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immediately upon his will, which was nuncupative and was dated the 14th of February 1594. The first volume of his Palace of Pleasure appeared in 1566, and was dedicated to the earl of Warwick. It included sixty tales, and was followed in the next year by a second volume containing thirty-four new ones. A second improved edition in 1575 contained seven new stories. Paynter borrows from Herodotus, Plutarch, Aulus Gellius, Aclian, Livy, Tacitus, Quintus Curtius; from .Giraldi Cinthio, Matteo Bandello, Ser Giovanni Fiorentino, Straparola, Queen Margaret of Navarre and others. To the vogue of this and similar collections we owe the Italian setting of so large a proportion of the Elizabethan drama. The early tragedies of Appius and Virginia, and Tancred and Gismund were taken from The Palace of Pleasure; and among better-known plays derived from the book are the Shakespearian Timon of Athens, All’s Well that Ends Well (from Giletta of Narbonne), Beaumont and Fletcher's Triumph of Death and Shirley's Love’s Cruelty.

The Palace of Pleasure was edited by Joseph Haslewood in 1813. This edition was collated (1890) with the British Museum copy of 1575 by Mr Joseph Jacobs, who added further prefatory matter, including an introduction dealing with the importance of Italian novelle in Elizabethan drama.

PAYSANDU, or PAISANDI'J, a town and river port of Uruguay and capital of a department of the same name, on the left bank of the Uruguay River about 214 m. N.W. of Montevideo, with which it is connected by rail. Pop. (1908 estimate), 15,000. It has railway connexion with Rio Negro and Montevideo to the south-east, and with Salto and Santa Rosa, on the Brazilian frontier, on the north; it is at the head of low water navigation on the Uruguay River, and is in regular steamer communication with Montevideo and Buenos Aires.

There are some good public buildings, including two churches, a hospital, a theatre and the government ofiices. Paysandi'i exports cattle and sheep and salted meats, hides, ox tongues, wool and other animal products. There is a meatcuring establishment (saladero) at Guaviyu, in the vicinity. The town was named in honour of Pay, or Pai (Father) Sandu, a priest who settled there in 1772. It has suffered severely from revolutionary outbreaks, was bombarded by Rivera in 1846, and was partly destroyed in 1865 by a Brazilian bombardment, after which its gallant defenders, Leandro Gomez and his companions, were butchered in cold blood.

The department of Paysandu—area 5117 sq. m.; pop. (1907, estimate), 54,097-—is one of the richest stock-raising regions of the republic.

PAYSON, EDWARD (1783—1827), American Congregational preacher, was born on the 25th of July 1783 at Rindge, New Hampshire, where his father, Seth Payson (1758—1820), was pastor of the Congregational Church. His uncle, Phillips Payson (1736—1801), pastor of a church in Chelsea, Massachusetts, was a physicist and astronomer. Edward Payson graduated at Harvard in 1803, was then principal of a school at Portland, Maine, and in 1807 became junior pastor of the Congregational Church at Portland, where he remained, after 1811, as senior pastor, until his death on the 22nd of October 1827."

The most complete collection of his sermons, with a memoir by Asa Cummings originally published in 1828, is the Memoir, Select Thoughts and Sermons of the late Rev. Edward Payson (3 vols., Portland, 1846; Philadelphia, 1859). Based on this is the volume, Mementos of Edward Payson (New York, 1873), by the Rev. E. L. Janes of the Methodist Episcopal Church.

PAZMANY, PETER (1570-1637), Hungarian cardinal and statesman, was born at Nagyvarad on the 4th of October 1570, and educated at Nagyvarad and Kolozsvar, at which latter place he quitted the Calvinist confession for the Roman communion (1583). In 1587 he entered the Jesuit order. Pazmany went through his probation at Cracow, took his~degree at Vienna, and studied theology at Rome, and finally completed his academic course at the Jesuit college at Graz. In 1601 he was sent to the order’s establishment at Sellye, where his eloquence and dialectic won back hundreds to Rome. including many of the noblest families. Prince Nicholas Esterhazy and Paul Rakéczy were among his converts. In 1607 he was attached


