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leaves it in the form called Cercaria, which is really an immature condition of the adult. The Cercaria makes its way into the
tissues of a mussel and there becomes enclosed in the cyst ‘
previously described. If the mussel is then swallowed by the duck the Cercariae develop into adult Trematodes or flukes in the liver or intestines of the bird. In the mussels which escape being devoured the parasites cannot develop further, and they die and become embedded in the nacreous deposit which forms a pearl. Dr Jameson points out that, as in other cases, pearls in Mytilus are common in certain special localities and rare elsewhere, and that the said localities are those where the parasite and its hosts are plentiful.
The first suggestion that the most valuable pearls obtained from pearl oysters in tropical oceans might be due to parasites was made by Kelaart in reports to the government of Ceylon in 1857-1859. Recently a special investigation of the Ceylon pearl fishery has been organized by Professor Herdman. Herdman and Hornell find that in the pearl oyster of Ceylon Margarilifera vulgaris, Schum, the nucleus of the pearl is, in all specimens examined, the larva of a Ccstode or tapeworm. This larva is of globular form and is of the type known as a cysticercus. As in the case of the mussel the larva dies in its cyst and its remains are enshrined in nacreous deposit, so that, as a French writer has said, the ornament associated in all ages with beauty and riches is nothing but the brilliant sarcophagus of a worm.
The cysticercus described by Herdman and Homell has on the surface a muscular zone within which is a depression containing
a papilla which can be protruded. It was at first identified as
the larva of a tapeworm called Tetrarhynchus, and Professor
Herdman concluded that the life-history of the pearl parasite
consisted of four stages, the first being exhibited by free larvae
which were taken at the surface of the sea, the second that in the pearl oyster, the third a form found in the bodies of file-fishes which feed on. the oysters, and the fourth or adult stage living in some species of large ray. It has not however been proved that the pearl parasite is a Tetrarhynchus, nor that it is connected with the free larva or the form found in the file-fish, Balistes;nor has the adult form been identified. All that is certain is that the pearls are due to the presence of a parasite which is the larva of a Cestode; all the rest is probability or possibility. A French naturalist, M. Seurat, studying the pearl oyster of the Gambier Archipelago in the Pacific, found that pearl formation was due to a parasite quite similar to that described by Herdman and Hornell. This parasite was described by Professor G‘ard as characterized by a rostrum armed with a single terminal sucker and he did not identify it with Tetrarhynchus.
Genuine precious pearls and the most valuable mother-of-pearl are produced by various species and varieties of the genus lllcleagrino of Lamarck, for which Dr Jameson in his recent revision of the species prefers the name MargoriIifera. The genus is represented in_tropical regions in all parts of the world. It be ongs to the family Avrcphdae, which is allied to the Pectens or scallop shells. In this family the hinge border is straight and prolonged into two auriculae; the foot hasla very stout byssus. Meleogrina is distinguished by the small
size or complete absence of the posterior auricula. The species are as follows. The t species is Meleagn'no margaritifera, which has no teeth on the mge. 'Geographical races are distin uished by difl'crent names in the trade. Specimens from the Malay rchipelago love a dark band along the margin of the nacre and are known as flack-edged Banda shell; those from Australia and New Guinea .nd the neighbouring islands of the western Pacific are called tristralian and New Guinea black-lip. Another variet occurs in ‘ahiti, Frambier islands and Eastern Polynesia general y, yielding 0th pearls and shell. It occurs also in China, Ceylon, the Andaman ;lands and the Maldives. Another form is taken at Zanzibar, Madaxscar, and the neighbouring islands, and is called Zanzibar and [adagascar shell. Bombay shell is another local form fished in 1e Persian Gulf and shipped via Bombay. ,The Red Sea variety known as Egyptian shell. Another variety occurs alon the west ast. of America and from Panama to Vancouver, an supplies tnama. shell and some arls. A larger form, attainin a foot in ameter and a wei ht ofpio lb per air of shells, is considered as a itinct species by r Jameson and) named M'argorilifero maxima.
is found alon the north coast of Australia and New Guinea and
: Nialay Archipelago. The nacreous surface of this shell is white,
bout the black or dark margin of yarn in the trade as the silver-lip, gold-lip and by other names.
the common species; it is'
Dr Jameson distinguishes in addition to the above thirty-two species of Mar orilifero or Melcagrina; all these have rudimentary teeth on the hinge. The most important s cies is Meleagrina vulgaris, to which belon the arl oyster of eylon and southern ln ia, the lingah shell 0 the ersian Gulf and the pearl oyster of the Red Sea. Since the opening of the Suez Canal the latter form has invaded the Mediterranean, specimens having been taken at Alexandria and at Malta, and attempts have been made to cultivate it on the French coast. The species occurs also on the coasts of the Malay Peninsula, Australia and New Guinea, where it is fished both for its shells (Australian lingah) and for pearls. Two species occur on the coasts of South Africa but have no market value. Melearina corchariarum is the Shark's Bay shell of the London market. t is taken in large quantities at Shark's Bay, Western Australia, and is of rather small value; it also yields pearls of inferior quality. The pearl oyster of Japan, known as Japan lingah, is probably a variety of Meleagn'na vulgaris. Meleagrina radiate is the West Indian pearl oyster.
