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He was consequently compelled to resign his pastorate, and for some years occupied himself by urging the claims of a liberal Christianity. In 1879 he conducted a general inspection of primary education for the French government, and several similar missions followed. His fame chiefly rests in his successful organization of the training school for women teachers at F ontenoy-aux-Roses, to which he devoted fifteen years of ceaseless toil. He died on the 3rst of July 1898.

A summary of his educational views is given in his Public Educalion and National Life (1897).

PECCARY, the name of the New World representatives of the swine (Suidae) of the E. hemisphere, of which they constitute the sub-family Dicolylinae (or Tagassuinae). (See ARTIODACTYLA and SWINE.)

The teeth of the peccaries differ from those of the typical Old World pigs (Sus), numerically, in wanting the upper outer incisor and the anterior premolar on each side of each jaw, the dental formula being: i. §, c. h p. fit, m. g, total 38. From those of all Old World swine or Suinac, the upper canines, or tusks, differ in having their points directed downwards, not outwards or

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upwards; these being very sharp, with cutting hinder edges, and completely covered with enamel until worn. The lower canines are large and directed upwards and outwards, and slightly curved backwards. The cheek-teeth form a continuous series, gradually increasing in size from the first to the last: the molars having square four-cusped crowns. The stomach is much more complex than in the true pigs, almost approaching that of a ruminant. In the feet the two middle (third and fourth) metacarpal and metatarsal bones, which are completely separate in the pigs, are united at their upper ends. On the fore-foot the two (second and fifth) outer toes are equally developed as in pigs, but on the hind-foot, although the inner (or second) is present, the outer or fifth toe is entirely wanting. As in all Suida-e the snout is truncated, and the nostrils are situated in its flat, expanded, disk-like termination. The ears are_rather small, ovate and erect; and there is no external appearance of a tail.

Peccaries,which range fromNewMexico andTexas to Patagonia, are represented by two main types, of which the first is the collared peccary, Dicotyles (or Tagassu) tajacu, which has an extensive range in South America. Generally it is found singly or in pairs, or at most in small herds of from eight to ten, and is not inclined to attack other animals or human beings. Its colour is dark grey, with a white or whitish band passing across the chest from shoulder to shoulder. The length of the head and body is about 36 in. The second form is typified by the white-lippcd peccary or warri, D. (or T.) labiatus, or pecari, representing the sub-genus Olidosus. Typically it is rather larger than the collared species, being about 40 in. in length, of a blackish colour, with the lips and lower jaw white. It is


not found farther north than Guatemala, or south of Paraguay. Generally met with in large droves of from fifty to a hundred, it is of a more pugnacious disposition than the former species, and a hunter who encounters a herd in a forest has often to climb a tree as his only chance of safety. Peccaries are omnivorous, living on roots, fallen fruits, worms and carrion, and often inflict great devastation upon crops. Both types are so nearly allied that they will breed together freely in captivity. Unlike pigs, they never appear to produce more than two young ones at a birth.

Remains of extinct peccaries referable to the modern genus occur in the caverns and superficial deposits of South America, but not in the earlier formations. This, coupled with the occurrence of earlier types in North America, indicates that the group is a northern one. Of the extinct North American peccaries, the typical Dicotyles occur in the Pliocene while the Miocene Bothriolabis, which has tusks of the peccary type, approximates in the structure of its cheek-teeth to the European Miocene genus among the S m'nae. From this it may be inferred that the ancestral pecearies entered America in the Upper Oligocene. Plalygonus is an aberrant type which died out in the Pleistocene. (R. L *.)