to the archbishop of Esztergom, and in the following year attracted attention by his denunciation, in the Diet, of the 8th point of the peace of Vienna, which prohibited the Jesuits from acquiring landed property in Hungary. At about the same time the pope, on the petition of the emperor Matthias II., released Pazmany from his monkish vows. On‘ the 25th of April 1616 he was made dean of Turécz, and on the 28th of September became primate of Hungary. He received the red hat from Urban VIII. in 1629. Pazmany was the soul of the Roman Catholic reaction in Hungary. Particularly remarkable is his Igazsdgra uczctfi Kalauz (Guide to Truth), which appeared in 1613. This manual united all the advantages of scientific depth, methodical arrangement and popular style. As the chief pastor of the Hungarian church Pézmany used every means _in his power. short of absolute contravention of the laws, to obstruct and weaken Protestantism, which had risen during the 16th century. In 1619 he founded a seminary for theological candidates at Nagyszombat, and in 1623 laid the foundations of a similar institution at Vienna, the still famous Pazmanaeum, at a cost of 200,000 florins. In 1635 he contributed 100,000 florins towards the foundation of a Hungarian university. He also built Jesuit colleges and schools at Pressburg, and Franciscan monasteries at Ersékfijvar and Kormoczbanya. In politics he played a considerable part. It was chiefly due to him that the diet of 1618 elected the archduke Ferdinand to succeed the childless Matthias II. He also repeatedly thwarted the martial ambitions of Gabriel Bethlen, and prevented George Rakéczy I., over whom he had a great influence, from combining with the Turks and the Protestants. But Pizmany’s most unforgetable service to his country was his creation of the Hungarian literary language. As an orator he well deserved

the epithet of “ the Hungarian purple Cicero.” Of his numerous.

works the chief are: The Four Books of Thomas d Kempis on the imitation of Christ (Hung, 1603), of which there are many editions; Diatribe theologiea do visibili Christi in lcrris ecclesia (Graz, 1615); Vindiciae ecclesiastieae (Vienna, 1620); Sermons for every Sunday in the Year (Hung, Pressburg, 1636); The Triumph of Truth (Hung, Pressburg, 1614).

See Vilmés Fraknoi, Peter Pézmdny and his Times (Hung. Pest, 1868—1872) ; Correspondence of Pa'zma'ny (Hung. and Latin), published by the Hungarian Academy (Pest, 1873). (R. N. B.)

PAZ SOLDAN, MARIANO FELIPE (1821—1886), Peruvian historian and geographer, was born at Arequipa, on the 22nd of August 1821. He studied law, and after holding some minor judicial oflices, was minister to New Granada in 1853. After his return he occupied himself with plans for the establishment of a model penitentiary at Lima, which ‘he was enabled to accomplish through the support of General Castilla. In 1860 Castilla made him director of public works, in which capacity he superintended the erection of the Lima statue of Bolivar. He was also concerned in the reform of the currency by the withdrawal of the debased Bolivian coins. In 1861 he published his great atlas of the republic of Peru, and in 1868 the first volume of his history of Peru after the acquisition of her independence. A second volume followed, and a third, bringing the history down to 1839, was published after his death by his son. In 1870 he was minister of justice and worship under President Balta, but shortly afterwards retired from public life to devote himself to his great geographical dictionary of Peru, which was published in 1877. During the disastrous war with Chile he sought refuge at Buenos Aires, where he was made professor in the National College, and where he wrote and published a history of the war (1884). He died on the 3rst of December 1886.

PEA (Pisum), a genus of the order Leguminosae, consisting of herbs with compound pinnate leaves ending in tendrils, by means of which the weak stems are enabled to support themselves, and with large leafy stipules at the base. The flowers (fig. 1) are typically “ papilionaceous,” with a “ standard” or large petal above, two side petals or wings, and two front petals below forming the keel. The stamens are ten—nine united, the tenth usually free or only slightly joined to the others.

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a, Alae, or win 5. (cotyledons) are thick and fleshy, with

“'- Carina' 0r eel— a radicle bent along their edges on one side. The genus is exceedingly close to Lalhyrus, being only distinguished technically by the style, which in the latter genus is compressed from above downwards and not thick. It is not surprising, therefore, that under the general name “ pea ” species both of Pisum and of Lalhyrus are included. , The common field pea with tan-coloured or compressed mottled seeds and two to four leaflets is Pisum arvense, which is cultivated in all temperate parts of the globe, but which, according to the Italian botanists, is truly a native of central and southern Italy: it has purple flowers. The garden pea, P. sativum, which has white flowers, is more tender than the preceding, and its origin is not known. It has not been found in a wild state anywhere, and it is considered that it may be a form of P. arveme, having, however, from four to six leaflets to each leaf and globular seeds of uniform colour.