The argest and steadiest consumption of mother-of- arl is in the button trade, and much is also consumed by cutlers or handles of fruit and dessert knives and forks, pocket-knives, &c. It is also used in the inlaying of Japanese and Chinese lacquers, European lacquered papier-m ché work, trays, &c., and as an ornamental inlay generall . The carving of pilgrim shells and the elaboration of crucifixes and, ornamental work in mother-of- r] is a distinctive industry of the monks and other inhabitants o Bethlehem. Among the South Sea Islands the shell is lar el fashioned into fishing-hooks. Among shells other than those of e cogrina margaritzfera used as mother-of-pearl may be mentioned the Green Ear or Ormer shell (Haliolis tuberculala) and several other species of Haliolis, besides various species of Turbo.
Artificial pearls were first made in western Europe in 1680 by Jacquin, a rosa -maker in Paris, and the trade is now largely carried on in France, rmany and Italy. Spheres of thin glass are filled with a preparation known as “essence d'orient," made from the silvery scales of the bleak or “ ablette," which is caused to adhere to the inner wall of the globe, and the cavit is then filled with white wax. Many imitation pearls are now ormed of an opaline glass of nacreous lustre, and the soft appearance of the pearl obtained
y the judicious use of hydrofluoric acid. An excellent substitute for black pearl is found in the so-called “ ironstone jewelry," and consists of close-grained haematite, not too highly polished; but the great density of the haematite immediately destroys the illusion.
ink pearls are imitated by turning small spheres out of the rosy part of the conch shell, or even out of pink coral.
Clements R. Markham, “The Tinnevelly Pearl Fishery,” in lawn. Soc. Arts (186?), xv., 256; D. T. Mac owan, “ Pearls and Pearl-making in China,’ ibid. (I8 4). ii. 72; . Hague, “ On the Natural and Artificial Production 0 Pearls in China," In Journ. Roy. Asiatic Soc. (18 6), vol. xvi.; H. J. Le Beck, “ Pearl Fishe in the Gulf of Manar,’ in Asiatic Researches (1798), v. 393; K. obius, Die echlen Perlen (Hamburg, 1857); H. Lyster Jameson, “ Formation of Pearls," Proc. 2001. Soc. (1902), l. I ; idem, “ On the Identity and Distribution of Mother-of-Pearl ysters," Prac. Zool. Soc. (1901),
PEARL, THE. The Middle-English poem known as Pearl, or The Pearl, is preserved in the unique manuscript Cotton Nero Ax at the British Museum;in this volume‘are contained also the poems Cleanness, Patience, and Sir Gawoyne and the Green Knight. All the pieces are in the same handwriting, and from internal evidences of dialect, style and parallel references, it is now generally accepted that the poems are all by the same author. The MS., which is quaintly illustrated, belongs to the end of the 14th or the beginning of the 15th century, and appears to be but little later than the date of composition; no line of Pearl or of the other poems is elsewhere to be found.
Pearl is a poet’s lament for the loss of a girl-child, “who lived not upon earth two years "—the poet is evidently the child’s father. In grief he visits the little grave, and there in avision beholds his Pearl, now transfigured as a queen of heaven—he sees her beneath “ a crystal rock,” beyond a stream; the dreamer would fain cross over, but cannot. From the opposite bank Pearl, grown in wisdom as in stature, instructs him in lessons of faith and resignation, expounds to him the mystery of her transfiguration, and leads him to a glimpse of the New Jerusalem. Suddenly the city is filled with glorious maidens, who in long procession glide towards the throne, all of them clad in white, pearl-bedecked robes as Pearl herself. And there he sees, too, “his little queen.” A great love
s the most valuable species of mother-of-pearl oyster.
longing possesses him to be by her. He must needs plunge into the stream that keeps him from her. In the very effort the dreamer awakes, to find himself resting upon the little mound where his Pearl had “ strayed below ":—
“ l roused me, and fell in reat dismay, And, sighing, to myself Psaid: Now all be to that Prince's pleasure."
The poem consists of one hundred and one stanzas, each of twelve lines, with four accents, rhymed ab, ab, ab, ab, be, be; the versification combines rhyme with alliteration; trisyllabic effects add to the easy movement and lyrical charm of the lines. Five stanzas (in one case six), with the same refrain, constitute a section, of which accordingly there are twenty in all, the whole sequence being linked together by the device of making the first line of each stanza catch up the refrain of the previous verse, the last line of the poem re-echoing the first line. The author was not the creator of this form, not was he the last to use it. The extant pieces in the metre are short religious poems, some of the later (e.g. God’s Complaint, falsely attributed to Scottish authorship) revealing the influence of Pearl.
The dialect is West Midland, or rather North-West Midland, and the vocabulary is remarkable for the blending of native speech with Scandinavian and Romance elements, the latter partly Anglo-French, and partly learned French, due to the author’s knowledge of French literature.