PECHLIN, KARL FREDRIK (1720—1796), Swedish politician and demagogue, son of the Holstein minister at Stockholm, was educated in Sweden, and entered the Swedish army. He rose to the rank of major-general, but became famous by being the type {for excellence of the corrupt and egoistic Swedish parliamentarian of the final period of the F rihetstiden (see SWEDEN: History); he received for many years the sobriquet of “ General of the Riksdag.” Pechlin first appears prominently in Swedish politics in 1760, when by suddenly changing sides he contrived to save the “ Hats ” from impeachment. Enraged at being thus excluded from power by their former friend, the “ Caps ," procured Pechlin’s expulsion from the two following Riksdags. In 1769 Pechlin sold the “ Hats ” as he had formerly sold the “ Caps, ” and was largely instrumental in preventing the projected indispensable reform of the Swedish constitution. During the revolution of 1772 he escaped from Stockholm and kept quietly in the background. In 1786, when the opposition against Gustavus III. was gathering strength, Pechlin reappeared in the Riksdag as one of the leaders of the malcontents, and is said to have been at the same time in the pay of the Russian court. In 1789 he was one of the deputies whom Gustavus III. kept under lock and key till he had changed the government into a semi-absolute monarchy. It is fairly certain that Pechlin was at the bottom of the plot for murdering Gustavus in 1792. On the eve of the assassination (March ’16) the principal conspirators met at his house to make their final preparations and discuss the form of government which should be adopted after the king’s death. Pechlin undertook to crowd the fatal masquerade with accomplices, but took care not to be there personally. He was arrested on the 17th of March, but nothing definite could ever be proved against him. Nevertheless he was condemned to imprisonment in the fortress of Varberg, where he died four years later.

See R. N. Bain, Gustavus III. and his Contemporaries (London, 1905). — (R. N. B.)

PECHORA, a river of N. Russia, rising in the Urals, almost 011 62° N., in the government of Perm. It flows W. for a short distance, then turns N. and maintains that direction up to about 66° 20’ N. It then describes a double loop, to N. and to S., and after that resumes its N. course, finally emptying into the Gulf of Pechora, situated between the White Sea and the Kara Sea. Its total length is 970 m. At its mouth it forms an elongated delta. Although frozen in its upper reaches for 190 days in the year and for 138 days in its lower reaches, it. is navigable throughout the greater part of its course. Its drainage basin covers an area of 127,200 sq. m. The principal tributaries are, on the right, the Ilych and the Usa, and on the left the Izhma, the Tsylma and the Sula.

PECK, a dry measure of capacity, especially used for grain. It contains 8 quarts or 2 gallons, and is k of a bushel. The imperial peck contains 554~548 cub. in., in the United States of America 537-6 cub. in. The word is in ME. pek, and is found latinized as peccum or pekka. In Med. Lat. are found picatinur, “ mensura frumentaria,” and picotus, “ mensura liquidorum " (Du Cange, Gloss. s.vv.) These words seem to be connected with the Fr. picotcr, to peck, of a bird, and this would identify the word with “ peck,” a variant of “ pick,” a tap or stroke of the beak, especially used of the action of a bird in picking up grain or other food. The sense-development in this caseis very obscure, and the name of the measure is found much earlier than “ peck ” as a variant form of “ pick.”

PECKHAM, JOHN (d. 1292), archbishop of Canterbury, was probably a native of Sussex, and received his early education from the Cluniac monks of Lewes. About 1250 he joined the Franciscan order and studied in their Oxford convent. Shortly afterwards he proceeded to the university of Paris, where he took his degree under St Bonaventure and became regent in theology. For many years Peckham taught at Paris, coming into contact with the greatest scholars of the day, among others St Thomas Aquinas. About 1270 he returned to Oxford and taught there, being elected in 1275 provincial minister of the Franciscans in England, but he was soon afterwards called to Rome as lector sacri palatii, or theological lecturer in the schools of the papal palace. In 1279 he returned to England as archbishop of Canterbury, being appointed by the pope on the rejection of Robert Burnell, Edward I.'s candidate. Peckham was always a strenuous advocate of the papal power, especially as shown in the council of Lyons in 1274. His enthronement

in October 1279 marks the beginning of an important epoch

in the history of the English primacy. Its characteristic, note was an insistence on discipline which offended contemporaries. Peckham’s zeal was not tempered by :discernment, and he had little gift of sympathy or imagination. His first act on arrival in England was to call a council at' Reading, which met in July r 279. Its main object was ecclesiastical reform, but the provision that a copy of Magna Carta should be hung in all cathedral and collegiate churches seemed to the king a political action, and parliament declared void any action of this council touching on the royal power. Nevertheless Peckham’s relations with the king were often cordial, and Edward called on him for help in bringing order into conquered Wales. The chief note