P. salivum was known to Theophrastus; and De Candolle (Origin -0f Cultivated Plants, p. 329) points out that the word “ ison" or its equivalent occurs in the Al anian ton ue as well as in Latin, whence he conclu es that the pea was known to;he Aryans, c Calyx . ’Seed ' and was perhaps brought by them into s5' Greece and Italy. Peas have been found in the Swiss lake-dWellings of the bronze period. The garden peas differ considerably in size, sha of pod, degree of productiveness, form and colour of seed, &c. he sugar peas are those in which the inner lining of the pod is very thin instead of being somewhat horny, so that the who e pod can be eaten. _ Unlike most papilionaceous plants, peaflowers are perfectly fertile Without the aid of insects, and thus do not intercross so freely as most similar plants do. On the other hand, a case is known wherein the pollen from a urplepodded pea applied to the stigma of one of the green-podd sugar peas produced a purple pod, showing that not only the ovule but even the ovary was affected by the cross. The numerous _var_ieties of peas in cultivation have been obtained by cross-fertilization, but chiefly by selection. Peas constitute a highly nutritious article of diet from the large quantity of nitrogenous materials they contain in addition to starchy and saceharine matters.

The sweet pea, cultivated for the beauty and fragrance of its flowers, is a species of the allied genus Lalhyrus (L. odoratus), a native of southern Europe. The chick pea (q.v.) (Cicer arieti1mm), not cultivated in England, is still farther removed from the true peas. The everlasting pea of gardens is a species of Lathyrus (L. latifalius) with very deep fleshy roots, bold foliage, and beautiful but scentless flowers; the field pea (Pisum arvense) is better adapted than the bean to light soils, and is best cultivated in rows of such a width as to admit of horse-hoeing. The early stage at which the plants fall over, and forbid further culture, renders it even more needful than in the case of beans to sow them only on land already clean. If annual weeds can be kept in check until the peas once get a close cover, they then occupy the ground so completely that nothing else can live under them; and the ground, after their removal, is found in the choicest condition. A thin crop of peas should never be allowed to stand, as the land is sure to get perfectly wild. The


From Vine’s Students' Teri-book of Botany, by permision of Swan, Sonnenschein 6: Co.

F10. 2.—The Pod (legume) of the Pea.

r, The dorsal suture. b, The ventral.


difliculty of getting this crop well harvested renders it peculiarly advisable to sow only the early varieties.

The pea prefers a friable calcareous loam, deeply worked, and well enriched With good hotbed or farm-yard manure. The early crops require a warm sheltered situation, but the later are better grown 6 or 8 ft. apart, or more, in the open quarters, dwarf crops being introduced between the rows. The dwarf or early sorts may be sown 3 or 4 ft. apart. The deep working of the soil is of importance, lest the plants should suffer in hot dry weather from mildew or arrest of growth. The first sowing may be made about the beginning or middle of November, in front of a south wall, the plants being defended by spruce fir branches or other spraythroughout the winter. In February sowin sare sometimes made in private gardens, in flowerpots or boxes, an the young plants afterwards planted out. The main crop should be sown towards the end of February, and moderate sowings should be made twice a month afterwards, up to the beginning of uly for the north, and about the third week in July for warmer istricts. During dry hot weather late peas derive great benefit from mulching and watering. Theilatest sowings, at the middle or end of August, should consist of the best early sorts, as they are not so long in producing pods as the lar er and finer sorts, and by this means the supply may be prolonge till October or November. As they row the earth is drawn u to the stems, which are also supporte by stakes, a practice which inawell-kept garden is always advisable, although it is said that the early varieties arrive sooner at maturity when recumbent.

Peas grown .late in autumn are sub'ect to mildew, to obviate which it has been proposed to dig over t e ground in the usual wa , and to soak the spaces to be occupied by the rows of peas thoroughly with water—the earth on each side to be then collected so as to form ridges 7 or 8 in. high, these rid es being well watered, and the seed sown on them in single rows. f dry weather at any time set in, water should be supplied profusely once a week.

To produce very early crops the French market-gardeners used to sow early in November, in frames, on a border havin a good aspect, the seeds being covered very sli htly. The young p ants are transplanted into other frames in ecember, the ground inside being dug out so as to be 18 or 20 in. below the sashes. and the earth thus removed placed against the outside of the frames. The young plants, when 3 or 4 in. high, are planted in patches of three or four, 8 in. asunder, in four longitudinal rows. The sashes are covered at night with straw mats, and opened whenever the weather is sufficiently mild. When 8 or IO in. high the stems are inclined towards the back of the frame, a little earth being drawn to their base, and when the plants comeinto blossom the tops are pinched out above the third or fourth flower to force them into bearing. As soon as they begin to pod, the soil may have a gentle watering, whenever sufficiently warmed by the sun, but a too vigorous growth at an earlier period would be detrimental. Thus treated the plants bear pods fit for gathering in the first fortnight in April.

