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to the area occupied by the parent rock (eg. the granite), or to its immediate vicinity, and within the zone which has been greatly heated by the plutonic intrusion, viz. the contact aureole. Another very important factor in producing the coarse crystallization of the pegmatite veins is the presence of abundant water vapour and other gases which served as mineralizing agents and facilitated the building together of the rock molecules in large crystalline individuals.

Proof that these vapours were important agents in the formation of pegmatites is afforded by many of the minerals contained in the veins. Boron, fluorine, hydrogen, chlorine and other volatile substances are essential components of some of these minerals. Thus tourmaline, which contains boron and fluorine, may be common in the pegmatites but rare in the granite itself. Fluorine or chlorine are present in apatite, another frequent ingredient of granite pegmatites. Muscovite and gilbertite both contain hydrogen and fluorine; topaz is rich in fluorine also and all of these are abundant in some pegmatites. The stimulating effect which volatile substances exert on crystallizing molten masses is well known to experimental geologists who, by mixing tungstates and fluorides with fused powders, have been able to produce artificial minerals which they could not otherwise obtain. Most pegmatites are truly igneous rocks so far as their composition goes, but in their structure they show relations to the aqueous mineral veins. Many of them for example have a comby structure, that is to say, their minerals are columnar and stand perpendicular to the walls of the fissure occupied by the vein. Sometimes they have a banding owing to successive deposits having been laid down of different character; mica may be external, then feldspar, and in the centre a leader or string of pure quartz. In pegmatite veins also there are very frequently cavities or vugs, which are lined by crystals with Very perfect faces. These bear much resemblance to the miarolitic or drusy cavities common in granite, and like them were probably filled with the residual liquid which was left over after the mineral substances were deposited in crystals.

Pegmatites are very irregular not only in distribution, width and persistence, but also in composition. The relative abundance of the constituent minerals may differ rapidly and much from point to point. Sometimes they are rich in mica, in enormous crystals for which the rock is mined or quarried (India). Other pegmatites are nearly pure feldspar, while others are locally (especially near their terminations) very full of quartz. They may in fact pass into quartz veins (alaskites) some of which are auriferous (N. America). Quartz veins of another type are very largely developed, especially in regions of slate and phyllite; they are produced by segregation of dissolved silica from the country rock and its concentration into cracks produced by stretching of the rock masses during folding. In these segregation veins, especially when the beds are of feldspathic nature, crystals of albite and orthoclase may appear, in large or small quantity. In this way a second type of pegmatite (segregation pegmatite) is formed which is very difiicult to distinguish from true igneous veins. These two have, however, much in common as regards the conditions under which they were formed. Great pressures, presence of water, and a high though not necessarily very high temperature

were the principal agencies at work. Granite pegmatites are laid down after their‘parent mass had solidified and while it was cooling down: sometimes the contain such minerals as garnet, not found in the main mass, an showing that the temperature of crystallization was comparatively low. Another special feature of these veins is the presence of minerals containing precious metals or rare earths. Gold occurs in not a few cases; tin in others, while sulphides such as copper yrites are found also. Beryl is the commonest of the minerals of t e second group: sgodumene is another example. and there is much reason to hold t at diamond is a native of some of the pegmatites of Brazil and India, though this is not yet incontestably proved. The syenitepegmatites of south Norway are remarkable both for their coarse crystallization and for the great number of rare minerals they have ielded. Among these may he mentioned laayenite, rinkite, resen

PEGNITZ, a river of Germany. It rises near Lindenhard in Upper Franconia (Bavaria) from two sources. At first it is called the Fichtenohe, but at Buchau it takes the name of the Pegnitz, and flowing in a south-westerly direction disappears below the small town of Pegnitz in a mountain cavern. It emerges through three orifices, enters Middle Franconia, and after flowing through the heart of the city of Nuremberg falls into the Regnitz at Ftirth.

See Specht, Dar Pegnilzgebt'el in Bczug auf seinen Wasserhaushall (Munich, 1905).

The Pegnitz Order (Order of the society of Pegnitz shepherds), also known as “ the crowned flower order on the Pegnitz,” was one of the societies founded in Germany in the course of the 17th century for the purification and improvement of the German language, especially in the domain of poetry. Georg Philipp Harsdorffer and Johann Klaj instituted the order in Nuremberg in 1644, and named it after the river. Its emblem was the passion flower with Pan’s pipes, and the motto Mit Nutze'n erfrculirh, or Alle zu einem Ton einslimmig. The members set themselves the task of counteracting the pedantry of another school of poetry by imagination and gaiety, but lacking imagination and broad views they took refuge in allegorical subjects and puerile trifling. The result was to debase rather than to raise the standard of poetic art in Germany. At first the meetings of the order were held in private grounds, but in 1681 they were transferred to a forest near Kraftshof or Naunhof. In 1794 the order was reorganized, and it now exists merely as a literary society.