of his activity was, however, certainly ecclesiastical. The crime of “ plurality,” the holding by one cleric of two or more benefices, was especially attacked, as also clerical absenteeism and ignorance, and laxity in the monastic life. Peckham’s main instrument was a minute system of “ visitation,” which he used with a frequency hitherto unknown. Disputes resulted, and on some points Peckham gave way, but his powers as papal legate complicated matters, and he did much to strengthen the court of Canterbury at the expense of the lower courts. The famous quarrel with St Thomas of Cantilupe, bishop of Hereford, arose out of similar causes. A more attractive side of Pcckham’s career is his activity as a writer. The numerous manuscripts of his works to be found in the libraries of Italy, England and France, testify to his industry as a philosopher and commentator. In philosophy he represents the Franciscan school which attacked the teaching of St Thomas Aquinas on the “ Unity of Form.” He wrote in a quaint and elaborate style on scientific, scriptural and moral subjects and engaged in much controversy in defence of the Franciscan rule and practice. He was “an excellent maker of songs,” and his hymns are characterized by a lyrical tenderness which seems typically Franciscan. Printed examples of his work as comnentator and hymn writer respectively may be found in the virarnentum trium ordinum (Paris, r512), and his office for Frinity Sunday in the “ unreformed ” breviary. The chief authority on Peckham as archbishop of Canterbury,

, the Registrant fratris Johannis Peckham, edited by C. Trice Iartin for the Rolls Series (London, 1882-1885). A sym thetic :count of his life as a Franciscan is to be found in L. “gadding, uncles minorum (Lyons, 162 , r654). See also the article by

PECOCK (or PEACOCK), REGINALD (0. 1395—0. r460), English prelate and writer, was probably born in Wales, and was educated at Oriel College, Oxford. Having been ordained priest in r421, be secured a mastership in London in 1431, and soon became prominent by his attacks upon the religious position of the Lollards. In 1444 he became bishop of St Asaph, and six years later bishop of Chichester. He was an adherent of the house of Lancaster and in 1454 became a member of the privy council. In attacking the Lollards Pecock put forward religious views far in advance of his age. He asserted that the Scriptures were not the only standard of right and wrong; he questioned some of the articles of the creed and the infallibility of the Church; he wished “ bi cleer witte drawe men into consente of trewe feith otherwise than bi fire and swerd or hangement ” and in general he exalted the authority of reason. Owing to these views the archbishop of Canterbury,Thomas Bourchier, ordered his writings to be examined. This was done and he was found guilty of heresy. He was removed from the privy council and he only saved himself from a painful death by privately, and then publicly (at St Paul’s Cross, Dec. 4, 1457), renouncing his opinions. Pecock, who has been called “the only great English theologian of the 15th century,” ' was then forced to resign his bishopric, and was removed to Thorney Abbey in Cambridgeshire, where he doubtless remained until his death. The bishop's chief work is the famous Repressor of over-much weeting [blaming] of the Clergie, which was issued about 145 5. In addition to its great importance in the history of the Lollard movement the Repressar has an exceptional interest as a model of the English of the time, Pecock being one of the first writers to use the vernacular. In thought and style alike it is the work of a man of learning and ability.

A biography of the author is added to the edition of the RcPressor published by C. Babington for the Rolls Series in 1860. Pecock's other writings include the Book or. Rule 0 Christian Religion; the Danet, “an introduction to the chief trut s of the Christian faith in the form of a dialogue between father and son "; and the Folewer to the Donet. The two last works are extant in manuscript. His Bank of Faith has been edited from the manuscript in the library of Trinit College, Cambrid e, b . L. Morison (Glasgow, 1909). See also ohn Lewis, Life of Eecocz 21744; new ed., 1820).

PECORA (plural of Lat. Pecus, cattle), a term employed—in a more restricted sense—in place of the older title Ruminantia, to designate the group of ruminating artiodactyle ungulates represented by oxen, sheep, goats, antelopes, deer, girafies, &c. The leading characteristics of the Pecora are given in some detail in the article ARTIODAC'I‘YLA (q.r:.); but it is necessary to allude to a few of these here. Pecora, or true ruminants as they may be conveniently called, have complex stomachs and chew the cud; they have no upper incisor teeth; and the lower canines are approximated to the outer incisors in such amanner that the three incisors and the one canine of the two sides collectively form a continuous semicircle of four pairs of nearly similar teeth. In the cheek_teeth the component columns are crescent-shaped, constituting the selenodont type. In the forelimbs the bones corresponding to the third and fourth' metacarpals of the pig’s foot are fused into a cannon-bone; and a similar condition obtains in the case of the corresponding metatarsals in the hind-limbs. There is generally no sagittal crest to the skull; and the condyle of the lower jaw is transversely elongated. Another general, although not universal, characteristic of the Pecora is the presence of simple or complex appendages on the forehead commonly known as horns. In a few existing species, such as the musk-deer and the water-deer, these appendages are absent, and they are likewise lacking in a large number of extinct members of the group, in fact in all the earlier ones. They are, therefore, a specialized feature, which has only recently attained its full development.