A very convenient means of obtaining an early crop is to sow in 5-in. pots, a few seeds in each, the [ants to be ultimately lanted out on a warm border. Peas may a so be obtained early ifpgently forced in frames, in the same way as kidney beans, the dwarfest varieties being preferable.

For the very early peas the rows should range east and west, but for the main crops north and south. The average depth of the drills should be about 2 in. for small sorts, and a trifle more for the larger kinds. The drills should be made wide and flat at bottom so that the seeds ma be better separated in sowing. The large sorts are the better or being sown 3 in. apart. Chopped furze may be advantageously scattered in the drill before covering in, to check the depredations of mice, and before levelling the surface the soil should be gently trodden down over the seeds.

A good selection of sorts may be made from the following?

Early.—William Hurst; Chelsea Gem; Sutton's Bountiful and Excelsior; Gradus.

Second Early.—Stratagem; Telephone ,~ Telegraph ; Carter's Daisy; Duke of York; Veitch's Autocrat.

Lula—Veitch's Perfection; Ne Plus Ultra, the finest of all late peas, but a little delicate in cold wet soils and seasons; British Queen; Champion of England; Duke of Albany.

PEABODY, ANDREW PRESTON (1811—1893), American clergyman and author, was born in Beverly, Massachusetts, on the 19th of March 1811, and was descended from Lieut. Francis Peabody of St Albans, who emigrated to Massachusetts in 1635. He learned to read before he was three years old, entered Harvard College at the age of twelve, and graduated in 1826, with the single exception of Paul Dudley (class of 1690) the youngest graduate of Harvard. In i833 he became assistant pastor of the South Parish (Unitarian) of Portsmouth, New Hampshire; the senior pastor died before Peabody had been preaching a month, and he succeeded to the charge of the church, which he held until 1860. In 185 2—1860 he was proprietor and editor of the North American Review. He was preacher to Harvard University and Plummer professor of Christian morals from 1860 to 1881, and was professor emeritus from 1881 until his death in Boston, Massachusetts, on the 10th of March 1893. On the walls of Appleton Chapel, Cambridge, U.S.A., is a bronze tablet to his memory.

Besides manv brief memoirs and articles, he wrote: Christianity the Religion of Nature (21d ed., 1864), Lowell Institute Lectures; Reminiscence: of EuroPean Travel (1868); A Manual of Moral Philosophy (1873); Christian Belief and Life (1875), and Harvard Reminiscences (1888). See the Memoir (Cambridge, 1896) by Edward J. Young.

PEABODY, ELIZABETH PALMER (1804—1894), American educationist, was born at Billerica, Massachusetts, on the 16th of May 1804. Early in life she was assistant in A. Bronson Alcott’s school in Boston, Mass, the best account of which is probably her Record of Mr Alcott’s School (1835). She had been instructed in Greek by Emerson at Concord when she was eighteen years old. She became interested in the educational methods of Froebel, and in 1860 opened in Boston a small school resembling a kindergarten. In 1867 she visited Germany for the purpose of studying Froebel's methods. It was largely through her efiorts that the first public kindergarten in the United States was established in Boston in 1870: She died at Jamaica Plain, Boston, on the 3rd of January 1894. She was the sister-in-law of Nathaniel Hawthorne and of Horace Mann.

Among her ublications are: Kindergarten in Italy (1872); Reminiscences a William Ellery Charmin (1880); Lecture: in the Training Schoo 1 for Kindergartners (1888§; and Last Evening with Allston, and other Pap”: (1886).