“ While the main part of the poem,” according to Gollancz, “ is a paraphrase of the closing chapters of the Apocalypse and the parable of the Vineyard, the poet’s debt to the Romaunt of the Rose is noteworthy, more particularly in the description of the wonderful land through which the dreamer wanders; and it can be traced throughout the poem, in the personification of Pearl as Reason, in the form of the colloquy, in the details of dress and ornament, in many a characteristic word, phrase and reference. ‘The river from the throne,’ in the Apocalypse, here meets ‘the waters of the wells ’ devised by Sir Mirth for the Garden of the Rose. From these two sources, the Book of Revelation, with its almost Celtic glamour, and The Romaunl of the Rose, with its almost Oriental allegory, are derived much of the wealth and brilliancy of the poem. The poet’s fancy revels in the richness of the heavenly and the earthly paradise, but his fancy is subordinated to his earnestness and intensity.”
The leading motifs of Pearl are to be found in the Gospel— in the allegory of the merchant who sold his all to purchase one pearl of great price, and in the words, so fraught with solace for the child-bereft, “ for of such is the Kingdom of Heaven.” Naturally arising from the theme, and from these motifs, some theological problems of the time are touched upon, or treated somewhat too elaborately perhaps, and an attempt has been made to demonstrate that Pearl is merely allegorical and theological, and not really a lament. Those who hold this view surely ignore or fail to recognize the subtle personal touches whereby the poem transcends all its theological interests, and makes its simple and direct appeal to the human heart. Herein, too, lies its abiding charm, over and above the poetical talent, the love of nature, colour and the picturesque, the technical skill, and the descriptive power, which in a high degree belonged to the unknown poet.
Various theories have been advanced as to the authorship of Pearl and the other poems in the manuscript. The claims of Huchown “ of the Awle Ryale” have been vigorously (but unsuccessfully) advocated; the case in favour of Ralph Strode (Chaucer’s “ philosophical Strode ")—the most attractive of all the theories—is still, unfortunately, “ not proven.” By piecing together the personal indications to be found in the poems an imaginary biography of the poet may be constructed. It may safely be inferred that he was born about 1330, somewhere in Lancashire, or a little to the north; that he delighted in openair life, in woodcraft and sport; that his early life was passed amid the gay scenes that brightened existence in medieval hall and bower; that he availed himself of opportunities of study, theology and romance alike claiming him; that he wedded, and had a child named Margery or Marguerite—the Daisy, or the
Pearl—at whose death his happiness drooped and life’s joy ended.
The four poems are closely linked and belong to one period of the poet’s career. In Gawayne, probably the first of the four, the poet is still the minstrel rejoicing in the glamour of the Arthurian tale, but using it, in almost Spenserian spirit, to point a moral. In Pearl the minstrel has become the elegiac poet, harmonizing the old Teutonic form with the newer Romance rhyme. In Cleanness he has discarded all attractions of form, and writes, in direct alliterative metre, a stern homily on chastity. In Patience—a homiletic paraphrase of Jonah—he appears to be autobiographical, reminding himself, while teaching others, that “ Poverty and Patience are needs playfellows.” He had evidently fallen on evil days.
It is noteworthy that soon after 1358 Boccaccio wrote his Latin eclogue Olympia in memory of his young daughter Violante. A comparative study of the two poems is full of interest; the direct influence of the Latin on the English poem is not so clear as has been maintained. Pearl cannot be placed earlier than 1360; it is most probably later than Olympia.
BlBLIOGRAPHY.—Texls and Translations: Early Alliteratioe Poems in the West Midland Dialect of the Fourteenth Century (edited by Richard Morris, Early English Text Society I. 1864; revised, 1869, 1885, 1896, 1901); Pearl, an English Poem of the Fourteenth Century, edited, with a Modern Rendering, by Israel Gollancz (with frontispiece by Holman Hunt, and prefatory lines, sent to the editor by Tennyson); revised edition of the text, privately printed, 1897; new edition of text and translation, “ King's Classics, ’ 1910— 1911; Facsimile of MS. Cotton Nero Ax, 1910—1911; The Pearl, (edited by C. G. Osgood; Boston, 1906). Translations by Gollancz (as above); G. G. Coulton (1906); Osgood (1907); Miss Mead (1908); Miss jewett (1908); part of the poem, by S. Weir Mitchell (1906).
Literary History: 'l‘enbrink, History of English Literature (translated by H. M. Kennedy, 1889, i. 336-351); G. Nelson, Huchoum of the Awle Ryale (Glasgow, 1902); Carleton Brown, The Author of the Pearl, considered in the Light of his Theological Opinions (publications of the Modern Languages Association of America, x1x. 115—153; 1904); W- G. Schofield, The Nature and Fabric of the Pearl (ibid. pp. 154—215; 1904); also Symbolism, Alle ory and Autobiography (ibid. xxiv. 585—675; 1909); l. Gollancz, éambridge History of English Literature, vol. i. ch. xv.