See Tittman, Die mimberger Dichterschule (Gottingen, 1847); and the Festschnf! zur 250-jd'hrigm Jubelfeier des pcgnesischen Blumenordens (Nuremberg, 1894).

PEGODO’I‘I'I, FRANCESCO BALDUCCI (fl. 1315—1340), Florentine merchant and writer, was a factor in the service of the mercantile house of the Bardi, and in this capacity we find him at Antwerp from 1315 (or earlier) to 1317; in London in 1317 and apparently for some time after; in Cyprus from 1324 to 1327, and again (or perhaps in unbroken continuation of his former residence) in 1335. In this last year he obtained from the king of Little Armenia (Le. medieval Cilicia, &c.) a grant of privileges for Florentine trade. Between 1335 and 1343, probably in 1339—1340, be compiled his Libra di divisamenti di Paesi e di misuri di mercalanzic e d'altre case bisognc'voli di sapere a’ mercatanli, commonly known as the Pratica deIIa mercalura (the name given it by Pagnini). Beginning with a sort of glossary of foreign terms then in use for all kinds of taxes or payments on merchandise as well as for “ every kind of place where goods might be bought or sold in cities," the Pratica next describes some of the chief trade routes of the 14th century, and many of the principal markets then known to Italian merchants; the imports and exports of various important commercial regions; the business customs prevalent in each of those regions; and the comparative value of the leading moneys, weights and measures. The most distant and extensive trade routes described by cholotti are: (1) that from Tana or Azov to Peking via Astrakhan, Khiva, Otrar, Kulja and Kanchow (Gittarchan, Organci, Ottrarre, Armalecco and Camexu in the Pratica); (2) that from Lajazzo on the Cilician coast to Tabriz in north Persia via Sivas, Erzingan and Erzerum (Salvastro, Arzinga and Arzerone); (3) that from Trebizond to Tabriz. Among the markets enumerated are: Tana, Constantinople, Alexandria, Damietta, and the ports of Cyprus and the Crimea. Pegolotti’s notices of ports on the north of the Black Sea are very valuable; his works show us that Florentine exports had now gained a high reputation in the Levant. In other chapters an account is given of 14th-century methods of packing goods (ch. 29); of assaying gold and silver (ch. 35); of shipment; of “ London in England in itself ” (ch. 62); of monasteries in Scotland and England (“ Scotland of England,” Scozia di Inghilterra) that were rich in wool (ch. 63). Among the latter are Newbattle, Balmerino, Cupar, Dunfermline, Dundrennan, Glenluce, Coldingham, Kelso, Newminster near Morpeth,

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uschite, mosandrite, pyrochlore. perofskite and lamprophgllite. (I. .F.)

Furness, Fountains, Kirkstall, Kirstead, Swineshead, Sawley

and Calder. Pegolotti’s interest in England and Scotland is chiefly connected with the wool trade.

There is only one MS. of the Pratica, viz. No. 2441 in the Riccardian Library at Florence (241 fols., occupying the whole volume), written in 1471; and one edition of the text, in vol. iii. of Gian Francesco Pagnini's Della Decima. a dell: altre gravezze thoste dat commune di Firenae (Lisbon and Lucca—really Florence—~1766); Sir Henry Yule, Cathay, ii. 279— 08, translated into English the most interesting sections of Pego otti, with valuable commentary (London, Hakluyt Society, 1866). See also W. Heyd, Commerce du Levant, ii., 12, 5o, 58, 78—79, 8 ~86, 112—11 (Leipzi , 1886); H. Kiepert, in Sitzun sherichte der p ilos.-hist. C . der ber iner 1112011., 5. 901, (Ber in, 1881); C. R. Beazley, Dawn of Modem

eagraphy, 111. 324—332, 550, 555 (Oxford, 1906).

PEGU, a town and former capital of Lower Burma, giving its name to a district and a division. The town is situated on a river of the same name, 47 m. N.E. of Rangoon by rail; pop. (1901), 14,132. It is still surrounded by the old walls, about 40 ft. wide, on which have been built the residences of the British officials. The most conspicuous object is the ShWemaw-daw pagoda, 324 ft. high, considerably larger and even more holy than the Shwe-dagon. pagoda at Rangoon. Pegu is said to have been founded in 573, as the first capital of the Talaings; but it was as the capital of the Toungoo dynasty that it became known to Europeans in the 16th century. About the middle of the 18th century it was destroyed by Alompra; but it rose again, and was important enough to be the scene of fighting in both the first and second Burmese Wars. It gave its name to the province (including Rangoon) which was annexed by the British in 1852.

The district, which was formed in 1883, consists of an alluvial tract between the Pegu Yoma range and the Sittang river: area, 4276 sq. m.; pop. (1901), 339,572, showing an increase of 43% in the decade. Christians numbered nearly 9000, mostly Karens. Almost the only crop grown is rice, which is exported in large quantities to Rangoon. The district is traversed by the railway, and also crossed by the Pegu-Sittang canal, navigable for 85 m., with locks.