These horns resent several distinct structural types, which may be classified as ollowsz— .

l. The simplest ty is that of the giraffe, in which three bony prominences—a sing e one in front and a pair behind—quite se rate from the underlying bones and covered duringlife with skin, occupy the front surface of the skull. The summits of the

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hind pair are, surmouan .by bristly hairs. In the extinct

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pedicles arise secondary outgrowths, at first covered with skin, which (owing to the growth of a ring of bone at the base arresting the flow of blood) eventually dries up and leaves bare bone incapable of further growth. In the muntjac the bare bony part, or “ antler," is small in pro rtion to the skin-covered pedicle, and simple in structure; but in the majority of deer the antler increases in size at the expense of the pedicle—which dwindles—and in some species, like the Siamese deer (fig. 1), the sambar and the red deer, becomes very large and more or less branched. Owing to liability to necrosis, the permanent retention of such a mass of dead bone would be dangerous; and the antlers are conse uently shed annuall (or every few years), to be renewed the fol owing year, when, til the animal becomes ast its prime, they are larger than their predecessors. The periodical shedding is also necessary in order to allow of this increase in size. With the exception of the reindeer, antlers are confined to the males.

111. The third type of horn is presented by the American prongbuck, or pronghorn, in which bony processes, or “ cores," corresponding to the horns of the giraffe, have acquired a horny sheath, in place of skin; the sheath being in this instance forked, and annually shed and renewed, although the core is simple. The sheaths arc akin to hair in structure, thus su gesting affinity with the hairs surmounting the giraffe's horns. cmale prongbuck may or may not have horns.

IV. In the great majority of “ Hollow-horned Ruminants," such as oxen, sheep, goats and antelopes (fig. 2), the horny sheath (or true “ horn ") forms a simple unbranched cone, which ma ' be compressed, spirally twisted, or curved in one or more directions, but is permanently retained and continues to grow throughout life from the base, while it becomes worn away at the tip. Rarel , as in the four-horned antelope, there are two pairs of horns. n many cases these horns are present in both sexes.

Dr H. Gadow is of opinion that the antlers of the deer, the hornlike protuberances on the skull of the giraffe, and the true horns of the prongbuck and other hollow-horned ruminants (Bovidae) are all different stages of evolution from a single common type: the antlers of the deer being the most primitive, and the horns of the Bovidaz the most specialized. From the fact that the bony horn-core of the hollow-horned ruminants first develops as a separate ossification, as do the horns of the giraffe, while the pedicle of the antlers of the deer grow direct from the frontal bone, it has been proposed to place the hollow-horned ruminants (inclusive of the anbuck) and the girafles in one group and the deer in another.

is arrangement has the disadvantage of separating the deer from


the giraffes, to which they are evidently nearly related; but Dr Gadow's work brings them more into line. Whether he is right in regarding the hollow-horned ruminants as derived from the primitive deer may, however, be a matter of opinion. One very important fact recorded by Dr Gadow is that calves and lambs shed their horns at an early age. The Bovidae are thus brought into nearer relationship with the American prongbuck (the onl

living ruminant which sheds its horn-cover in the adult condition

than has generally been supposed. , ,

The above-mentioned four types of skull appenda es are generally regarded as severall characteristic of as many lgamil grou , namely the Giraflidae, ervidae, Antildcapr-idae and Bovi as. e two last are, however, much more closely connected than are either of the others, and should perhaps be united.

Gira dae.—In the Girafi‘idae, which include not only girafl'es (Gira a) but also the okapi (pria) and a number of extinct s ies from the Lower Pliocene Tertia deposits of southern

urope, Asia and North Africa, the appen ages on the skull are of type No. I., and may well be designated “ antler-horns." Another important feature is that the lower canine has a cleft or two-lobed crown, so that it is unlike the incisors to which it is a proximated. There are no upper canines; and the cheek-teeth are 5 ort-crowned (brachyodont) with a peculiar grained enamel, resembling the skin of a slug in character. The feet have only two hoofs, all traces of the small lateral pair found in many other ruminants having disappeared.

