants, villa rs, especial y about Shiraz, townsmen, shopkeepers, doctors an lawyers wear it very long, often nearly to the heels. Over the “ kamarchin " is worn the “ kulijah," or coat. This is, as a rule, cast off in summer, save on formal occasions, and is often borne by a servant, or carried over the shoulder by the owner. It is of cloth, shawl or camel-hair cloth, and is lined with silk or cloth, flannel or fur. It has, like the Turkish frockcoat, a very loose sleeve, with man plaits behind. _lt has lapels, as with us, and is trimmed with gol lace, shawl or fur, or is worn quite plain. It has a roll collar and false pockets.

Besides these garments there are others: the long “ jubba." or cloth cloak, worn by “ mirzas " (secretaries), government employés of high rank, as ministers, farmers of taxes, courtiers, phySicians, priests; the "abba," or camel~hair cloak of the Arab, Worn by travellers, priests and horsemen; the “ pustin," or Afghan skincloak, used by travellers and the sick or aged; the “ nimtan," or common sheepskin jacket, with short sleeves, used by shopkeepers and the lower class of servants, iooms, &c., in winter; t c “ yapaniah " or woollen Kurdish cloa , a kind of felt, having a shaggy side, of immense thickness, worn generally by shepherds, who use it as greatcoat, bed and bedding. There is also the felt coat of the

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villager, very warm and inexpensive, the 00st being from 5 to 15 kra_ns_ (a kran = iod.). The “ kamarband,” or girdle, is also characteristic of class. It is made of muslin, shawl or cotton cloth among the priests, merchants, bazaar peo le, the secretary class and the more aged government cmployés. n it are carried, by literati and merchants, the p‘en-case and a roll of paper; its voluminous folds are used as poc ets; by the bazaar people and villagers, porters and merchants' servants, a small sheath knife is struck in it; while by “ farrashes,” the carpet-spreader class, a large “ khanjar," or curved dagger, with a heavy ivory handle, is carried. The headgeai is very distinctive. The turban worn by priests is generally white, consisting of many yards of muslin. When the wearers are “ saiyid " of the Prophet, a green' turban is worn, also a “ kamarband " oi green muslin, or shawl or cotton cloth. Merchants generally wear a turban of muslin embroidered in colours, or of a Yellow pattern on straw-coloured muslin, or of calico, or shawl. he distinctive mark of the courtier, military, and upper servant class is the belt, generally of black varnished eather with a brass clasp; princes and courtiers often replace this clasp by a huge round ornament of cut stones. The “ kulah," or hat, is of cloth or shee skin on a frame of pasteboard. The fashions in hats change year y. The Isfahan merchant and the Armenian at times wear the hat very tall. (The waist of the Persian is enerally small, and he is very proud of his fine figure and broad shoulders.)

The hair is enerally shaved at the crown, or the entire head is shaved, a “ iul " or long thin lock, being sometimes left, often 2 ft. long, from the middle of the crown. This is to enable the

rophet Mahomet to draw up the believer into paradise. The owcr orders generally, have the hair over the temporal bone long, and brought in two long locks turning backwards behind the ear, termed “zulf”; the beaux and youths are constantl twisting and combing these. The rest of the head is shaven. {orig hair, however, is goin out of fashion in Persia, and the more civilized affect the crop hair worn b Europeans, and even have a parting in it. The ciiin is never s aved, save by " beauty men," or “ kashangs," though often clipped, while the moustache is usuall left long. At forty a man generally lets his beard grow its ful lenith, and cherishes it much; part of a Persian's religious exercises is t e combing of his beard. Socks, knitted principa ly at Isfahan, are worn; they are only about 2 in. long in the leg. The rich, however, wear them longer. They are of white cotton in summer and coloured worsted in winter. Villagers only wear socks on state occasions. Shoes are of many patterns. The “ urussi," or Russian shoe is the most common; next, the “ kafsh " or sli per of various kinds. The heel is folded down and remains so. The priests wear a peculiar heavy shoe, with an ivory or Wooden lining at the heel. Green shoes of shagreen are common at lsfahan. B acking is unknown to Persians generally. Boots are onl used by horsemen, and are then worn much too large for ease. Those worn by couriers often come up the thigh. With boots are worn “ shalwars," or baggy riding breeches, very loose, and tied by a string at the ankle; a sort of kilt is worn by couriers. Pocket-handkerchiefs are seldom used, save by the rich or the Teherfinis. Most Persians wear a “ shab kulah," or night hat, a loose baggy cap of shawl or quilted material, often embroidered b the ladies. .

Arms are usually carried on y by tribesmen. The natives of the south of Persia and servants carry a “ kammah," or dirk. The soldiery, on or off duty, always ca one of these or their sidearms, sometimes both. They hackrrbut never thrust with them. On the road the carrying of weapons is necessary.