Works connected with Pearl: Sir Gawayne, a Collection of Ancient Romance Poems (edited b Sir F. Madden; London, 1839); Sir Gawayne (re-edited by Richard Morris, E.E.T.S., 1864, 1869; text revised by l. Gollancz, 1893); The Parlement of the Thre Ages, and Wynnere and Wastoure (edited by I. Gollancz: London, 18‘97); Hymns to the Vir in and Christ (edited by F. J. Furnivall, E.E. .S., 1867); Political, eli ious and Love Poems (edited by F. J. Furnivall, E.E.T. ., 1866, 1 03%
Metr .———Clark . Northup, Study of the Metrical Structure of the Pearl ( ublications of the Modern Languages Association, xii. 326—340 .
Phonology—W. F ick, Zum mittelenglischen Gedicht van der Perle (Kiel, 1885). (I. G.)
PEARSALL, ROBERT LUCAS DE (1795—1856), English composer, was born on the 14th of March 1795, at Clifton. Educated for the bar, he practised till 1825, when he left England for Germany and studied composition under Panny of Mainz; with the exception of three comparatively short visits to England, during one of which he made the acquaintance of the English school of madrigals, he lived abroad, selling his family property of Willsbridge and settling in the castle of Wartensee, on the lake of Constance. He produced many works of lasting beauty, nearly all of them for voices in combination: from his part songs, such as “Oh, who will o’er the downs?” to his elaborate and scholarly madrigals, such as the admirable eight-part compositions, “Great God of Love ” and “ Lay a Garland,” or the beautiful “ Light of my Soul.” His reception into the Roman Church in his later years may have suggested the composition of some beautiful sacred music, among other things a fine “Salve Regina.” He‘wrote many valuable treatises on music, and edited a Roman Catholic hymn-book. He died on the 5th of August 1856.
PEARSON, CHARLES HENRY (1830—1894), British historian and colonial statesman, was born in London on the 7th of September 1830. After receiving his early education at Rugby and King's College, London, he went up to Oxford, where he
was generally regarded as the most brilliant of an exceptionally able set, and in 1854 obtained a fellowship at Oriel College. His constitutional weakness and bad eyesight forced him to abandon medicine, which he had adopted as a career, and in 1855 he returned to King’s College as lecturer in English language and literature, a post which he almost immediately quittcd for the professorship of modern history. He made numerous journeys abroad, the most important being his visit to Russia in 1858, his account of which was published anonymously in 1859 under the title of Russia, by 0 Recent Traveller; an adventurous journey through Poland during the insurrection of 1863, of which he gave a sympathetic and much praised account in die SPectalor; and a visit to the United States in 1868, where he gathered materials for his subsequent discussion of the negro problem in his National Life and Character. In the meantime, besides contributing regularly, first to the Saturday Review and then to the Spectator, and editing the National Review, he wrote the first volume of The Early and Middle Ages of England (1861). The work was bitterly attacked by Freeman, whose “ extravagant Saxonism ” Pearson had been unable to adopt. It appeared in 1868 in a revised form with the title of History of England during the Early and Middle Ages, accompanied by a second volume which met with general recognition. Still better was the reception of his admirable Maps of England in the First Thirteen Centuries (1870). But as the result of these labours he was threatened with total blindness; and, disappointed of receiving a professorship at Oxford, in 1871 he emigrated to
Australia. Here he married and settled down to the life of a
sheep-farmer; but finding his“ health and eyesight greatly
improved, he came to Melbourne as lecturer on history at the university. Soon afterwards he became head master of the
Presbyterian Ladies’ College, and in this position practically
organized the whole system of higher education for women in
Victoria. On his election in 1878 to the Legislative Assembly
he definitely adopted politics as his career. His VIEWS on the
land question and secular education aroused the bitter hostility of the rich squatters and the clergy; but his singular nobility of character, no less than his powers of mind, made him one of the most influential men in the Assembly. He was minister without portfolio in the Berry cabinet (1880—1881), and as
minister of education in the coalition government of 1886 to 1890
he was able to pass into law many of the recommendations of his report. His reforms entirely remodelled state education in Victoria. In 1892 a fresh attack of illness decided him to return to England. Here he published in 1893 the best known of his works, National Life and Character. It is an attempt to show that the white man can flourish only in the temperate zones, that the yellow and black races must increase out of all proportion to the white, and must in time crush out his civilization. He died in London on the 29th of May 1894.
A volume of his Review: and Critical Essays was published in 1896, and was followed in 1900 by his autobiography, a work of great interest.