The division of Pegu comprises the five districts of Rangoon city, Hanthawaddy, Tharrawaddy, Pegu and Prome, lying east of the Irrawaddy: area 13,084 sq. m.; pop. (1901), 1,820,638.

Pegu has also given its name to the Pegu Yoma, a range of hills running north and south for about 200 m., between the Irrawaddy and Sittang rivers. The height nowhere exceeds 2000 ft. but the slopes are steep and rugged. The forests yield teak and other valuable timber. The Pegu river, which rises in this range, falls into the Rangoon river just below Rangoon city, after a course of about 180 m.

PEILE, JOHN (1838—1910), English philologist, was born at Whitehaven on the 24th of April 1838. He was educated at Repton and Christ’s College, Cambridge. After a distinguished career (Craven scholar, senior classic and chancellor’s medallist), he became fellow and tutor of his college, reader of comparative philology in the university (1884—1891), and in 1887 was elected master of Christ’s. He took a great interest in the higher education of women and became president of Newnham College. He was the first to introduce the great philological works of George Curtius and Wilhelm Corssen to the English student in his Introduction to Greek and Latin Etymology (1869). He died at Cambridge on the 9th of October 1910, leaving practically completed his exhaustive history of Christ’s College.

PEINE, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Hanover, 16 m. by rail N.W. of Brunswick, on the railway to Hanover and Hamburg. Pop. (1905), 15,421. The town has a Roman Catholic and a Protestant church and several schools. Its industries include iron and steel works, breweries, distilleries and brickyards, and the manufacture of starch, sugar, malt, machinery and artificial manure. There are also large horse and cattle markets held here. Peine was at one time a strongly fortified place, and until 1803 belonged to the bishopric of Hildesheim. '

PEINE FORTE E'l‘ DURE (French for “hard and severe punishment ”), the term for a barbarous torture inflicted on those who, arraigned of felony, refused to plead and stood silent, or

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challenged more than twenty jurors, which was deemed a con— tumacy equivalent to a refusal to plead. By early English law a prisoner, before he could be tried, must plead “ guilty ” or “ not guilty.” Before the 13th century it was usual to imprison and starve till submission, but in Henry IV.’s reign the peine was employed. The prisoner was stretched on his back, and stone or iron weights were placed on him till he either submitted or was pressed to death. Pressing to death was abolished in 1772; “ standing mute ” on an arraignment of felony being then made equivalent to conviction. By an act of 1828 a plea of “ not guilty ” was to be entered against any prisoner refusing to plead, and that is the rule to-day. An alternative to the peine was the tying of the thumbs tightly together with whipcord until pain forced the prisoner to speak. This was said to be a common practice at the Old Bailey up to the 19th century.

Among recorded instances of the infliction of the Peine are: {{uliana Quick (1442) for high treason in speaking derisively of

enry V .; Margaret ClltlleOW, “the martyr of York" (1 86); Walter Calverly, of Calverly, Yorks, for the murder of his chi dren (1605); and Major Strangways at Newgate, charged with murder of his brother-in-law (1657). In this last use it is said that upon the weights bemg placed 1n positron several cavaller friends of Strangways sprang on his body and put him out of his in. In 1721 one Nathaniel Hawes lay under a weight of 250 lb szi' seven minutes, finally submitting. The Peine was last employed in 1741 at Cambridge assizes, when a prisoner was so put to death; the penalty of thumb-tying having first been tried. In 1692 at Salem, Massachusetts, Giles Core , accused of witchcraft, refusin to plead, was

'ressed to death. his is believed to be the only mstance of the 1nfiiction of the penalty in America.

PEIPUS, or Crwnsxon; 0212110, a lake of north-west Russia, between the governments of St Petersburg, Pskov, Livonia and Esthonia. Including its southern extension, sometimes known as Lake Pskov, it has an area of 1356 sq. In. Its shores are flat and sandy, and in part wooded; its waters deep, and they afiord valuable fishing. The lake is fed by the Velikaya, which enters it at its southern extremity, and by the Embach, which flows in half way up its western shore; it drains into the Gulf of Finland by the Narova, which issues at its north-east corner.

PEIRAEUS, or PIRAEUS (Gr. Hetpazebs), the port town of Athens, with which its history is inseparany connected. Pop. (1907), 67,982. It consists of a rocky promontory, containing three natural harbours, a large one on the north-west which is still one of the chief commercial harbours of the Levant, and two smaller ones on the east, which were used chiefly for naval purposes. Themistocles was the first to urge the Athenians to take advantage of these harbours, instead of using the sandy bay of Phaleron; and the fortification of the Peiraeus was begun in 493 B.C. Later on it was connected with Athens by the Long Walls in 460 B.C. The town of Peiraeus was laid out by the architect Hippodamus of Miletus, probably in the time of Pericles. The promontory itself consisted of two parts—the hill of Munychia, and the projection of Acte; on the opposite side of the great harbour was the outwork of Eetioneia. The most stirring episode in the history of the Peiraeus is the seizure of Munychia by Thrasybulus and the exiles from Phyle, and the consequent destruction of the “ 3o tyrants ” in 404 B.C. The three chief arsenals of the Peiraeus were named Munychia, Zea and Cantharus, and they contained galley slips for 82, 196 and 94 ships respectively in the 4th century B.C.