The costume of the women has undergone considerable change in the last century. It is now, when carried to the extreme of fashion, highly indecent and must be very uncomfortable. The garment doin duty as a chemise is called a “ pirahan "; it is, with the lower or ers, of white or blue calico, and comes down to the middle of the thigh, leavin the leg nude. Amon the upper classes it is frequently of silk. t Shiraz it is often 0 fine cotton, and elaborately ornamented with black embroidery. With the rich it is often of gauze, and much embroidered with old thread, pearls, &c. The head is usually covered with a “ char- add," or large square of embroidered silk or cotton, folded so as to display the corners, and fastened under the chin by a brooch. It is often of considerable value, being of Kashmir shawl, embroidered gauze, &c. A “ jika," a jewelled feather-like ornament, is often worn at the side of the head, while the front hair, cut to a level with the mouth, is brought up in love-locks on either cheek. Beneath the “charkadd " is generally a small kerchief of dark material, only the edge of which is visible. The ends of the “char-kadd " cover the shoulders, but the gauze “ irahan " is quite transparent. A rofusion of jewellery is worn o the most solid description, none hol 0w; silver is worn only by the very oor, coral only by negresscs. Necklaces and bracelets are much a ected, and chains with scent-caskets attached, while the arms are covered with clanking glass bangles called “alangu,” some twenty even of these being on one arm. Jewelled " bazubands," containing talismans, are often worn on the upper arm, while among the lower orders and south Persian or Arab women nose-rings are not uncommon, and bangles or anklets of beads.

' Green turbans are now rarely seen; the colour is generally dark blue, or black. 11

The face on important occasions is usually much painted, save by young ladies in the heyday of beauty. The colour is very freely applied, the cheeks being as much raddled as a clown's, and the neck smeared with white, while the eyelashes are marked round with “ kuhl." This is supposed to be beneficial to the eyes, and almost every woman uses it. The eyebrows are widened and painted till they appear to meet, while sham moles or stars are painted on the chin and cheek; even spangles are stuck at times on the chin and forehead. Tattooing is common among the poor and in villa es, and is seen amon the ugtper classes. The hair, though generaly hidden by the " c ar-ka ,” is at times exposed and

laited into innumerable little tails of great length, while a coquettish little skull-cap of embroidery, or shawl, or coloured silk is worn. False hair is common. The Persian ladies' hair is very luxuriant and never cut; it is nearly always dyed red with henna, or with indigo to a blue-black tinge; it is naturally a glossy black. Fair hair is not esteemed. Blue eyes are not uncommon, but brown ones are the rule. A full-moon face is much admired, and a dark complexion termed “ namak " (salt) is the highest native idea of beaut . Most Persian women are small, with tiny feet and hands. The gure is always lost after maternity, and no support of any kind is worn.

A very short Lacket, of gay colour, quite open in front, having tight sleeves wit many metal buttons, is usually worn in summer, and a lined outer coat in cold weather. In winter a pair of ver short white cotton socks are used, and tiny slippers with a big heel; in summer in the house ladies go often barefoot. The rest of the costume is composed of the “ tumbun " or “ shalvar," short skirts of great width, held by a running string—the outer one bein usually 0 silk, velvet, or Kashmir shawl, often trimmed with gol lace, or, amonithe poor, of loud-patterned chintz or print. Beneath are innumera le other garments of the same shape, varying in texture from silk and satin to print. The whole is ve short, among the women of fashion extending only to the thigh. In winter an over-mantle like the “ kulijah, or coat of the man, with short sleeves, lined and trimmed with furs, is worn. Leg-coverings are now being introduced. In ancient days the Persian ladies always wore them, as may be seen by the pictures in the South

ensington Museum. Then the two embroidered legs, now so fashionable as Persian embroideries (“ naksh "), OCCIzlfled a girl from childhood to marria e in making; they are a sewing in elaborate patterns of great eauty, worked on muslin in silk. The outdoor costume of the Persian women is uite another thing. Enveloped in a huge blue sheet, with a yard 0 linen as a veil perforated for two inches square with minute holes, the feet thrust into two huge bags of coloured stuff, a wife is perfectly unrecognizable, even by her husband, when out of doors. The dress of all is the same; and, save in quality or costliness, the effect is similar.

As for the children, they are always when infants swaddled; when they can walk they are dressed as little men and women, and with the dress they generally ape the manners. It is a strange custom with the Persian ladies to dress little girls as boys, and little boys as girls, till they reach the age of seven or eight years; this is often done for fun, or on account of some vow—oftener to avert the evil eye.

Tamra—The principal cities of Persia with their populations as estimated in i908 are: Teheran (280,000); Tabriz (200,000); Isfahan (100,000); Meshed (80,000); Kermin, Resht, Shiraz (60,000); Barfurush, Kazvin, Yezd (50,000); Hamadan, Kerinanshah (40,000); Kashan, Khoi, Urmia (3 5,000); Birjend, Burujird, Bushire, Dizful, Kum, Senendij (Sinna), Zenjan (25,000 to 30,000); Amol, Ardebil, Ardistan, Astarabad, Abekuh, Bam, Bander, Abbasi, Bander Lingah, Damghan, Dilman, Istahbanat, Iahrum, Khunsar, Kumishah, Kuchan, Marand, Maragha, N ishapur, Sari, Sabzevar, Samnan, Shahrud, Shushter (10,000 to 20,000).