PEARSON, JOHN (1612—1686), English divine and scholar, was born at Great Snoring, Norfolk, on the 28th of February 161 2. From Eton he passed to Queen’s College, Cambridge, and was elected a scholar of King’s in April 1632, and a fellow in 1634. On taking orders in 1639 he was collated to the Salisbury )rebend of Nether-Avon. In 1640 he was appointed chaplain to he lord-keeper Finch, by whom he was presented to the living f Thorington in Sufi'olk. In the Civil War he acted as chaplain J George Goring’s forces in the west. In 1654 he was made 'eekly preacher at St Clement’s, Eastcheap, in London. With eter Gunning he disputed against two Roman Catholics on the Lbject of schism, a one-sided account of which was printed in ll’iS by one of the Roman Catholic disputants, under the title isme Unmask’t (1658). Pearson also argued against the \ritan party, and was much interested in Brian Walton’s lyglot Bible. In 1659 he published in London his celebrated
position of the Creed, dedicated to his parishioners of St :ment’s, Eastcheap, to whom the substance of the work had
published the Golden Reniains of the ever-memorable Mr John Holes of Eton, with an interesting memoir. Soon after the Restoration he was presented by Juxon, bishop of London, to the rectory of St Christopher-le-Stocks; and in 1660 he was created doctor of divinity at Cambridge, appointed a royal chaplain, prebendary of Ely, archdeacon of Surrey, and master of Jesus College, Cambridge. In 1661 he was appointed Lady Margaret professor of divinity; and on the first day of the ensuing year he was nominated one of the commissioners for the review of the liturgy in the conference held at the Savoy. There he won the esteem of his opponents and high praise from Richard Baxter. On the 14th of April 1662 he was made master of Trinity College, Cambridge. In 1667 he was admitted a fellow of the Royal Society. In 1672 he published at Cambridge Vindiciae epistolarum .S'. Ignatii, in 4to, in answer to Jean Daillé. His defence of the authenticity of the letters of Ignatius has been confirmed by J. B. Lightfoot and other recent scholars. Upon the death of John Wilkins in 1672, Pearson was appointed to the bishopric of Chester. In 1682 his Annales cyPrianici were published at Oxford, with John Fell’s edition of that father’s works. He died at Chester on the 16th of July 1686. His last work, the T 100 Dissertations on the Succession and Times of the First Bishops of Rome, formed with the Annales Paulim' the principal part of his Opera post/tunic, edited by Henry Dodwell in 1688.
See the memoir in Biographia Britannica, and another by Edward Churton, prefixed to the edition of Pearson's Minor Theological Works (2 vols., Oxford, 1844). Churton also edited almost the whole of the theological writings.
PEARSON, JOHN LOUGHBOROUGH (1817-1897), English architect, son of William Pearson, etcher, of Durham, was born in Brussels on the 5th of July 1817. He was articled at the age of fourteen to Ignatius Bonomi, architect, of Durham, but soon removed to London, and worked under the elder Hardwicke. He revived and practised largely the art of vaulting, and acquired in it a proficiency unrivalled in hisgeneration. He was, however, by no means a Gothic purist, and was also fond of Renaissance and thoroughly grounded in classical architecture. From the erection of his first church of Ellerker, in Yorkshire, in 1843, to that of St Peter’s, Vauxhall, in 1864, his buildings are Geometrical in manner and exhibit a close adherence to precedent, but elegance of proportion and refinement of detail lift them out of the commonplace of mere imitation. Holy Trinity, Westminster (1848), and St Mary’s, Dalton Holme (1858), are notable examples of this phase. St Peter’s, Vauxhall (1864), his first groined church, was also the first of a series of buildings which brought Pearson to the forefront among his contemporaries. In these he applied the Early English style to modern needs and modern economy with unrivalled success. St Augustine’s, Kilburn (1871), St John’s, Red Lion Square, London (1874), St Alban’s, Birmingham (1880), St Michael’s, Croydon (1880), St John’s, Norwood (1881), St Stephen’s, Bournemouth (1889), and All Saints’, Hove (1889), are characteristic examples of his matured work. He is best known by Truro Cathedral (1880), which has a special interest in its apt incorporation of the south aisle of the ancient church. Pearson’s conservative spirit fitted him for the reparation of ancient edifices, and among cathedrals and other historical buildings placed under his care were Lincoln, Chichester, Pcterborough, Bristol and Exeter Cathedrals, St George’s Chapel, Windsor, Westminster Hall and Westminster Abbey, in the surveyorship of which last he succeeded Sir G. G. Scott. Except as to the porches, the work of Scott, he re-faced the north transept of Westminster Abbey, and also designed the vigorous organ cases. In his handling of ancient buildings he was repeatedly opposed by the ultra anti-restorers (as in the case of the West front of Pcterborough Cathedral in 1896), but he generally proved the soundness of his judgment by his executed work. Pearson’s practice was not confined to church building. Treberfydd House (1850), Quar Wood (1858), Lechlade Manor, an Elizabethan house (1873), Westwood House, Sydenham, in the French Renaissance
n preached several years before. In the same year he
style (1880), the Astor estate offices (1892) upon the Victoria
Embankment, London, the remodelling of the interiors of Clieveden House (1893) and No. 18 Carlton House Terrace (1894), with many parsonages, show his aptitude for domestic architecture. In general design he first aimed at form, embracing both proportion and contour; and his work may be recognized by accurate scholarship coupled with harmonious detail. Its keynotes are cautiousness and refinement rather than boldness. He died on the 11th of December 1897, and was buried in the nave of Westminster Abbey, where his grave is marked by the appropriate motto Sustinuit et abstinuit. He was elected A.R.A. in 1874, R.A. in 1880, was a fellow of the Society of Antiquaries, and a fellow and member of the Council of the Royal Institute of British Architects.