See under ATHENS. Also Angelopoulos, Ilspl Helped-"n ml 11?» htpémv 0.171110 (Athens, 1898).

PEIRCE, BENJAMIN (1809-1880), American mathematician and astronomer, was born at Salem, Massachusetts, on the 4th of April 1809. Graduating at Harvard College in 1829, he became mathematical tutor there in 1831 and professor in 1833. He had already assisted Nathaniel Bowditch in his translation of the M écanique célcste, and now produced ,a series of mathematical textbooks characterized by the brevity and terseness which made his teaching unattractive to inapt pupils. Young men of talent, on the contrary, found his instruction most stimulating, and after Bowditch’s death in 1838 Peirce stood first among American mathematicians. His researches into the perturbations of Uranus and Neptune (Prac. Amer. Acod., 1848) gave him a wider fame; he became in 1849 consulting astronomer to the American Nautical Almanac, and for this work prepared new tables of the moon (1852). A discussion of the equilibrium of Saturn’s rings led him to conclude in 1855 that they must be of a fluid nature. From 1867 to 1874 he was superintendent of the Coast Survey. In 1857 he published his best known work, the System of Analytical Mechanics, which was, however, surpassed in brilliant originality by his Linear Associative Algebra (lithographed privately in a few copies, 1870; reprinted in the Amer. Journ. Moth., 1882). He died at Cambridge, Mass, on the 6th of October 1880.

See New Amer. CycloPaedia (Ripley and Dana),__vol. xiii. (1861); T. j. ]. See, POPulor Astronomy, Ill. 49; Nature, xxu. 607; R. Grant, Hist. of Phys. Astronomy, p . 205, 292; J. C. Poggendorfi', Biog. lit. Handworterbuch; Month. Notices Roy. Astr. Society, xli. 191.

PEISANDER, of Camirus in Rhodes, Greek epic poet, supposed to have flourished about 640 B.C. He was the author of a H erocleia, in which he introduced a new conception of the hero, the lion’s skin and club taking the place of the older Homeric equipment. He is also said to have fixed the number of the “ labours of Hercules " at twelve. The work, which according to Clement of Alexandria (Stromato, vi. ch. 2) was simply a plagiarism from an unknown Pisinus of Lindus, enjoyed so high a reputation that the Alexandrian critics admitted the author to the epic canon. From an epigram (20) of Theocritus we learn that a statue was erected in honour of Peisander by his countrymen. He is to be distinguished from Peisander of Laranda in Lycia, who lived during the reign of Alexander Severus (A.D. 222—23 5), and wrote a poem on the mixed marriages of ods and mortals, after the manner of the Eoiai of Hesiod.

fra ments in G. Kinkel, Epicarum graccorumfragmenta (1878); also F. . Welcker, Kleine Schn'ften, vol. i. (1844), on the twelve labours of Hercules in Peisander.

PEISIS'I‘RA’I‘US, (605P-527 B.c.), Athenian statesman, was the son of Hippocrates. He was named after Peisistratus, the youngest son of Nestor, the alleged ancestor of his family; he was second cousin on his mother's side to Solon, and numbered among his ancestors Codrus the last great king of Athens. Thus among those who became “tyrants ” in the Greek world he gained his position as one of the old nobility, like Phalaris of Agrigentum, and Lygdamis of Naxos; but unlike Orthagoras of Sicyon, who had previously been a cook. Peisistratus, though Solon’s junior by thirty years, was his lifelong friend (though this isdenied), nor did their friendship suffer owing to their political antagonism. From this widely accepted belief arose the almost certainly false statement that Peisistratus took part in Solon’s successful war against Mcgara, which necessarily took place before Solon’s archonship (probably in 600 13.0.). Aristotle’s Constitution of Athens (ch. 17) carefully distinguishes Solon’s Megarian War from a second in which Peisistratus was no doubt in command, undertaken between 570 and 565 to recapture Nisaea (the port of Megara) which had apparently been recovered by the Megarians since Solon’s victory (see Sandys on The Constitution of Athens, ch. 14, 1, note, and E. Abbott, History of Greece, vol. i. app. p. 544). Whatever be the true explanation of this problem, it is certain (1) that Peisistratus was regarded as a leading soldier, and (2) that his position was strengthened by the prestige of his family. Furthermore (3) he was a man of great ambition, persuasive eloquence and wide generosity; qualities which especially appealed at that time to the classes from whom he was to draw his support—hence the warning of Solon (Frag. II. B): “ Fools, you are treading in the footsteps of the fox; can you not read the hidden meaning of these charming words?” Lastly, (4) and most important, the times were ripe for revolution. In the article on SOLON (ad fin.) it is shown that the Solonian reforms, though they made a great advance in some directions, failed on the whole. They were too moderate to please the people, too democratic for the nobles. It was found that the government by Boule and Ecclesia did not mean popular control in the full sense; it meant government by the leisured classes, inasmuch as the industrious farmer or herdsman could not leave his work to give his vote at the Ecclesia, or do his duty as a councillor. Partly owing to this, and partly to