PEABODY, GEORGE (1795—1869), American philanthropist, was descended from an old yeoman family of Hertfordshire, England, named Pabody or Pebody. He was born in the part of Danvers which is now Peabody, Mass, on the 18th of February 1795. When eleven years old he became apprentice at a grocery store. At the end of four years he became assistant to his brother, and a year afterwards to his uncle, who had a business in Georgetown, District of Columbia. After serving as a volunteer at Fort Warburton, Maryland, in the War of 1812, he became partner with Elisha Riggs in avdry goods store at Georgetown, Riggs furnishing the capital, while Peabody was manager. Through his energy and skill the business increased with astounding rapidity, and on the retirement of Riggs about 1830 Peabody found himself at the head of one of the largest mercantile concerns in the world. About 1837 he established himself in London as merchant and money-broker at Wanford Court, in the city, and in 1843 he withdrew from the American business. The number of his benefactions to public objects was very large. He gave £50,000 for educational purposes at Danvers; £200,000 to found and endow a scientific Institute in Baltimore; various sums to Harvard University; £700,000 to the trustees of the Peabody Educational Fund to promote education in the southern states; and £500,000 forthe erection of dwelling-houses for the working-classes in London. He received from Queen Victoria-the offer of a baronetcy, but declined it. In 1867 the United States Congress awarded him a special vote of thanks. He died in London on the 4th of November 1869; his body was carried to America in a British warship, and was buried in his native town.

See the Life (Boston, 1870) by Phebe A. Hanal'ord.

PEABODY, a township of Essex county, Massachusetts, USA, in the eastern part of the state, 2 m. N.W. of Salem. Pop. (1905) 13,098; (1910) 15,721. It is served by the Boston & Maine railroad. The township covers an area of 17 sq. m. Its principal village is also known as Peabody. It contains the Peabody institute (1852), a gift of George Peabody; in 1909 the institute had a library of 43,200 vols., and in connexion with it is the Eben Dale Sutton reference library, containing 4100 vols. in 1909. In the institute is the portrait of Queen Victoria given by her to Mr Peabody. Among the places of interest in the township are the birthplace of George Peabody, the home of Rufus Choate (who lived here from 1823 to 1828), and the old burying-ground, where many soldiers of the War of Independence are buried; and the town has 8. Lexington monument,


dedicated in 1835, and a soldiers' monument, dedicated in 1881. Manufacturing is the principal industry, and leather is the principal product; among other manufactures are shoes, gloves, glue and carriages. The value of the factory products in 1905 was $10,236,669, an increase of 47-4% over that for 1900, and of the total the leather product represented 77-3 %.

Peabody was originally a part of the township of Salem. In 1752 the district of Danvers was created, and in 1757 this district was made a separate township. In 1855 the township was divided into Danvers and South Danvers, and in 1868 the name of South Danvers was changed to Peabody, in honour of George Peabody.

See Old Naumkeag (Salem, 1877), by C. H. Webber and W. H. Nevins.

PEACE, a river of western Canada. It rises in the Rocky Mountains near 55° N., and breaking through the mountains, flows N.E. into Slave River, near lake Athabasca. The district between 56° 40' and 60° N., and between 112° W. and the Rocky Mountains is usually known as the Peace River district.

PEACE (Lat. pox; Fr. paix; Ger. Fricde), the contrary of war, conflict or turmoil, and the condition which follows their cessation. Its sense in international law is the condition of not being at war. The word is also used as an abridgment for a treaty of peace, in such cases as the Peace of Utrecht (1713) and the Peace of Amiens (1802).

Introduction—Peace until quite recently was merely the political condition which prevailed in the intervals between wars. It was a purely negative condition. Even Grotius, who reduced the tendencies existing in his time to a sort of o'rderly expression, addressed himself to the law of war as the positive part of international jurisprudence and dealt only with peace as its negative alternative. The very name of his historic treatise, De jure belli ac pacis (1625), shows the subordination of peace to the main subject of war. In our own time peace has attained a higher status. It is now customary among writers on international law to give peace at any rate a volume to itself. Peace in fact has become a separate branch of the subject. The rise of arbitration as a method of settling international difiiculties has carried it a step further, and now the Hague Peace Conventions have given pacific methods a standing apart from war, and the preservation of peace has become an object of direct political effort. The methods for ensuring such preservation are now almost as precise as the methods of war. However reluctant some states may be to bind themselves to any rules excluding recourse to brute force when diplomatic negotiations have failed, they have nevertheless unanimously at the Hague Conference of 1907 declared their “ firm determination to cooperate in the maintenance of general peace " (la formc volonté de concourir au mainticn de la pair généralc)‘, and their resolution “ to favour with all their efforts the amicable settlement of international conflicts ” (preamble to Peace Convention). The offer of mediation by independent powers is provided for (Peace Convention: art. 3), and it is specifically agreed that in matters of a “ legal character " such as “ questions of interpretation and application ” of international conventions, arbitration is the “ most efficacious and at the same time most equitable method " of settling differences which have not been solved by diplomacy (Peace Convention: art. 38). In the final act, the conference went farther in agreeing to the “ principle of compulsory arbitration,” declaring that “ certain disputes, in particular those relating to the interpretation and application of the provisions of international agreements, are suitable (susceptible) to be submitted to compulsory arbitration without any restriction.”