Political and Administrative Divisions—The empire of Persia, officially known as M amalik i M ahruseh i Iran, “ the protected kingdoms of Persia,” is divided into a number of provinces, which, when large, and containing important sub-provinces and districts, are called mamlikal, “ kingdom,” when smaller, vilaya! and ayalat, and are ruled by governors-general and governors appointed by and directly responsible to the Crown. These provinces are further divided into sub-provinces, vilayats, districts, sub-districts and parishes, buluk, nahiyeh, mahal, and towns, cities, parishes and villages, shehr, kassabeh, mahalleh, dih, which are ruled by lieutenant-governors and other functionaries appointed by and responsible to the governors. All governors are called hakim, or hukmran, but those of large provinces generally have the title of vali, and sometimes firmanfirma. A governor of a small district is a zabil; a deputygovernor is called naib cl hukumeh, or naib cl ayaleh; an administrative division is a kalamro, or hukumat. Until recently the


principal governorships were conferred upon the shah’s sons, brothers, uncles and other near relatives, but now many of them are held by men who have little if any connexion with the royal family. Also, the governors are now, as a rule, resident in their provinces instead of being abscntees at the capital. There are also some small districts or dependencies generally held in fief, turyul, by princes or high functionaries who take the revenua in lieu of salaries, pensions, allowances, &c., and either themselves govern or appoint others to do so.

Every town has a mayor, or chief magistrate, called beglerbegi, “ lord of lords,” kalantar, “ the greater,” and sometimes darogha, “ overseer,” or chief of police; every ward or parish, mahalleh, of a town and every village has a head-man called ked khada, “ house-lord.” These officers are responsible to the governor for the collection of the taxes and the orderly state of their towns, parishes and villages. In the important provinces and subprovinces the governors are assisted by a man of experience, to whom the accounts and details of the government are entrusted. This person, called viziar, or paishkar, is often nominated by the shah, and his functions in the provincial government are similar to those of the grand vizir in the central government, and com. prise very extended administrative powers, including at times the command of the military forces in his province. Among the nomads a different system of titles prevails, the chiefs who are responsible for the taxes and the orderly conduct of their tribes and clans being known as ilkhani, ilbegi (both meaning “ tribe-lord,” but the latter being considered an inferior title to the former), khan, rais, amir, mir, Shaikh, tushmal, &c.

The governors and chiefs, excepting those possessing hereditary rights, are frequently changed; appointments are for one year only and are sometimes renewed, but it does not often occur that an official holds the same government for longer than that period, while it happens rarely that a province is governed by the same person for two or three years. This was not so formerly, when not infrequently an official, generally a. near relation of the shah, held the same governorship for five, ten or even more years. The governorship of the province of Azerbaijan was an exception until the end of 1906, being always held by the Valiahd, “ heir apparent,” or crown prince. The 8political divisions of Persia, provinces, sub-provinces, districts, c., ruled by hak-ims number over 200 (cf. the statement in Noldeke's Geschichte des Artach‘fir PdPakdn, “after Alexander’s death there were in Iran 240 local governors "), but the administrative divisions, hukumat, or kalamro, with governors appointed by the Crown and responsible to it for the revenues, have been under fifty for sixty-five years or more. In 1840 there were twentynine administrative divisions, in I868 twenty-two, in 1875 twentynine, in 1884 nineteen, in 1890 forty-six, and in 1908 thirty-five, as follows :—

(a) Provinces :—

I. Arabistan and Bakhtiari. I4. Kamseh.

2. Astarabad and Gurgan. i5. Khar.

3. Azerbaijan. 16. Khorasan.

4. Fats. 17. Kum.

5. Gerrus. I8. Kurdistan.

6. Gilan and Talish. 19. Luristan and Burujird.

7. Hamadan. 20. Mazandaran.

8. Irak,Gulpai an, Khunsar, 21. Nehavend, Malayir and

Kamereh, 'ezzaz, F era- Tusirkhan.
kan. 22. Savah.

9. Isfahan. 23. Samnan and Damghan. Io. Kashan. 24. Shahrud and Bostam.

11. Kazvin. 25. Teheran.

12. Kermfin and Baluchistan. 26. Zerend and Bagdadi 13. Kermanshi'lh. Shahsevens. . (b) DBPendencies, or Fiefsz—

r. Asadabad. 6. Natanz.

2. Demavend. 7. Talikan.

3. Firuzkuh. 8. Tarom Ulia.

4. osehekan. 9. Kharakan.

5. angaver.

Roads.—\Nith the exception of five short roads, having an aggregate length of less than 900 m., all the roads of the country are mere mule tracks, carriageable in the plains and during the drv season, but totally unfit for continuous wheeled trafi‘ic during all seasons, and in the hilly districts often so difficult as to cause much damage to oods and the animals carrying them. There are a few miles of roads in the immediate neighbourhood of Teherfin leading from the city to royal palaces but not of any commercial importance. The five exceptions are' (1) Resht—Kazvin—Teherin, 227 m.; (2) Julfa—Tabriz, 80 m.; (3) Teherfin-Kum—Sultanabad, 160 m.; (4) Meshed—Kuchan—Askabad, 150 m.; 30 of which are on Russian territo ; (5) Isfahan—Ahvaz, 280 m. The first of these roads consists 0 two sections: Resht—Kazvin, 135 m., and Kazvin— Teheran, 92 in. The first section was constructed in 1893—1899 by a Russian company, in virtue of a concession which the ersian government granted in 189?]; and the second section. was constructed in 1878—1e8Z9 by t e Persian government at a cost of about £20,000, ced to the concessionnaire 0f the first section in 1896, and repaired and partly reconstructed by the Russian ctparrépany in 1898—1899. Both sections were officially opened to c in August 1899. The capital of the company is 3,200,000 roubles (£341,330), of which 1,700,000 is in shares taken by the public, and 1,500,000 in debentures taken by the Russian overnment, which also uarantees 5 "A, on the shares. About two-t irds of the capital has een expended on construction. The com ny's income is derived from tolls levied on vehicles and anima s usin the road. These tolls were at first very high but were reduced y 1 % in 1904, and by another 10% in 1909. If all the trade between ussia and Teheri'in were to pass over this road, the tolls would no doubt pay a fair dividend on the capital, but much of it goes by way of the