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ancient feuds whose origin we cannot trace, the Athenian people was split up into three great factions known as the Plain (Pedicis) led by Lycurgus and Miltiades, both of noble families; the Shore (Parali) led by the Alcmaeonidae, represented at this time by Megacles, who was strong in his wealth and by his recent marriage with Agariste, daughter of Cleisthcnes of Sicyon; the Hill or Upland (Diacrcis, Diacrii) led by Peisistratus, who no doubt owed his influence among these hillmen partly to the possession of large estates at Marathon. In the two former divisions the influence of wealth and birth predominated; the hillmen were poorly housed, poorly clad and unable to make use of the privileges which Solon had given them.1 Hence their attachment to Peisistratus, the “ man of the people,” who called upon them to sweep away the last barriers which separated rich and poor, nobles and commoners, city and countryside. Lastly, there was a class of men who were discontented with the Solonian constitution: some had lost by his Seisachtheia, others had vainly hoped for a general redistribution. These men saw their only hope in a revolution. Such were the factors which enabled him to found his tyranny.

To enter here into an exhaustive account of the various theories which even before, though especially after, the appearance of the Constitution of Athens haye been propounded as to the chronology of the Peisistratean tyranny, is impossible. For a summary of these hypotheses see J. E. Sandys’s edition of the Constitution of Athens (p. 56, c. 14 note). The following is in brief the sequence of events: In 560 13.0. Peisistratus drove into the market-place, showed to an indignant assembly marks of violence on himself and his mules, and claimed to be the victim of assault at the hands of political enemies. The people unhesitatingly awarded their “ champion ” a bodyguard of fifty men (afterwards four hundred) armed with clubs. With this force he proceeded to make himself master of the Acropolis and tyrant of Athens. The Alcrnaeonids fled and Peisistratus remained in power for about five years, during which Solon’s death occurred. In 555 or 554 3.6. a coalition of the Plain and the Coast succeeded in expelling him. His property was confiscated and sold by auction, but in his absence the strife between the Plain and the Coast was renewed, and Megacles, unable to hold his own, invited him to return. The condition was that their families should be allied by the marriage of Peisistratus to Megacles’ daughter Coesyra. A second coup d’état was then effected. A beautiful woman, it is said, by name Phya, was disguised as Athena and drove into the Agora with Peisistratus at her side, while proclamations were made that the goddess herself was restoring Peisistratus to Athens. The ruse was successful, but Peisistratus soon quarrelled with Megacles over Coesyra. By a former marriage he already had two sons, Hippias and Hipparchus, now growing up, and in his first tyranny or his first exile he married an Argive, Timonassa, by whom he had two other sons Iophon and Hegesistratus, the latter of whom is said to be identical with Thessalus (Ath. Pol. c. 17), though from Thucydides and Herodotus we gather that they were distinct—e.g. Herodotus describes Hegesistratus as a bastard, and Thucydides says that 'Ihessalus was legitimate. Further it is suggested that Peisistratus was unwilling to have children by one on whom lay the curse of the Cylonian outrage. The result was that in the seventh year (or month, see Ath. Pol. c. 15. 1, Sandys’s note) Megacles accused him of neglecting his daughter, combined once more with the third faction, and drove the tyrant into an exile lasting apparently for ten or eleven years. During this period he lived first at Rhaecelus and later near Mt Pangaeus and on the Strymon collecting resources of men and money. He came finally to Eretria, and, with thehelp of the Thebans and Lygdamis of Naxos, whom he afterwards made ruler of that island, he passed over to Attica and defeated the Athenian forces at the battle of Pallenis or Pellene. From this time till his death he remained undisputed master of Athens. The Alcmaeonids were compelled to leave Athens, and from

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the other noble families which remained he exacted 400 hostages whom he put in the care of his ally Lygdamis.