The girafi'es (Girafl'a) are now an exclusively African genus, and have long legs and neck, and three horns—a single one in front and a pair'behind—supplemented in some instances with a rudimentary pair on the occiput.

' The okapi (Ocapia), which is also African but restricted to the tropical forest-region, in place of being an inhabitant of more or less open countr , represents a second genus, characterized by the shorter neck an limbs, the totally different type of colouring, and the restriction of the horns to the male sex, in which they form a pair on the forehead; these home being more compressed than

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the paired horns of the giraffe, and penetrating the skin at their summits (see GIRAFFE and OKAPI). Remains of extinct species of giraffe occur in the Lower Pliocene formations of Greece, Hungary, Persia, Northern lndia and China. From deposits of the same age in Greece, Samos and elsewhere have been obtained skulls and other remains of Palaeotmgus or Samothzrium, a ruminant closely allied to Ocapia, the males of which were armed with a ver

similar pair of dagger-shaped horns. Helladothen'um was amuc

larger animal, known bgea single hornless skull from the Pliocene of Greece, which may that of a female. In the equally large


Bramalherium and Hydaspitherium of India the horns of the males were complex, those of the former including an occipital ir, while those of the latter arise from a common base. in 83th enera, as in the okapi, there is a vacuity in front of the orbit.

rgest of all is Sivalhen'um, ty ically from the Lower Pliocene of Northern lndia, but also recor ed from Adrianople, in which the skull of the male is short and wide. with a pair of simple conical horns above the eye. and a huge branching pair at the vertex. Libylherium is an allied form from North Africa. Whether the Gimjfidae were originally an African or a Euro-Asiatic group there is not yet sufficient evidence to decide. The family is unrepresented in the western hemisphere.

Cervidae.-—ln the deer-tribe, or Ccrvidae, the lower canine, as in the two following families, is simple and similar to the incisors. The frontal appendages, when present, are confined (except in the case of the reindeer) to the males, and take the form of antlers, that is to say of type No. II. in the foregoing description. As a general rule, the molars, and more especially the first, are partially brachyodont (short-crowned): although they are taller in the chital (Corvus axis). In the skull there are two orifices to the lachrymal duct, situated on or inside the rim of the orbit. . A preorbital vacuity of such dimensions as to exclude the lachrymal bone from articulation with the nasal. Upper canines usually present in both sexes, and sometimes attaining a very great size in the male (see fig. 3).


FIG. 3.—Skull of Chinese Water-Deer, IIydrelaphus inemu's (adult male), a. Deer without Antlers, but with largely developed upper canine teeth.

Lateral digits of both fore and hind feet almost always present, and frequently the lower ends of the metacar als and the metatarsals as well. Placenta with few cotyle ons. Gall-bladder absent (except in the musk-deer, Moschus). This family contains numerous species, having a wide geographical distribution, ranging in the New World from the Arctic circle as far south as Patagonia, and in the Old World throughout the whole of Europe and Asia, but absent in Africa south of the Sahara, and, of course, Australasia. Evidently the family originated in the northern continent of the Old \-Vorld, from which an entrance was effected by way of Bering Strait into America. Some of the more northern American deer, such as the \vapiti, reindeer and elk (moose), are closely allied to Old \Vorld species; but there is also a group of exclusively American deer (Mazama)—the onl one found in Central and South America ——the members of whic are unlike any living Old World deer; and these must be regarded as having reached the western hemisphere at an earlier date than the wapiti, reindeer and elk (see DEER, ELK, FALLOW-DEER, NlUNTJAC, Musk-DEER, PM]: Dnvto's DEER, REINDEER, ROEBUCK, \VATER-DEER, &c.).