eheran-Meshed-i-Sar route, which is much shorter and has no tolls. The second road, Julfa-Tabriz, 80 m., was constructed b the same Russian company in 1903. The third road, Teherin— umSultanabad, 160 m., also consists of two sections: the first, Teheran— Kum, 92 m., the other, Kurn—Sultanabad, 68 m. The first section was constructed by the Persian government in 188 at a cost of about £12,000, purchased by the Imperial Bank of ersia in 18 0 for £10,000, and reconstructed at a cost of about £45,000. T e second section formed part of the “ Ahvaz road concession " which was obtained by the Imperial Bank of Persia in 1890 with the object of connectin Teherin with Ahvaz on the Karun b a direct cart road via Su tanabad, Burujird, Khorremabad (inristan), Dizful and Shushter. The concession was ceded to Mews Lynch, of London, “ The Persian Road and Transport Company," in 1903. The fourth cart-road, Meshed—Askabad, 120 m. to the Persian frontier, was constructed by the Persian government in 1889—1892 in accordance with art. v. of the Khorasan Boundary Convention between Russia and Persia of December 1881. The Persian section cost £13,000. The fifth road, Isfahan-Ahvaz, 280 m., is the old mule track provided with some bridges, and improved b freeing it of boulders and stones, &c., at a total cost of {5500. he concession for this road was obtained in 1897 by the Bakhtiari chiefs and ceded to Messrs Lynch, of London, who advanced the necessary capital at 6% interest and later formed the Persian Road and Transport Company. The road was opened for traffic in the autumn of 1900. The revenue is derived from tolls levied on animals passin with loads. The tolls collected in 1907 amounted to £3100.

Ra'ways.~—Persia possesses only 8 m. o railway and 6} in. of tramway, both worked by a Belgian company. The railway consists of a sin le line, one-metre gauge, from Teherin to Shah—abdul-Azim, south 0 Teheri'in, and of two branch lines which connect the main line with some limestone quarries in the hills south-east of the city. The tramway also is a single line of one-metre gauge, and runs through some of the principal streets of Teheran. The len th of the main railway line is 5} m., that of the branches 2). he main line was opened in 1888, the branches were constructed in 1893., and the tramway started in 1889. The ca ital now invested in t is enter rise, and largely subscribed for by ussian capitalists, amounts to 20,000. There are also ordinary shares to the amount of £200,000 put down in the company's annual balance-sheets as of no value. The general opinion is that if Russian capitalists had not been interested in the enterprise the company would have liquidated long a o. (On railways in Persia, the many concessions granted by the ersian government, and only one havin a result, ch. xviii. of Lord Curzon's Persia [i. 613—6 9], and on t e Belgian enterprise, Lorini's La. Persia economist: p. 157—158] may be consulted.)

Posts—Down to 1871 the postal system was in the hands of an official called chaParthi ashi', who was the head farmer of the post, or chaflars, and letters and small parcels were conveyed by him and his agents at high and arbitrary rates and without any responsibility. The establishment of a regular post was one of the results of the shah Nasr-ed-din's first visit to Europe (1873). Two officials of the Austrian postal department having been engaged in 1874, an experiment 0 a post office upon European lines was made in the following year with a postal delivery in the capital and some of the neighbouring villages where the European legations have their summer uarters. In the beginnin of 1876 a re ular weekly post was estab ished between Teheri‘in, abriz and Julia (Russo-Persian frontier) and Resht. Other lines, connecting all the principal cities With the capital, were opened shortly afterwards, and on the ist of September 1877 Persia joined the international postal union with the rates of 2%d. per Q oz. for letters, 1d. for post-cards, id. per 2 oz. for newspapers, &c., between Persia and any union country. The inland rates were a little less. There are now between Persia and foreign countries a bi-weekly service via Russia (Resht—Baku, Tabriz—Tiflis) and a weekly service via India (Bushire—Bombay). On the inland lines, with the exception of that between Teheri'in