In the heyday of the Athenian democracy, citizens both conservative and progressive, politicians, philosophers and historians were unanimous in their denunciation of “ tyranny.” Yet there is no doubt that the rule of Peisistratus was most beneficial to Athens both in her foreign and in her internal relations. (1) During his enforced absence from Athens he had evidently acquired a far more extended idea of the future of Athens than had hitherto dawned on the somewhat parochial minds of her leaders. He was friendly with Thebes and Argos; his son Hegesistratus he set in power at Sigeum (see E. Abbott, Hist. of Gr. vol. i. xv. 9) and his friend Lygdamis at Naxos. From the mines of Thrace, and perhaps from the harbour dues and from the mines of Laurium, he derived a large revenue; under his encouragement, Miltiades had planted an Athenian colony on the shores of the Thracian Chersonese; he had even made friends with Thessaly and Macedonia, as is evidenced by the hospitality extended by them to Hippias on his final expulsion. Finally, he did not allow his friendliness with Argos to involve him in war with Sparta, towards whom he pursued a policy of moderation. (2) At home it is admitted by all authorities that his rule was moderate and beneficent, and that he was careful to preserve at least the form of the established constitution. It is even said that, being accused of murder, he was ready to be tried by the Areopagus. Everything which he did during his third period of rule was in the interests of discipline and order, Thus he hired a. mercenary bodyguard, and utilized for his own purposes the public revenues; he kept the chief magistracies (through which he ruled) in the hands of his family; he imposed a general tax1 of 10% (perhaps reduced by Hippias to 5%) on the produce of the land, and thus obtained control over the fleet and spread the burden of it over all the citizens (see the spurious letter of Peisistratus to Solon, Diog. Laért. i. 53; Thuc. vi. 54 and Arnold’s note ad loo; Boeckh iii. 6; Thirlwall c. xi., pp. 72—74; and Grote). But the great wisdom of Peisistratus is shown most clearly in the skill with which he blinded the people to his absolutism. Pretending to maintain the Solonian constitution (as he could well afford), he realized that people would never recognize the deception if a sufficient degree of prosperity were ensured. Secondly, he knew that the greater the propor

tion of the Athenians who were prosperously at work in the

country and therefore did not trouble to interfere in the work of government the less would be the danger of sedition, whose seeds are in a crowded city. Hence he appears to have encouraged agriculture by abating the tax on small farms, and even by assisting them with money and stock. Secondly, he established deme law-courts to prevent people from having recourse to the city tribunals; it is said that he himself occasionally “ went on circuit,” and on one of these occasions was’so struck by the plaints of an old farmer on Hymettus, that be remitted all taxation on his land. Thus Athens enjoyed immunity from war and internecine struggle, and for the first time for years was in enjoyment of settled financial prosperity (see Constitution of Athens, c. 16. 7 6 érri Kpc'wov files).

The money which he accumulated he put to good use in the construction of roads and public buildings. Like Cleisthenes of Sicyon and I‘eriander of Corinth, he realized that one great source of strength to the nobles had been their presidency over the local cults. This‘he diminished by increasing the splendour of the Panathenaic festival every fourth year and the Dionysiac2 rites, and so created a national rather than a local religion. With the same idea he built the temple of the Pythian Apollo and began, though he did not finish, the temple of Zeus (the magni~ ficent columns now standing belong to the age of Hadrian).

1 It should be noted as against this, the general account, that Thucydides, s eaking apparently with accuracy, describes the tax as elxovrfi (§% ; the Constitution of Athens speaks of (the familiar) 60.11"} (10%).

’ Dionysus, as the god of the rustics, was especially worshipped at Icaria, near Marathon, and so was the god of the Diacrii. It seems likel that Peisistratus. to please his supporters, originated the City-Dronysia. ‘

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To him are ascribed also the original Parthenon on the Acropolis, afterwards burned by the Persians, and replaced by the Parthenon of Pericles. It is said that he gave a great impetus to 'the dramatic representations which belonged to the Dionysiac cult, and that it was under his encouragement that Thespis of Icaria, by impersonating character, laid the foundation of the great Greek drama of the 5th and 4th centuries. Lastly, Peisistratus carried out the purification of Delos, the sacred island of Apollo of the Ionians; all the tombs were removed from the neighbourhood of the shrine, the abode of the god of light and joy.

We have spoken of his services to the state, to the poor, to religion. It remains to mention his alleged services to literature. All we can reasonably believe is that he gave encouragement to poetry as he had done to architecture and the drama; Onomacritus, the chief of the Orphic succession, and collector of the' oracles of Musaeus, was a member of his household. Honestly, or to impress the people, Peisistratus made considerable use of oracles (c.g. at the battle of Pellene), and his descendants, by the oracles of Onomacritus, persuaded Darius to undertake their restoration. As to the library of Peisistratus, we have no good evidence; it 'may perhaps be a fiction of an Alexandrian writer. There is strong reason for believing the story that he first collected the Homeric poems and that his was the text which ultimately prevailed (see HOMER).

It appears that Peisistratus was benevolent to the last, and, like Julius Caesar, showed no resentment against enemies and calumniators. What Solon said of him in his youth was true throughout, “ there is no better-disposed man in Athens, save for his ambition.” He was succeeded by his sons Hippias and Hipparchus, by whom the tyranny was in various ways brought into disrepute.