These declarations were obviously a concession to the widespread feeling, among civilized nations, that peace is an object in itself, an international political condition requiring its code of methods and laws just as much as the domesticpolitical conditions of nations require their codes of methods and laws. In other words peace among nations has now become, or is fast becoming, a positive subject of international regulation, while war is

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coming, among progressive peoples, to be regarded merely as an accidental disturbance of that harmony and concord among mankind which nations require for the fostering of their domestic welfare.

Though the idea of preserving peace by general international regulation has had several exponents in the course of ages, no deliberate plan has ever yet been carried into effect. Indirectly, however, there have been many agencies which have operated towards this end. The earliest, known to history, is the Amphictyonic Council (q.v.) which grew out of the common worship of the Hellenes. It was not so much a political as a religious body. “ If it had any claim,” says Freeman,1 “ to the title of a general council of Greece, it was wholly in the sense in which we speak of general councils in modern Europe. The Amphictyonic Council represented Greece as an ecclesiastical synod represented western Christendom. Its primary business was to regulate the concerns of the temple of Apollo at Delphi. The Amphictyonic Council which met at Delphi was only the most famous of several bodies of the same kind.” “It is easy, however,” adds Freeman, “to understand how the religious functions of such a body might assume a political character. Thus the old Amphictyonic oath forbade certain extreme measures of hostility against any city sharing in the common Amphictyonic worship, and it was forbidden to raze any Amphictyonic city or to cut off its water. As the only deliberative body in which most Greek communities were represented, its decisions were those of the bulk of the Hellenic people. It sank eventually into a mere political tool in the hands first of Thebes, and then under Philip of Macedonia.”

The so-called pox romana was merely peace within an empire governed from a central authority, the constituent parts of which were held together by a network of centralized authority.

The feudal system again was a system of ofience and defence, and its object was efficiency for war, not the organized regulation of peace. Yet it had elements of federation within the bonds of its hierarchy

The spiritual influence of the Church again was exerted to preserve relative peace among feudal princes. The “ Truce of God ” was established by the clergy (originally in Guyenne in 103 r) to take advantage of holy days and festivals for the purpose of restricting the time available for bloodshed.

The “grand design” of Henry IV. (France), which some historians regard merely as the fantastic idea of a visionary, was probably a scheme of his great minister Sully to avert by a federation the conflict which he probably foresaw would break out sooner or later between Catholic and Protestant Europe, and which, in fact, broke out some fifteen years later in the Thirty Years' War.

The Holy Roman Empire itself was in some respects an agent for the preservation of peace among its constituent states. In the same way the federation of Swiss cantons, of the states of the North American Union and of the present German Empire have served as means of reducing the number of possible parties to war, and consequently that of its possible occasions.

Not only the number of possible war‘making states but also the territorial area over which war can be made has been reduced in recent times by the creation of neutralized states such as Switzerland, Belgium, Luxemburg and Norway, and areas such as the Congo basin, the American lakes and the Suez Canal.

The “ balance of power,” which has played in the history of modern Europe such an important part, is inherent in the notion of the independence and stability of states. Just as in Italy the common weal of the different republics which were crowded within the limited area of the peninsula required that no one of them should become so pOWerful as to threaten the independence of the others, so western Europe had a similar danger to counteract. France, Spain and the Empire were competing with each other in power to the detriment of smaller states. Great Britain and the Netherlands, Prussia and Russia,

‘History of Federal Government in Greece and Italy (2nd ed., London, 1893), p. 97.


had interests in the preservation of the status quo, and wars were waged and treaties concluded to adjust the strength of states in the common interest of preventing any one of them from obtaining undue predominance. Then came the break up of what remained of feudal Europe and a readjustment under Napoleon, which left the western world with five fairly balanced homogeneous nations. These now took the place of the old heterogeneous areas, governed by their respective sovereigns without reference to any idea of nationality or of national representation. The leading nations assumed the hegemony of the west, and in more recent times this combination has become known as the “concert of Europe.” This concert of the great powers, as its name implies, in contradistinction to the “ balance of power,” was essentially a factor for the preservation of peace. For a century back it has played the part of an upper council in the management of Europe. In all matters affecting the Near East, it considers itself supreme. In matters of general interest it has frequently called conferences to which the minor states have been invited, such as the West African Conference in Berlin in 1885, and the Anti-Slavery Conference at Brussels in 1889— 1890, and the Conference of Algeciras in 1906. Meanwhile the concert has admitted among its members first in 1856 Turkey, later in 1878 at the Congress of Berlin the United States, and now undoubtedly Japan will expect to be included as a great power in this controlling body. The essential feature of the concert has been recognition of the advantage to all the great powers of common action in reference to territorial changes in the Near East, of meeting together as a council, in preference to unconcerted negotiation by the powers acting severally.