The following are some of Pearson's more important works, not already named: Ferriby church (1846); Stow, Lincolnshire (restoration, 1850) ; Weybridge, St James's (1853); Freeland church, parsonage and schools (1866); Ki burn, St Peter's Home (1868); Wentworth church (1872); Horsforth church (1874); Cullercoats, St George's (1882); Chiswick, St Michael's (restoration, 1882); Great Yarmouth church (restoration, 1883); Liver l, St Agnes' 21883); Woking Convalescent Home (1884); Hea ingley church 1884); Tor uay, All Saints (188 ); Maidstone, All Saints (restoration, 1885 ; Shrewsbury Abbey 1886); Ayr, Holy Trinity (1886); Hythe church (restoration, 1887); Oxford, New Colle e, reredos (com
letion, 1889); Cambridge University Library additions, 1889); Friern Barnet, St John's (1890); Cambridge, Sidney Sussex College (additions, 1890); Middlesex Hospital chapel (1890); Bisho sgate, St Helen's (restoration, 1891); Maida Hill (lrvingite) church 1891); Barking, All Hallows (restoration, 189 ); Cambridge, Emmanuel College (additions, 18 3); Ledbury, t Michael's (restoration, 1894); Malta, Memoria church (1894); Port Talbot clzwclb(1c89)5).
PEARY, ROBERT EDWIN (18 56- ), American Arctic explorer, was born at Cresson, Pennsylvania, on the 6th of May 1856. He graduated at Bowdoin College in 1877, and in 1881 became a civil engineer in the U5. navy with the rank of lieutenant. In 1884 he was appointed assistant-engineer in connexion with the surveys for the Nicaragua Ship Canal, and in 1887—1888 he was in charge of these surveys. In 1886 he obtained leave of absence for a summer excursion to Disco Bay on the west coast of Greenland. From this point he made a journey of nearly a hundred miles into the interior, and the experience impressed him with the practicability of using this so-called inland ice-cap as a highway for exploration. In 1891 he organized an expedition under the auspices of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. The party of seven included Lieut. Peary’s wife, the first white woman to accompany an Arctic expedition. After wintering in Inglefield Gulf on the northwest coast of Greenland, in the following spring Lieut. Peary, with a young Norwegian, Eivind Astrup, crossed the inland ice-cap along its northern limit to the north-east of Greenland and back. The practical geographical result of this journey was to establish the insularity of Greenland. Valuable work was also performed by the expedition in the close study which was made of the isolated tribe of the Cape York or Smith Sound Eskimos, the most northerly people in the world.1 Lieut. Peary was able to fit out another Arctic expedition in 1893, and was again accompanied by Mrs Peary, who gave birth to a daughter at the winter quarters in Inglefield Gulf. The expedition returned in the season of 1894, leaving Peary with his coloured servant Henson and Mr Hugh G. Lee to renew the attempt to cross the inland ice in the next year. This they succeeded in doing, but without being able to carry the work of exploration any farther on the opposite side of Greenland. During a summer excursion to Melville Bay in 1894, Peary discovered three large meteorites, which supplied the Eskimos with the material for their iron implements, as reported by Sir John Ross in 1818, and on his return in 1895 he brought the two smaller ones with him. The remaining meteorite was brought to New York in 1897. In 1898 Lieut. Peary published N orthward over the Great Ice, a record of all his expeditions up to that time, and in the same year he started
1 A narrative of the expedition written by Mrs Peary, and con
taining an account of the “ Great White Journey across Greenland," by her husband, was published under the title of My Arctic Journal.
on another expedition to the Arctic regions. In this and subsequent expeditions he received financial aid from Mr Morris Jesup and the Peary Arctic Club. The greatest forethought was bestowed upon the organization of the expedition, a- fouryears' programme being laid down at the outset and a system of relief expeditions provided for. A distinctive feature was the utilization of a company of Eskimos. Although unsuccessful as regards the North Pole, the expedition achieved the accurate survey (1900) of the northern limit of the Greenland continent and the demonstration that beyond it lay a Polar_ocean. In 1902 Peary with Henson and an Eskimo advanced as far north as lat. 84° 17’ 27”, the highest point then reached in the western hemisphere. Lieut. Peary had now been promoted to the rank of Commander, and on his return he was elected president of the American Geographical Society. In November 1903 he went to England on a. naval commission to inquire into the system of naval barracks in Great Britain, and was presented with the Livingstone Gold Medal of the Royal Scottish Geographical Society. Commander Peary then began preparations for another expedition by the construction of a special ship, named the “Roosevelt,” the first ever built in the United States for the purpose of Arctic exploration. He sailed from New York on the 16th of July 1905, having two years’ supplies on board. The “ Roosevelt ” wintered on the north coast of Grant Land, and on the zrst of February a start was made with sledges. The party experienced serious delay owing to open water between 84° and 85°, and farther north the ice was opened up during a six days’ gale, which cut off communications a‘hd destroyed the depots which had been established. A steady easterly drift was experienced. But on the zrst of April, 1906, 87°6’ was reached—the“farthest north ” attained by man—by which time Peary and his companions were sufiering severe privations, and had to make the return journey in the face of great difficulties. They reached the north coast of Greenland and subsequently rejoined the ship, from which, after a week’s rest, Peary made a sledge journey along the north coast of Grant Land. Returning home, the expedition reached Hebron, Labrador, on the 13th of October, the “ Roosevelt ” having been nearly wrecked en route. In 1907 the narrative of this journey, Nearest the Pole, was published.