It should be observed that the tyranny of Peisistratus is one of the many epochs of Greek history on which opinion has almost entirely changed since the age of Grote. Shortly, his services to Greece and to the world may be summed up under three heads: In foreign policy, he sketched out the plan on which Athens was to act in her external relations. He advocated (a) alliances with Argos, Thessaly and Macedon, (b) ascendancy in the Aegean, (Naxos and Delos), (c) control of the Hellespontine roiite (Sigeum and the Chersonese), (d) control of the Strymon yalley (Mt Pangaeus and the Strymon). Further, his rule exemplifies what is characteristic of all the Greek tyrannies— the advantage which the ancient monarchy had over the republican form of government. By means of his sons and his deputies (or' viceroys) and by his system of matrimonial alliances he gave Athens a. widespread influence in the centres of commerce, and brought her into connexion with the growing sources of trade and production in the eastern parts of the Greek world. (2) His importance in the sphere of domestic policy has been frequently underrated. It may fairly be held that the reforms of Solon would have been futile had they not been fulfilled and amplified by the genius of Peisistratus. (3) It was under his auspices that Athens began to take the lead in literature. From this period we must date the beginning of Athenian literary ascendancy. But see ATHENS.

Aurnomrrns.-Ancient: Herod. i. 59; Plut. Salon 30; Arist. Politics, v. 12, 5- 1315 b.; Constitution ofAthens (Alh. Pol.) cc. 14—19. On the chronological problems see also P. Meyer, Arist. Pol. and the Ath. Pol. pp. 48—9; Gomperz, Die Schrift v. Staatswesen, 8m. (1891); Bauer, Lit. and hist. Forsch. a. Arist. Ath. Pet. (50 sqq.). On the characteristics of the Peisistratid tyranny see Greenidge, Handbook of Greek Constitutional History. pp. 26 sqq. ; and the histories of Greece. On the uestion of the family of Peisistratus see Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, gristoteles and Athm (Berlin, 1893) and a criticism by E. M. Walker in the Classical Review, vol. viii. p. 20660116. M )

PEKIN, a city and the county-seat of Tazewell county, Illinois, U.S.A., on the Illinois river, in the central part of the state, about 11 m. S. of Peoria, and about 56 m. N. of Springfield. Pop. (1910), 9897. It is served by the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fé, the Chicago & Alton, the Chicago, Peoria & StLouis, the Illinois Central, the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis, the Peoria .Railway Terminal Company, the Peoria

& Pekin Union and (for freight between Peoria and Pekin) the Illinois Valley Belt railways. Situated in a rich agricultural region and in the Illinois coalfields, Pekin is a shipping point and grain market of considerable importance, and has various manufactures. The value of the factory products in 1905 was $1,121,130. Pekin was first settled about 1830, was incorporated in 1839, and re-incorporated in 1874.

PEKING. or Pam, the capital of the Chinese Empire, situated in 39° 57’ N. and 116° 29' E., on the northern extremity of the great alluvial delta which extends southward from its walls for 700 m. For nine centuries Peking, under various names and under the dominion of successive dynasties, has, with some short intervals, remained an imperial city. Its situation near the northern frontier recommended it to the Tatar invaders as a convenient centre for their power, and its peculiarly fortunate position as regards the supernatural terrestrial influences pertaining to it has inclined succeeding Chinese monarchs to accept it as the seat of their courts. In 986 it was taken by an invading force of Khitan Tatars, who adopted it as their headquarters and named it Nanking, or the “ southern capital.” During the early part of the 12th century the Chinese recaptured it and reduced it from the rank of a metropolis to that of a provincial city of the first grade, and called it Yen-shan Fu. In 1151 it fell into the hands of the Kin Tatars, who made it a royal residence under the name of Chung-tu, or “ central capital.” Less than a century later it became the prize of Jenghiz Khan, who, having his main interests centred on the Mongolian steppes, declined to move his court southwards. His great successor, Kublai Khan (1280—1294), rebuilt the town, which he called Yenking, and which became known in Chinese as Ta-tu, or “ great court,” and in Mongolian as Khanbalik (Cambaluc), or “ city of the khan.” During the reign of the first emperor of the dynasty (1368—1399) which succeeded that founded by Jenghiz Khan the court resided at the modern Nanking, but the succeeding sovereign Yung-lo (1403—1425) transferred his court to Pe-king (Le. “ north-court ”), which has ever since been the seat of government. For further history see CAMBALUC.