and Tabriz, the service is weekly. There are reported to be 140 post oflices. Statistics as to the number of letters, post-cards, newspapers, &c., conveyed are kept but not published; and since 1885, when a liberal-minded director communicated those for the year 1884—188 to the present writer, no others, although many times promise , have been obtained. In the year 1884—1885 there were conveyed 1,368,835 letters, 2050 st-cards, 745 samples, and 1 3,995 parcels, having a value of 04,720; and t e receipts exc ed the expenditure by {466. Since then the traffic has much increased, and the excess of receipts over expenditure in the year 1898—1899 was retported to have been {10,000, but was probably more than that, for e minister of posts farmed the department for £12,000 per annum. The farm system was abolished in 1901 and in the followin year the post office was joined to the customs department wor ed by Belgian officials. Under the most favourable conditions letters from London via Russia are delivered at Tabriz in 9 days, at Teherfin in 10, at Isfahan in 14, and at Shiraz in 18 days; and via India, at Bushire in 26 days, at Shiraz in 31, at Isfahan in 36, and at Teherin in 40 days; but during the winter letters between London and Teheran sometimes take a month. In the interior the mails are conveyed on horseback, and, being packed in badlymade soft leather bags, are frequently damaged through careless packing and wet. The first Persian postage stamps were issued in 1875 and roughly printed in Persia. Since then there have been numerous issues, many practically bogus ones for collectors. Authentic specimens of the early ones are much valued by stamp collectors. (For information on the postal system of Persia, see G. Riederer, Aus Persian, Vienna, 1882; Fr. Schueller, Die Persische Post und die Postwerthzm'chen van Persian, Vienna, 1893.) Telegraphs.-—The first line of telegra hs—from Teheran to Sultanieh, about 160 m. on the road to abriz—was constructed in 1859. In the followin year it was continued to Tabriz, and in 1863 togulfa on the Russian frontier. With the object of establishing a irect telegraphic communication between En land and India, by connecting the European and Indian systems y a land line through Persia from B dad—then the most easterly Turkish telegraphic station—to Bushire and by a cable from Bushire eastwards, a telegraphic convention was concluded in the same year between the British and Persian governments, and a one-wire line on wooden sts from the Turkish frontier, near Bagdad, to Bushire via germanshah, Hamadan, Teherfin, Isfahan and Shiraz, was constructed at the cost and under the supervision of the British government. In 1865 a new convention, providing for a second wire, was concluded, and for some years messages between Euro and India were transmitted either via Constantino le, Ba da , Tehcrin, Bushire, or via Russia, Tiflis, Tabriz, Teiierfin, ushire. An alternative line between Bagdad and India was created by the construction of a land line to Fao, at the head of the Persian Gulf, and the layin of a cable thence to Bushire. The service was very inefficient, an messages between England and India took several days and sometimes weeks to reach their destination. In 1869 Messrs Siemens of Berlin, in virtue 'of concessions obtained in the year before and later disposed of to the Indo-Euro n Telegraph Company, Ltd.—who also took over Renter's cable rorn Lowestoft to Emden (274 knots —constructed a two-wire line on iron posts through Germany an Russia, and in Persia from Julfa to Teheran. This line was 0 ned on the 31st of anuary 1870. The British overnment then anded the Bagdad-Te erfin section, which had ecome unnecessary for international through traffic between Europe and India, over to the Persian government, and changed its Teherfin—Bushire line into one of two wires on iron posts. In 1873, according to a convention signed December 1872, a third wire was added to the line, and there was then a three-wire line on iron posts (439 in. Indo-Euro ii Telelgraph Company, 675 in. Indian government) from Jula to Bus ire. In August 1901 a convention was concluded between the British and Persian governments for a three-wire line on iron sts from Kashan (a station on the Teheri'in-Bushire line) to aluchistan_ Via Yezd, Kermfin and Bam (805 m.). The construction of this “ Central Persia line," as it is known official] , was begun in December 1902 and com leted in March 1907. he section Kashan—Isfahan of the old eherin-Bushire was then taken up and lsafahan was connected with the Central Persia line by a two-wire line from Ardistan, 71 m. south-east from Kashan. One of the three Wires between Isfahan and Bushire was also taken up, and there are now a five-wire line from Teheri‘in to Ardistan (224) m.), a three-Wire line from Ardistan to the Baluchistan frontier (734 m.) and a twowire line from Ardistan to Bushire (497 m.). These lines, as well as that of the Indo-European Telegraph Company from julfa to Teherfin, are worked throughout by an_ English staff and may be classed among the finest and most efficient in the world. The central line is continued through Baluchistan to Karachi, and from Bushire messages go by cable (laid in 1864) to Jask. and thence either by cable or by land to Karachi, Bombay, 8:0. The telegraphic convention between the British and Persian governments has again been renewed, and is in force until 1925; and the concessions to the company were prolonged to the same year by the Russian government in March 1900. In addition to these lines, Persia possesses 4191 m. of single-wire lines on wooden poles belonging to the Persian government and worked by a Persian staff; the Teheran-Meshed line (555 m.), however, is looked after by_ an English inspector and two English clerks at Meshed, and since 1885 the Indian government has allowed a sum not exceeding 20,000 rupees per annum for its maintenance; and_the'Meshed—Seistan line, 523 m., is looked after by twelve Russian inspectors and clerks. The Persian lines are farmed out for 1,800,000 ,krans (about £36,000) per annum and no statistics are ubhshed. I here are in all 131 stations. Statistics of the traffic on t e Indo-European line are given in the administration reports of the lndo-European telegraph department, published by government, and from them the figures in the following table have been obtained:—