In 1908 Peary started in the “Roosevelt ” on the journey which was to_ bring him his final success. He left Etah on the 18th of August, wintered in Grant Land, and set forward over the ice from Cape Columbia on the Ist of March 1909. A party of six started with him, and moved in sections, one in front of another. They were gradually sent back as supplies diminished. At the end of the month Captain Bartlett was the only white man left with Peary, and he turned back in 87° 48’ N., the highest latitude then ever reached. Peary, with his negro servant and four Eskimos, pushed on, and on the 6th of April 1909 reached the North Pole. They remained some thirty hours, took observations, and on sounding, a few miles from the pole, found no bottom at 1500 fathoms. The party, with the exception of one drowned, returned safely to the “ Roosevelt,” which left her winter quarters on the 18th of July and reached Indian Harbour on the 5th of September. Peary’s The North Pole: Its Discovery in 1909 was published in 1910. _
Just before the news came of Peary’s success another American explorer, Dr F. A. Cook (b. 1865), returning from Greenland to Europe on a Danish ship, claimed that he had reached the North Pole on the zrst of April 1908. He had accompanied an expedition northward in 1907, prepared to attempt to reach the Pole if opportunity offered, and according to his own story had done so, leaving his party and taking only some Eskimos, early in 1908. Nothing had been heard of him since March of that year, and it was supposed that he had perished. Cook’s claim to have forestalled Peary was at first credited in various circles, and he was given a rapturous reception at Copenhagen; but scientific opinion in England and America was more reserved, and eventually, after a prolonged dispute, a special committee of the university of Copenhagen, to whom his documents were submitted, declared that they contained no proof that he had reached the Pole. By that time most other people had come to an adverse conclusion and the sensation was over.
PEASANT (0. Fr. paysant, Mod. pays-an; Lat. pagansis, belonging to the Pagus or country; cf. “ pagan ”), a countryman or rustic, either working for others, or, more specifically, owning or renting and working byhis own labour a small plot of ground. Though a word of not very strict application, it is now frequently used of the rural population of such countries as France, where the land is chiefly held by small holders, “ peasant proprietors.” (See ALLOTMENTS and Manners).
PHASE, EDWARD (1767—18 58), the founder of a famous industrial Quaker family in the north of England, was born at Darlington on the 3rst of May 1767, his father, Joseph Pease (1737—1808), being a woollen manufacturer in that town. Having retired from this business Edward Pease made the acquaintance
of George Stephenson, and with him took a prominent part in constructing the railway between. Stockton and Darlington. He died at Darlington on the 31st of July 1858. His second son, Joseph Pease (1799—1872), who assisted his father in his railway enterprises, was M.P. for South Durham from 1832 to 1841, being the first Quaker to sit in parliament. He was interested in collieries, quarries and ironstone mines in Durham and North Yorkshire, as well as in cotton and woollen manu
factures; and he was active in educational and philanthropic
work. Another son, Henry Pease (1807—1881), was M.P. for
South Durham from 1857 to 1865. Like all the members of
his family he was a supporter of the Peace Society, and in its
interests he visited the emperor Nicholas of Russia just before the outbreak of the Crimean War, and later the emperor of the
French, Napoleon III.
Joseph Pease’s eldest son, Sir Joseph Whitwell Pease (1828
1903), was made a baronet in 1882. He was M.P. for South Durham from 1865 to 1885 and for the Barnard Castle division of Durham from 1885 to 1903. His elder son, Sir Alfred Edward Pease (b. 1857), who succeeded to the baronetcy, became famous as a hunter of big game, and was M.P. for York from 1885 to 1892 and for the Cleveland division of Yorkshire from 1897 to 1902. A younger son, Joseph Albert Pease (b. 1860), entered parliament in 1892, and in 1908 became chief Liberal whip, being advanced to the cabinet as chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster in 1910.
Another son of Joseph Pease was Arthur Pease (1837-1898), member of parliament from 1880 to 1885 and again from 1895 to 1898. His son, Herbert Pike Pease (b. 1867), M.P. for Darlington 1898—1910, was one of the Unionist Whips.
The Diaries of Edward Pease were edited by Sir Alfred Pease in 1907.