A departure of more recent origin has been the calling together of the smaller powers for the settlement of matters of general administrative interest, conferences such as those which led to the conclusion of the conventions creating the Postal Union, the Copyright and Industrial Property Unions, &c.

These conferences of all the powers serve in practiceasa sort of common council in the community of states, just as the concert of the great powers acts as a kind of senate. We have thus the nucleus of that international parliament which idealist peacemakers have dreamt of since the time of Henry IV.’s “ grand design.’ ’

This brings us down to the greatest deliberate efiort ever made to secure the peace of the world by a general convention. It was due to the initiative of the young tsar Nicolas II., who, in his famous rescript of the 24th of August 1898, stated that he thought that the then moment was “ very favourable for seeking, by means of international discussion, the most eflectual means of assuring to all peoples the benefits of a real and durable peace." “ In the course of the last twenty years,” added the rescript, “the preservation of peace had become an object of international policy.” Economic crises, due in great part to the existing system of excessive armaments, were transforming armed peace into a crushing burden, which peoples had more and more difficulty in bearing. He therefore proposed that there should be an international conference for the purpose of focusing the efforts of all states which were “ sincerely seeking to make the great idea of universal peace triumph over the elements of trouble and discord.” The first conference was held in 1899, and another followed it in r907: at the earlier one twenty-six powers were represented; at that of 1907 there were forty-four, this time practically the whole world. The conventions drawn up at the second conference were a deliberate codification of many branches of international law. By them a written law has been substituted for that unwritten law which nations had been wont to construe with a latitude more or less corresponding to their power. At the conference of 1899, moreover, a court of arbitration was instituted for the purpose of dealing judicially with such matters in dispute as the powers agreed to submit to it.

In the interval between the two Hague Conferences, Great Britain and France concluded the first treaty applicable to future difficulties, as distinguished from the treaties which had preceded it, treaties which related in all cases to difficulties already existing and confined to them. This treaty made arbitration applicable to all matters not affecting “ national honour or vital interests.” Since then a network of similar treaties, adopted by different nations with each other and based on the AngloFrench model, has made reference to the Hague Court of Arbitration practically compulsory for all matters which can be settled by an award of damages or do not affect any vital national interest.

The third Hague Conference is timed to be held in 1917. Meanwhile a conference of the maritime powers was held in London in 1908—1909 for the elaboration of acode of international maritime law in time of war, to be applied in the international Court of Prize, which had been proposed in a convention signed ad referendum at the Hague Conference of 1907.

A further development in the common efforts which have been made by different powers to assure the reign of justice and judicial methods among the states of the world was the proposal of Secretary Knox of the United States to insert in the instrument of ratification of the International Prize Court Convention (adopted at the Hague in 1897) a clause stating that the International Prize Court shall be invested with the duties and functions of a court of arbitral justice, such as recommended by the first Voeu of the Final Act of the conference. The object of this proposal was to give effect to the idea that the existing “ permanent ” court lacked the essential characteristics of national courts of justice in not being ready at all times to hear cases, and in needing to be specially constituted for every case submitted to it. The new court would be permanently in session at the Hague, the full panel of judges to assemble in ordinary or extraordinary session once a year.

Thus, while armaments are increasing, and wars are being fought out in the press and in public discussion, the great powers are steadily working out a system of written law and establishing a judiciary to adjust their differences in accordance with it.1

The Current Grouping of Mankind and Nation-making.— In the consolidation of peace one of the most important factors is unquestionably the grouping of mankind in accordance with the final territorial and racial limitations of their apparent destiny. Language has played a vital part in the formation of Germany and Italy. The language question still disturbs the tranquillity of the Near East. The Hungarian government is regarded by the Slav, Ruman and German inhabitants of the monarchy as an oppressor for endeavouring to force everybody within the realm to learn the Magyar language. The “ Young Turkish ” government has problems to face which will be equally difficult, if it insists on endeavouring to institute centralized government in Turkey on the French model.