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Manufactures,&fc.—The handbook on Persian art published by Colonel Murdoch Smith, R.E., in 1876, with reference to the collection purchased and sent home by him for the Victoria and Albert Museum, has an instructive account of the more common manufactures of the country. They are classified under the respective heads of “ porcelain and earthenware," " tiles," “ arms and armour," “ textile fabrics," “ needlework and embroidery," " metal-work," “ wood carving and mosaic-painting," "manuscripts," "enamel," “jewelry " and “ musical instruments." Specimens of the greater number are not only to be procured in England, but are almost familiar to the ordinary Londoner. It need scarcely be said that tiles have rather increased in value than deteriorated in the eyes of the connoisseur, that the ornamentation of metal-work, wood carving and inla ing, gem and seal engraving, are exquisite of their kind, and that t e car ets manufactured by skilled workmen, When left to themselves andptheir native patterns, are to a great extent unrivalled. Of the above-mentioned articles, carpets, shawls, woollen and cotton fabrics and silk stuffs are the more important. Carpets may be divided into three categories: (1) Kali, with a pile, and cut like plush; (2) gilim, smooth; (3) nimads, felts. Only the two first are exported. The Kali and its smaller sizes, called Kalicheh (in Europe, rugs), are chiefly made in Ferahan, Sultanabad (Irak), Khorasan, Kurdistan, Karadagh, Yezd, Kerman, and among the nomad tribes of southern Persia. From the two first-mentioned localities, where a British firm has been established for many years, great quantities, valued in some years at £100,000, find their Way to European and American markets, while rugs to the value of £30,000 per annum are ex orted from the Persian Gulf ports. Of the second kind, gilim (use in Europe for curtains, hangings, and chair-covers), considerable quantities are exported from Shushter and Kurdistan. The value of the carpets exported during the year 1906—1907 was close 11 11 £900,000, T urkcy taking £613,300, Russia 196,700, Unite States £40,600, Great Britain £20, 00, Egypt 18, 00 and India {5400. Shawls are manufacture in Kermz‘in an Meshed, and form an article of export, principally to Turkey. Woollen fabrics are manufactured in many districts, but are not exported in any reat quantity. Coarse cotton stuffs, chiefly of the kind called Kerbaz, used in their natural colour, or dyed blue with indigo, are manufactured in all districts but not exported; cottons, called Kalamkar, which are made in Manchester and block-printed in colours at Isfahan and Kumishah, find their way to foreign markets, principally Russian. Of silk fabrics manufactured in Persia, principally in Khorasan, Kashan and Yezd, about {100,000 worth per annum is exported to Turke , Russia and India. In the environs of Kashan and in Fars, chie y at Maimand, much rose-water is made, and a considerable quantity of it is exported by way of Bushire to India and Java. Many attempts have been made to start manufactures, su ported by foreign capital and conducted by foreigners, but neary all have resulted in loss. In 1879 the Persian government was induced to spend £30,000 on the erection of a gas factory in Teheran, but work was soon stopped for want of good coal. A few years later a Persian bought the factory and plant for £10,000, and made them over in 1891 to the Compagnie générale pour l'éclairage et le hauffage en Perse, which after bringing out much additional plant, and wasting much capital in trying for some years in vain to make

ood and cheap gas out of bad and dear coal, closed the factory. In 1891 another Belgian company, Société anonyme des verreries nationalcs de Perse, opened a glass factory in Teheran, but the difficulty of obtaining the raw material cheaply and in large quantities was too great to make it a paying concern. and the factory


had to be closed. A third Bel ian company, Société anonyme pour la fabrication du sucre en erse, with a large capital, then came to Persia, and began making beetroot sugar in the winter of 1895. But, like the gas and lass companies, 1t found the cost of the raw material and the inci ental expenses too great, and ceased its operations in 1899. In 1890 a Russian company started a match factory near Teheran with an initial outlay, it is said, of about £20,000, but could not successfully compete with Austrian and Swedish matches and ceased operations very soon. A Persian gentleman erected a cotton-spinnin factory at Teheran in 1894 with expensive machinery; it turne out some excellent yarn but could not compete in price with imported yarns.

Agricultural Products.—Wheat, barley and rice are grown in all districts, the two former up to considerable altitudes (8000 ft.), the last wherever the water supply is abundant, and in inner Persia generally along rivers; and all three are largely exported. The most important rice-growing districts which produce more than they require for local consumption and supply other districts, or export reat quantities, are Astarabad, Mazandaran, Gilan, Veramin, (near- eheran). Lenjan (near Isfahan), and some localities in Fars and Azerbaijan. Peas, beans, lentils, ram, maize, millet, are also universally cultivated, and exported from the Persian Gulf ports to India and the Arabian coast. The export of rice amounted to 52,200 tons in 1906-1907, and was valued at-£472,550. The Persian fruit is excellent and abundant, and large quantities, princi

' pally dried and called khushkbar (dry fruit), as quinces, peaches,

apricots, plums (of several kinds), raisins, figs, almonds, pistachios, walnuts and dates (the last only from the south), as well as oranges (only from the Caspian provinces), are exported. The fruit exported during 1906—1907 had a value of £1,019,000. Nothing is bein done to improve the vine, and the Persian wines, until recently 0 world-wide reputation, are yearly getting thinner and poorer. The phylloxera has done much damage. The naturalist S. G. Gmelin, who explored the southern shores of the Caspian in 1771, observed that the wines of Gilan were made from the wild grape. Cotton is largely grown, rincipally in the central districts and Khorasan, and some qua ities are excellent and command high prices in the European markets; 18,400 tons of raw cotton, valued at £838,787, were exported to Russia in 1906—1907. Good hemp grows wild in Mazandaran. Tobacco of two kinds, one the tumbaku (Nicotiana perrica, Lindl.), for water pipes, the other the tutun Nicotiana rustica, L.), for ordinary pipes and cigarettes, is much cultivated. The tumbaku for export is chiefly produced in the central districts round about Isfahan and near Kashan, while the tumbaku 0f Shiraz, Fessa, and Darab in Fars, considered the best in Persia, is not much appreciated abroad. Tutun is cultivated in Azerbaijan, near Urmia and other laces near the Turkish frontier, in Kurdistan, and, since 1875, in the district of Resht,in Gilan. About 1885 the quantity of tobacco exported amounted to between 4000 and 5000 tons. In 1906—1907 only 1820 tons, valued at {42,000, were ex rted. The cultivation of poppy for opium greatly increase after 1880, and it was estimated in 1900 that the annual produce of opium amounted to over 1000 tons, of which about two-fifths was consumed and smoked in the country. The principal o ium-producing districts are those of Shiraz, Isfahan, Yezd,