During the periods above mentioned the extent and boundaries of the city varied considerably. Under the Kin dynasty the walls extended to the south-west of the Tatar portion of the present city, and the foundations of the northern ramparts of the Khan-balik of Kublai Khan are still to be traced at a distance of about 2 111. north beyond the existing walls. The modern city consists of the nei ch’ éng,or inner city, commonly known to foreigners as the “ Tatar city,” and the 1001' ch’éng, or outer city, known in the same way as the “ Chinese city.” These names are somewhat misleading, as the inner city is not enclosed within the outer city, but adjoins its northern wall,which, being longer than the nei ch’éng is wide, outflanks it considerably at both ends. The outer walls of the double city contain an area of about 2 5 sq. m., and measure 30 m. in circumference. Unlike the walls of most Chinese cities; those of Peking are kept in perfect order. Those of the Tatar portion, which is the oldest part of the city, are 50 ft.high,with a width of 60 ft. at the base and 40 it. at the top, while those of the Chinese city, which were built by the emperor Kia-tsing in 1543, measure 30 ft. in height, and have a width of 25 ft. at the base and 15 ft. at the top. The terre-plein is well and smoothly paved, and is defended by a crenellated parapet. The outer faces of the walls are strengthened by square buttresses built out at intervals of 60 yds., and on the summits of these stand the guard-houses for the troops on duty. Each of the sixteen gates of the city is protected by a semicircular enceinte, and is surmounted by a high tower built in galleries and provided with countless loopholes.

Peking suffered severely during the Boxer movement and the siege of the legations in the summer of 1900. Not only were most of the foreign buildings destroyed, but also a large number of important Chinese buildings in the vicinity of the foreign quarter, including the ancient Hanlin Yuen, the boards of war, rites, &c. Almost the whole of the business quarter, the wealthiest part of the Chinese city, was laid in ashes (see CHINA: History).

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The population of Peking is reckoned to be about 1,000,000, a number which is out of all proportion to the immense area enclosed within its walls. This disparity is partly accounted for by the facts that large spaces, notably in the Chinese city, are not built over, and that the grounds surrounding the imperial palace, private residences and temples are very extensive. One of such enclosures constitutes the British legation, and most of the other foreign legations are similarly, though not so sumptuously, lodged. Viewed from the walls Peking looks like a city of gardens. Few crowded neighbourhoods are visible, and the characteristic features of the scene which meets the eye are the upturned roofs of temples, palaces, and mansions, gay with blue, green and yellow glazed tiles, glittering among the groves of trees with which the city abounds. It is fortunate that the city is not close-built or crowded, for since the first advent of foreigners in Peking in 1860 nothing whatever had been done until 1900 to improve the streets or the drainage. The streets as originally laid out were wide and spacious, but being unpaved and undrained they were no better than mud tracks diversified by piles of garbage and foul-smelling stagnant pools. Such drainage as had at one time existed was allowed to get choked up, giving rise to typhoid fever of a virulent type. Some attempt has been made to improve matters by macadamizing one of the principal thoroughfares, but it will be the labour of a Hercules to cleanse this vast city from the accumulated filth of ages of neglect.

Enclosed within the Tatar city is the Hwang ch’éng, or “ Imperial city,” which in its turn encloses the T sze-kin ch’éng, or “Forbidden city,” in which stands the emperor’s palace. On the north of the Tsze-kin ch’éng, and separated from it by a moat, is an artificial mound known as the King shun, or “ Prospect Hill.” This.mound, which forms a prominent object in the view over the city, is about 150 ft. high, and is topped with five summits, on each of which stands a temple. It is encircled by a wall measuring upwards of a mile in circumference, and is prettily planted with trees, on one of which the last emperor of the Ming dynasty (1644), finding escape from the Manchu invaders impossible, hanged himself. On the west of Prospect Hill is the Si yuan, or ‘ Western Park,” which forms part of the palace grounds. This park is tastefully laid out, and is traversed by a lake, which is mainly noticeable from the remarkably handsome marble bridge which crosses it from east to west. Directly northwards from Prospect Hill stands the residence of the Tim, or “governor of the city,” and the Bell and the Drum Towers, both of which have attained celebrity from the nature of their contents—the first from the huge bell which hangs in it, and the second from the appliances it contains for marking the time. The bell is one of five which the emperor Yung-lo ordered to be cast. In common with the others, it weighs 120,000 lb, is 14 ft. high, 34 ft. in circumference at the rim, and 9 in. thick. It is struck by a wooden beam swung on the outside, and only at the changes of the night-watches, when its deep tone may be heard in all parts of the city. In the Drum Tower incense-sticks, specially prepared by the astronomical board, are kept burning to mark the passage of time, in which important duty their accuracy is checked by a clepsydra. Another of Yung-lo’s bells is hung in a Buddhist temple outside the north-west angle of the city wall, and is covered both on the inside and outside with the Chinese texts of the Lankdvaldra Salra, and the Saddharma pundarika Sfllra.

Turning southwards we come again to the Forbidden City, the central portion of which forms the imperial palace, where, in halls which for the magnificence of their proportions and barbaric splendour are probably not to be surpassed anywhere, the Son of Heaven holds his court. In the eastern and western portions of this city are situated the residences of the highest dignitaries of the empire; while beyond its confines on the south stand the offices of the six official boards which direct the affairs of the eighteen provinces. It was in the “ yamén ” of one of these boards—the Li Pu or board of rites—that Lord Elgin signed the treaty at the conclusion of the war in r860—an event which derives especial interest from the fact of its having been the first

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