Remains of deer more or less nearly allied to species. inhabiting the same districts are found over the greater part of the present habitat of the family. It is noteworthy, however, that certain Pliocene European deer (Anoglochis) appear to be closely allied to the modern American deer (Momma). As we descend in the geological series the deer have simpler antlers, as in the European Miocene D'icrocerus; while in the Oligocene Am hitra ulus, Dremokerium and Palaeomnyx, constituting the fami y P aeomerycidae, tntlers were absent, and the crowns of the molars so low that the vhole depth of the hollows between the crescentic columns is comrletely VlSlblC. Most of these animals were of small size, and many ad long up er canines, like those of the existing Hydrelaphus; 'hile in all t ere was no depression for a gland in front of the eye.

From North America have been obtained remains of certain trninants which seem in some degree intermediate between deer 1d the prongbuck. Of one of these a complete skeleton was itained in 1901 from the Middle Miocene de osits of north-eastern alorado, and as mounted stands 19 in. in eight at the withers. ith the exception that the right antler is malformed and partially orted, and that the bones of the lateral toes have been lost, : skeleton is ractically complete. The one complete antler has well-marked urr and a lon undivided beam, which eventually ks. After this there is a bi urcation of the hinder branch, thus vducing three tines. From the presence of these well-marked lers the skeleton would at first sight be set down as that of a all and primitive deer, conforming in regard to the structure of re appendages to the American type of the group. Mr W. D.


Matthew shows, however, that the skeleton of Merycodus, as the extinct ruminant is called, differs markedly from that of all deer. The most noteworthy point of distinction is in the skull, in which the facial portion is sharply bent down on the posterior basal axis in the fashion characteristic of the hollow-horned ruminants (oxen. antelopes, &c.), and the American prongbuck, instead of running more or less nearly parallel to the same, as in deer. Again, the cheek-teeth have the tall crowns characteristic of a lar e number of representatives of the first group and of the prongbuc , thereby showrng that Merycodus can scarcely be regarded as a primitive type. As regards the general structure of the rest of the skeleton, it must suffice to say t at this agrees closely with that of the antelopes and the prongbuck, and differs markedly from the cervine type. In the absence of any trace of the lower extremities of the metacarpal and metatarsal bones of the lateral toes the skeleton difl'ers from the American deer, and resembles those hollow-horned ruminants in which these toes persist.

As a whole Merycodus presents a curious mixture of cervine and antilopine character. To explain these, two alternatives are offered b the describer. Either we must regard Merycodus as a deer which parallels the antelopes and the prongbuck in every detail of skeletal structure, or else, like the prongbuck, an antelope separated from the main stock at a date'sufl‘iciently early to have permitted the development of a distinct type of cranial appendages, namely, antlers in place of true horns. The former alternative, it is urged, involves a parallelism too close and too uniform between unrelated types to have been probable. On the latter view Merycodus, the prongbuck (Antilocapm) and the antelopes must be regarded as representing three branches from an original common stock, divergent as regards the structure of their cranial appendages, but parallel in other respects. lf, therefore, Anlt'locaPra deserves to be separated as a family from the Bovidae, the same can scarcely be refused for Merycodus. But American extinct types appear to indicate si ns of intimate relationship between antelopes, prongbuck and eer, and it may be necessary eventually to amend the current classification. As a temporary measure it seems preferable to regard Merycadus either as representing a distinct sub- family of Antilocapridae or a family by itself, the latter course being adopted by Mr Matthew. ’

Whatever be the ultimate verdict, the association of antlers— and these, be it noticed, conforming almost exactly with the forked t 'pe characteristic of American deer—with an antilopine type of skull, skeleton and teeth in Meryrodus is a most interesting and unexpected feature. Merycodus was named many years ago by Professor J. Leidy on the evidence of imperfect materials, and other remains now known to belon to the same type were subsequentl described as Cosoryx, to w ich Blastameryx seems to be allie . Not till the discovery of the skeleton of the species described by Mr Matthew was it possible to arrive at an adequate conception of the affinities of this remarkable ruminant.

Antilocapn'dae.-—By man modern writers the American prongbuck, pronghorn or “ante ope," alone forming the genus Anh'lpcopra, lS regarded as representing merely a sub-family of the Bot'idae, to which latter group the animal is structurally akin. In view of what has been stated in the receding paragraph with regard to the extinct American genus 1l' cryrodus, it seems, however, at least provisionally advisable to allow the prongbuck to remain as the type of a family—Antilocapfldae. The characteristic of this family -—-as represented by the prongbuck—is that the sheath of the horns is forked, and shed annually, or ever few Years. The cheek' teeth are tall-crowned (hypsodont), an latera hoofs are wanting (see PRONGBUCK).