erman, Khorasan, Burujird and Kermanshah. While the quantity consumed in the country is now probably the same, the quantity exported is much less: 239 tons, valued at £237,270 in 1906—1907. The value of the silk produced in Persia 1n the 'sixties was {1,000,000 per annum, and decreased in consequence of silk-worm disease to {30,000, in 1 0. The quantity produced has since then steadily increased an its yearly value is estimated at half a million. Cocoons and raw silk valued at £316,140 were exported in 1906—1907. Of oil-yielding plants the caster-oil plant, sesame, linseed and olive are cultivated, the last only in a small district south of and near Resht. Ver little oil is exported. The potato, not yet a staple article of foo , tomatoes, celery, cauliflower, artichokes and other vegetables are now much more rown than formerly, chiefly in consequence of the great influx of Iiuropeans, who are the principal consumers.

Among the valuable vegetable products forming articles of export are various inns and dyes, the most important being

um tra canth, which exudes from the astragalus plant in the illy region from Kurdistan in the north-west to Kerman in the south-east. Other gums are gum-ammoniac, asafetida,galbanum, sagapanum, sarcocolla and o oponax. In 1906—1907, 10 tons of various gums of a value of 300,000 were exported. dye-stuffs there are produced henna (Lawsonia inermis) principally grown at Khabis near Kerman, woad and madder; a small quantity of indigo is grown near Dizfu'. and Shushter. The export of dyes in 1906—1907 was 985 tons, valued at £32,326.

Horses, mules and donkeys, formerly exported in great numbers, are at present not very abundant, and their prices have risen much since 1880. Some nomad tribes who owned many brood mares, and yearly sold hundreds of horses, now hardl possess sufficient animals for their own requirements. The scarcity of animals, as well as the dearness of fodder, is one of the causes of the dearness of transport, and freights have risen on the most frequented roads from 3d. per ton-mile in 1880 to 10d., and even 13d., per ton-mile.

The prices of staple articles of food rose steadily from 1880 and

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Forests and Timber.—Timber from the forests of Mazandaran and Gilan has been a valuable article of export for many years, and since about 1870 large quantities of boxwood have a so been exported thence; in some years the value of the timber and boxwood exported has exceeded £50,000. This value represented about 200,000 box trees and uite as many others. Much timber is also used for charcoal-burning, and occasionally large rts of forest are burned by the peo le in order to obtain clearings for the cultivation of rice. The estruction of the forests by timbercutters and charcoal-bdrners has been allowed to go on unchecked, no plantations have been laid out, and nothin has been done for forest conservation. lndiscriminate cuttingihas occasionally been confined within certain bounds, but such restrictions were generall either of short duration or made for the convenience and profit 0 local governors. The oak forests of Kurdistan, Luristan and the Bakhtiari district are also being ra idly thinned. A small step in the right direction was made in 1900 by engaging the services of an official of the Prussian forest de rtment, but unfortunately, beyond sending him to inspect the azandaran forests belonging to the Crown, and emplo ing him to lay out a small lantation in the Jajrud valley, east of eheran, nothing was done. he monopoly for cuttin and exporting the timber of the Mazandaran'forests is leased to uropean firms, principally for box and oak. Boxwood has become scarce. There are man kinds of good timber-yielding trees, the best known being alder (A nus glutinosa, Wild, A. barbata, A. cordifolia, Ten.), ash (Fraxinus excelsior, L.), beech (Fagus sylvatica), elm (Ulmus campeslris, U. efl'usa, U. fledunculalag, wych-elm (Ulmus mantana), hornbeam (Carpinus betulus, L. , juniper (Juniperus excelsa, J. communis, J. sabina), maple (Acer insigne, Boiss., A. com aslre, A. Pseudo—platonus, L.), oak (Quercus ballata, Q. caslaneaefo ia, Q. sessilrflora, Q. pedunculata), walnut, nettle tree (Cellis auslralis, L.), Siberian elm (Zelkova crenala, S’pach) and various kinds of poplar. Pipe-sticks, from the wild c erry tree, are exported to Tur e .

Fisheries—Fish is a staple food, along the shores of the Persian Gulf, but the Crown derives no revenue from fisheries there. The fisheries of the Caspian littoral are leased to a Russian firm (since 1868), and most of the fish oes to Russia (31,120 tons, value £556,125, in woo—190;). The sh principally caught are sturgeon, giving caviare, sheat sh or silure, salmon, carp, bream and perch.