PHAT (possibly connected with Med. Lat. pelia, Pecia, piece, ultimately of Celtic origin; cf. 0. Celt. pet, 0. Ir. pit, Welsh path,
portion), a product of decayed vegetation found in the form of bogs in many parts of the world. The continent of Europe is estimated to contain 212,700 sq. m. of bog; Ireland has 2,858,150 acres, Canada 30,000,000 acres, and the United States 20,000,000 acres. The plants which give origin to these deposits are mainly aquatic, including reeds, rushes, Sedges and mosses. Sphagnum is present in most peats, but in Irish peat Thacomitrum lanuginorum predominates. It seems that the disintegration of the vegetable tissues is effected partly by moist atmospheric oxidaion and partly by anaerobic bacteria, yeasts, moulds and fungi, r1 depressions containing fairly still but not stagnant water, which is retained by an impervious bed or underlying strata. rs decomposition proceeds the products become waterlogged nd sink to the bottom of the pool; in the course of time the eposits attain a considerable thickness, and the lower layers, rider the superincumbent pressure of the water and later :posits, are gradually compressed and carbonized. The most vourable Conditions appear to be a moist atmosphere, and a 221.11 annual temperature of about 45° F.; no bogs are found tween latitudes 45° N. and 45° S. Peat varies from a pale yellow or brown fibrous substance,
remains, to a compact dark brown material, resembling black clay when wet, and some varieties of lignite when dry. Two typical forms may be noticed: “ Hill peat ” (the mountain or. brown bogs of Ireland), found in mountainous districts, and consisting mainly of Sphagnum and Andromeda; and“ Bottom peat ” (the lowland or red bogs of Ireland), found in lakes, rivers, and brooks, and containing H yflnum. It always contains much water, up to 90%, which it is necessary to remove before the product can be efficiently employed as a fuel, and for most other purposes. A specimen dried at 100° C. had the composi— tion: carbon=60-48%, hydrogen=6-Io%, oxygen=32-55°/°, nitrogen=o-88°/°, ash=3-3o%; the ash is very variablkfrom r to 65 %—and consists principally of clay and sand, with lesser amounts of ferric oxide, lime, magnesia, &c. The specific gravity has been variously given, owing to the variable water content and air spaces; when dried and compressed, however, it is denser than water.
Peat-winning presents certain special features. The general practice is to cut a. trench about a foot deep with a peculiarly shaped spade, termed in Ireland a “ slane," and remove sods from 3 to 4 ft. long. When one layer has been removed, the next is attacked, and so on. If the deposit be more solid stepworking may be adopted, and should water be reached recourse may be had to long-handled slanes. The sods are allowed to drain, and then stacked for drying in the air, being occasionally turned so as to dry equally; this process may require about six Weeks. The dried sods are known as “ dug peat.” Excavators and dredges are now extensively used, and the drying is effected
in heated chambers, both fixed and revolving.
The low value of ordinary dug at as a fuel has led to processes for obtaining a more useful pro uct. In M. Ekenberg's process the wet peat is ulped and milled so as to make it of uniform composition, andp the pulp passed into an oven maintained at 18o°—200° F., where it is carbonized by superheated water. The pressed roduct, which resembles lignite, stil contains 8 to 14% of water; this is driven off by heat, and the residue briquetted. The final product is nearly equal to coal in calorific value, and has the additional advantage of a lower sul hur content—01 to 0-4 % against about 2 % in ordinary coal. K1. Zeigler’s method leads to the production of a useful coke. Both these processes permit the recovery of valuable by-products, especially ammonium sulphate. Experiments for obtaining a gas suitable for consumption in gascngines have been followed b commercial recesses devised by the Mond Gas Corporation, Lon on, and Cross ey Bros. of Manchester, and by Caro and Frank in Germany. The processes essentially consist in destructively distilling peat in special retorts and under specified conditions, and, in addition to the gas, there is recovered a useful coke and also the nitrogen as ammonium sulphate.
The conversion of the nitrogen into ammonia has been the subject of much work, and is commerciallz pursued at a works at Carnlough, Co. Antrim, under patents ed b H. C. Woltereck. The
at is treated with a mixture of air an water vapour in special urnaees, and the gaseous products, including paraffin tar, acetic acid and ammonia, are led through a specia scrubber to remove the tar, then through a tower containing milk of lime to absorb the acid (the calcium acetate formed being employed for the manufacture of acetone, &c.), and finally through a sulphuric acid tower, where the ammonia is converted into ammonium sulphate which is recovered by crystallization.
Peat has also been exploited as a source of commercial alcohol, to be employed in motors. In the process founded on the experiments of R. W. \Vallace and Sir W. Ramsay, which gives 25 to 26 gallons of spirit from a ton of peat, the peat is boiled with water containing a little sulphuric acid, the roduct neutralized with lime and then distilled; the ammonia is a so recovered. In another process a yield of 40 gallons of spirit and 66 lb of ammonium sul hate per ton of at is claimed.
f other applications we may notice C. E. Nelson's process for making a paper, said to be better than ordinary wrapping; the first factory to exploit this idea was opened at Capfifi. Michigan, in 1906. Peat has been employed as a manure for many years, and recently attem ts have been made to convert artificially its nitrogen into assimi able nitrates; such a process was patented by A. Mum: and A. G. Girard of Paris, in 1907.
See P. R. Bjorling and F. T. Gissing, Peat and it: Llanufaclure (1907); F. T. Gissing, Commercial Peat (1909); E. Nystrom, Pea! and Ligm'le (1908), published by Department of Mines of Canada.
PECAUT, FELIX (1828—1898), French educationalist, a member of an old Huguenot family, was born at Salies de Beam, in 1828. He was for some months evangelical pastor at Sahes,
embling turf or compressed hay, containing conspicuous plant
but he had no pretence of sympathy with ecclesiastical authority