Bovidae.—Lastly. we have the great family of hollow-horned ruminants or Eotndae, in which the horns (present in the males at least of all the existing species) take the form of simple non-deciduous hollow sheaths rowrng upon bony cores. As a rule the molars are tall-crown (hypsodont). Usually onl one orifice to the lachrymal canal, situated inside the rim of t e orbit. Lachrymal bone almost always articulating with the nasal. Canines absent in both sexes. The lateral toes may be completely absent, but more often are represented by the hoofs alone, supported son'etirres b a very rudimenta skeleton, consisting of mere irre ular nodules 0?, bone. Lower en 5 of the lateral metacarpals an metatarsals never present. Gall-bladder almost always present. Placenta with many cotyledons.

The Bovidae form a most extensive family, with members widely distributed throughout the Old World, with the exception of the Australian region; but in America they are less numerous, and confined to the Arctic and northern temperate regions, no species being indigenous either to South or Central America. ‘The home of the family was evidently the Old World, whence a small number of forms made their way into North America by way of what is now Bering Strait. . It has already been pointed out that the Ccrvidae originated in the northern continent of the Old World; and it has been suggested that the Bovidae were developed in Africa. Unfortunately, we know at present ractically nothing as to the st history of the group, all the fossi species at present discoverednapproximating more or less closely to existing types. \Vhile admittin , therefore, that there are several facts in favour of the theory 0 an African origin of the Bavidae, final judgment

must for the present be suspended. For the various generic types see BOVIDAE, and the special articles referred to under that heading. (R. L.*)

PECS (Ger. Fiinfkirchen), a town of Hungary, capital of the country of Baranya, 160 m. S.S.W. of Budapest by rail. Pop. (1900),42,252. It lies on the outskirts of the Mecsek Hills, and is composed of the inner old town, which is laid out in an almost regular square, and four suburbs. Pécs is the see of a Roman Catholic bishop, and its cathedral, reputed one of the oldest churches in Hungary, is also one of the finest medieval buildings in the country. It was built in the 11th century in the Romanesque style with four towers, and completely restored in 188r—1891. In the Cathedral Square is situated the Saccllum, a subterranean brick structure, probably a burial-chapel, dating from the end of the 4th or the beginning of the 5th century. Other noteworthy buildings are the parish church, formerly a mosque of the Turkish period; the hospital church, also a former mosque, with a minaret 88 ft. high, and another mosque, the bishop’s palace, and the town and county hall. Pécs has manufactories of woollens, porcelain, leather and paper, and carries on a considerable trade in tobacco, gall-nuts and wine. The hills around the town are covered with vineyards, which produce one of the best wines in Hungary. In the vicinity are valuable coal-mines, which since 1858 are worked by the Danube Steamship Company.

According to tradition Pécs existed in the time of the Romans under the name of Sompiana, and several remains of the Roman and early Christian period have been found here. In the Frankish-German period it was known under the name of Quinquc ccclesiae; its bishopric was founded in 1009. King Ludwig I. founded here in 1367 a university, which existed until the battle of Mohacs. In 1543 it was taken by the Turks, who retained possession of it till 1686.

PECTORAL, a word applied to various objects worn on the breast (Lat. peclus); thus it is the name of the ornamental plate of metal or embroidery formerly worn by bishops of the Roman Church during the celebration of mass, the breastplate of the Jewish high priest, and the metal plate placed on the breast of the embalmed dead in Egyptian tombs. The “ pectoral cross,” a small cross of precious metal, is worn by bishops and abbots of the Roman, and by bishops of the Anglican, communion. The term has also been used for the more general “ poitrel ” or “ peitrel ” (the French and Norman French forms respectively), the piece of armour which protected the breast of the war-horse of the middle ages.