Whereas during the 19th century states were being cut out to suit the existing distribution of language, in the 20th the tendency seems to be to avoid further rearrangement of boundaries, and to complete the homogeneity, thus far attained, by the artificial method of forcing reluctant populations to adopt the language of the predominant or governing race. In the United States this artificial method has become a necessity, to prevent the upgrowth of alien communities, which might at some later date cause domestic trouble of a perilous character. For example, when a community of French Canadians, discontented with British rule, many years ago migrated and settled in Massachusetts, they found none of the tolerance they had been enjoying in Canada for their French schools and the French language they wished to preserve. In Alsace-Lorraine German-speaking immigrants are gradually displacing, under

1 Schemes of thinkers, like William Penn’s European Parliament (1693); the Abbé 5t Pierre's elaboration (c. 1700) of Henry lV.'s “ grand design" (see supra); Jeremy Bentham‘s International Tribunal (1786—1789); Kant‘s Permanent Congress (if Nations and Per etual Peace (1796); John Stuart Mill's Federal ufreme Court; See ey's, Bluntschli's, David Dudley Field's, Professor eone Levi's. Sir Edmund Hornby's co-operative schemes for promoting law and order among nations, have all contributed to p0 ularizing in different countries the idea of a federation of man ind for the preservation of peace.


government encouragement, the French-speaking population. Poland is another case of the difficulty of managing a population which speaks a language not that of the governing majority, and Russia, in trying to solve one problem by absorbing Finland into the national system, is burdening herself with another which may work out in centuries of unrest, if not in domestic violence. Not very long ago Pan-Germans were paying much attention to the German settlers in the Brazilian province of Rio Grande do Sul, wherelarge villages spoke nothing but German, and German, as the only language known on the spot, had become the tongue in which municipal business was transacted. The Brazilian government, in view of the danger to which such a state of things might give rise, followed the example of the United States in dealing with the language question.

Thus while in the one case homogeneity of language within state boundaries seems to be one of the conditions making for peace, the avoidance of interference with a well-marked homogeneous area like Finland would seem to contribute equally to the same end.

Meanwhile the difliculties in the way of contemporary nationmaking are fostered by many extraneous influences, as well as by dogged resistance of the races in question. Not the least important of these influences is the sentimental sympathy felt for those who are supposed to be deprived of the use of their mother-tongue, and who are subjected to the hardship of learning an alien one. The hardship inflicted on those who have to learn a second language is very easily exaggerated, though it is to be regretted that in the case of Hungary the second language is not one more useful for international purposes.

Contemporary Statecraft.—Nation-making has hitherto been more or less unconscious—the outcome of necessity, a natural growth due to the play of circumstance and events. But in our own age conscious statecraft is also at work, as in Canada,

\whero the genius of statesmen is gradually endowing that

dominion with all the attributes of independence and power. Australia has not learnt the lesson of Canada in vain. Whatever value may attach to the consolidation of the British Empire itself as a factor in spreading the peace which reigns within it, it is also a great contribution to the peace of the world that the British race should have founded practically independent states like the Dominion of Canada, the Commonwealth of Australia, the South African Union and the Dominion of New Zealand. These self-governing colonies with their spheres of influence, with vast areas still unpeopled, have a future before them which is dissociated from the methods of an over-peopled Europe, and among them the preservation of peace is the direct object and condition of their progressive development. Like the United States, they have or will have their Monroe doctrine. Colonized by the steady industrial peoples of northern Europe, there is no danger of the turbulence of the industrially indolent but more passionate peoples of Central and South America. As in Europe, these northern peoples will hold the power which intelligent democracies are consciously absorbing, and the British faculty for statecraft is gradually welding new nations on the British model, without the obsolete traditions and without that human sediment which too frequently chokes the currents of national vitality in the older communities of Europe.

M ilitarism.—It is often stated, as if it were incontrovertible, that conscription and large standing armies are a menace to peace, and yet, although throughout the civilized World, except in the British Empire and the United States, conscription is the system employed for the recruiting of the national forces of both defence and offence, few of these countries show any particular disposition to make war. The exceptional position of the United States, with a population about equal to that of the rest of the American continent, and of Great Britain, an island state but little exposed to military invasion, places both beyond absolute need of large standing armies, and renders an enlisting system feasible which would be quite inadequate for the recruitment of armies on the French or German scale. Democratic progress on the Continent has, however, absorbed

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