Minerals and Mining—Persia possesses considerable mineral riches, but the absence of cheap and easy means of transport, and the scarcity of fuel and water which prevails almost everywhere, make any exploitation on a remunerative scale impossible, and the attem s which have been made to work mines with Euro an capita and under European superintendenm have been financially unsuccessful. Deposits of rich ores of copper,,lead, iron, manganese, zinc, nickel, cobalt, &c., abound. A few mines are worked by natives in a primitive, systemless manner, and without any great outlay of capital. There are turquoise mines near Nisha ur (for description of mines, manner of working, &c., see A. outumSchindler, Re art on the Turquoise Mines in Khorasan, F. 0. Reports, 1884, and “ ie Ge end zwischen Sabzwar und Meschhed," Jahrbuch k. k. geal. R. .4. im, vol. xxxvi.; also E. Tielze, Verhandl. k. k. geol. R. A., 1884, . 93)", several co r mines in Khorasan, Samnan, Azerbaijan and: Kermi'm; some 0 lead, two considerably argentiferous, in Khomsan, Tudarvar (near Samnan), Anguran, Afshar (both west of Zenjan), and Kermi'm; two of iron at Mesula in Gilan and Nur in Mazandaran; two of or iment in Afshar and near Urmia; one of cobalt at Kamsar (near ashan); one of alum in Tarom (near Kazvin); and a number of coal in the Lar district, north-east of Teheri'in, and at Hiv and Abyek, north-west of Teheran. There are also many quarries of rock—salt. gypsum, lime and some of marble, alabaster, soapstone, &c. The annual revenue of the government from the leases, rents and royalties of mines does not amount to more than £15,000, and about {6000 of this amount is derived from the turquoise mines near Nishapur. As the rents and royalties, excepting those on the turquoise mines, amount to about one-fifth of the net proceeds, it may be estimated that the value of the annual ontput does not exceed £50,000, while the intrinsic value of the ores. particularly those of lead, iron, cobalt and nickel, which have not yet been touched can be estimated at


millions. There are also some ve rich coal seams in eastern Persia, far away on the fringe of t e desert, and under existing conditions quite valueless. The richest deposits of nickel, cobalt and antimony ores are also situated in localities where there is little water and the nearest useful fuel some hundred miles away. Auriferous alluvial strata have been discovered in various localities, but eve where the scarcity of water has been a bar to their being exploited, with profit. A rich na htha-bearing zone stretches from the Luristan hills near Kermins i‘ih down to the Persian Gulf. Competent engineers and s cialists have declared that borings in the Bakhtiari hills, west 0 Shushter, would give excellent results, but the difficult hilly country and the total absence of roads, as well as the antipathy of the inhabitants of the district, would make the transport and establishment of the necessary plant a most difficult matter. A British syndicate has been boring at several places in the zone since 1903.

Commerce—The principal centres of commerce are Tabriz, Teherin, Resht, Meshed and Yezd; the princi al ports Bander Abbasi, Lingah, Bushire and Muhamrah on the ersian Gulf, and Astara, Enzeli, Meshed i Sar and Bander i Gez on the Caspian.

Until 1899 all the customs were farmed out (1898—1899 for £300,000), but in March of that year the farm system was abolished in the two provinces of Azerbaijan and Kermanshfih, and, the ex riment there proving successful, in all, other provinces in the to lowing ear. At the same time a uniform duty of 5% ad valorem was estab ished. In October 1901 a treaty fixing a tariff and reserving “ the most favoured nation " treatment for the countries already enjoying it was concluded between Persia and Russia. It was ratified in December 1902 and came into force on the 14th of Februa 1903. The commercial treaty with Great Britain, concluded in 1857, provided for the “most favoured nation" treatment, but nevertheless a new treaty under which the duties levied on British imports would be the same as on Russian imports was made with Great Britain a few days before the new tariff came into force and was ratified in May.

For the value of imports and exports previous to 1901 the only statistics available were the figures given in consular reports, which were not always correct. In 1897 it was estimated that the value of the imports from and exports to Great Britain, including lndia, amounted to £3,250,000. About a quarter of this trade passed over the western frontier of Persia, while three-quarters passed through the Persian Gulf ports. The value of the trade between Russia and Persia was then about {3,500,000.v Since 1901 detailed statistics have been published by the customs department, and accordin to them the values of the imports and exports in thousands of poun s sterling for the six years 1901—1907 were as follows:—

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While the value of the trade between Great Britain and Persia in 1906—1907 was alm0st the same as in 1897, that of the trade with Russia had increased from 3% millions to 8} or 137 %. The average early value of the trade between Great Britain and Persia during t e six years was {2,952,185 (imports 2,435,016. exports £517,169) ; between Russia and Persia £6,475,866 imports £3,350,072, exports £3,125,794). The average values of the trade with other countries were: rance £666,000. Austria £246,000, Germany £124,000, ltaly £79,ooo,United States of America £52,000,Netherlands £139,000.

The principal imports into Persia in approximate order 0 value are cottons, sugar, tea, woollens, cotton yarn, petroleum, stuffs of wool and cotton mixed, wool, hardware, ironmongery, matches, iron and steel, d es, rice, spices and glassware. The principal exports are fruits dried and fresh), carpets, cotton, fish, rice, gums, wool, opium, silk cocoons, skins, live animals, silks, cottons, wheat, barley, drugs and tobacco.

Shipping and Navigation.—-Shipping under the Persian flag is restricted to vessels belonging to the Persian Gulf ports. Some of the larger craft, which are called baglah, and vary from 0 to 300 tons, carry merchandise to and from Bombay, the Ma abar

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