PECULIAR, a word now generally used in the sense of that which solely or exclusively belongs to,or is particularly characteristic of, an individual; hence strange, odd, queer. The Lat. peculiaris meant primarily “belonging to private property,” and is formed from Peculium, private property, particularly the property given by a palerfamilias to his children, or by a master to his slave, to enjoy as their own. As a term of ecclesiastical law “ peculiar ” is applied to those ecclesiastical districts, parishes, chapels or churches, once numerous in England, which were outside the jurisdiction of the bishop of the diocese in which they were situated, and were subject to a jurisdiction “peculiar” to themselves. They were introduced originally, in many cases by papal authority, in order to limit the powers of the bishop in his diocese. There were royal peculiars, cg. the Chapel Royal St James’s, or St George’s Windsor, peculiars of the archbishop, over certain of which the Court of Peculiars exercised jurisdiction (see Ancnss, COURT or), and peculiars of bishops and deans (see DEAN). The jurisdiction and privileges of the “ peculiars ” were abolished by statutory powers given to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners Acts 1836 and r850, by the.Plura.lities Act 1838, the Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction Act 1847, and other statutes.

PECULIAR PEOPLE, a small sect of Christian faith-healers founded in London in 1838 by John Banyard. They consider themselves bound by the literal interpretation of James v. 14, and in cases of sickness seek no medical aid but rely on oil, prayer and nursing. The community is in the main composed


of simple working people, who, apart from their peculiarity, have a good reputation; but their avoidance of professional medical attendance has led to severe criticism at inquests on children who have died for want of it.

PEDAGOGUE, a teacher or schoolmaster, a term usually now applied with a certain amount of contempt, implying pcdantry, dogmatism or narrow-mindedness. The Gr. 1rat5q'yw76r(1ra'is, boy, (ryw'ybs, leader, 6.76.11, to lead), from which the English word is derived, was not strictly an instructor. He was a slave in an Athenian household who looked after the personal safety of the sons of the master of the house, kept them from bad company, and took them to and from school and the gymnasium. He probably sat with his charges in school. The boys were put in his charge at the age of six. The 1rat6a'yarybs, being a slave, was necessarily a foreigner, usually a Thracian or Asiatic. The Romans adopted the Paedagogus or pedagagus towards the end of the republic. He probably took some part in the instruction of the boys (see SCHOOLS). Under the empire, the [wdagagus was specifically the instructor of the boy slaves, who were being trained and educated in the household of the emperor and of the rich nobles and other persons; these boys lived together in a paedagagium, and were known as pueri pacdagogiani, a name which has possibly developed into “ page ” (q.v.).

PEDAL CLARINET, a contrabass instrument invented in 1891 by M. F. Besson to complete the quartet of clarinets, as the contrafagotto or double bassoon completes that of the oboe family; it is constructed on practically the same principles as the clarinet, and consists of a tube IO ft. long, in which cylindrical and conical bores are so ingeniously combined that the acoustic principles remain unchanged. The tube is doubled up twice upon itself; at the upper end the beak mouthpiece stands out like the head of a viper, while at the lower a metal tube, in the shape of a U with a wide gloxinea-shaped bell, is joined to the wooden tube. The beak mouthpiece is exactly like that of the other clarinets but of larger size, and it is furnished with a single or beating reed. There are 13 keys and 2 rings on the tube, and the fingering is the same as for the B flat clarinet except for the eight highest semitones. The compass of the pedal clarinet is

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The instrument is in B flat two octaves below the B flat clarinet, and, like it, it is a transposing instrument, the music being written in a key a- tone higher than that of the composition, and in order to avoid ledger lines a whole octave higher bes‘ides. The tone is rich and full exCept for the lowest notes, which are unavoidably a little rough in quality, but much more sonorous than the corresponding notes on the double bassoon. The upper register resembles the chalumeau register of the B flat clarinet, being reedy and sweet. The instrument is used as a fundamental bass for the wood wind at Kneller Hall, and it has also been used at Covent Garden to accompany the music of F afner and Hunding in' the Nibelungen Ring.

Many attempts have been made since the beginning of the 19th centur to construct contra clarinets, but all possessed inherent faults and have been discarded (see BATYPHONE). A contrabass clarinet in F, an octave below the basset horn, constructed b Albert of Brussels in [890, was, we believe, considered successfu , but it differed in design from the pedal clarinet. (K. S.)

PEDAN‘I‘, one who exaggerates the value of detailed erudition for its own sake; also a person who delights in a display of the exact niceties of learning, in an excessive obedience to theory without regard to practical uses. The word came into English in the latter part of the 16th century in the 561158 of schoolmaster, the original meaning of Ital. pedanle, from which it is derived. The word is usually taken to be an adaptation of Gr. irauiet'lew,

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