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Sir William married Eleanor, daughter of Henry Neville, earl of Westmorland, and was the ancestor of the Pelhams of Brocklesby, Lincolnshire. In the fourth generation Charles Pelham died in 1763 without heirs, leaving his estates to his great-nephew Charles Anderson (1749-1823), who thereupon assumed the additional name of Pelham, and was created Baron Yarborough in 1794. His son Charles (1781—1846), who was for many years commodore of the Royal Yacht Squadron, was created earl of Yarborough and Baron Worsley in 1837. Charles Alfred Worsley, the 4th earl (b. 1859), exchanged the name of Anderson-Pelham for that of Pelham in 1905. He married in 1886 Marcia Lane-Fox, eldest daughter of the 12th Baron Conyers, who became in 1892 Baroness Conyers in her own right.

Sir Nrcrrous P12111411 (1517—1560), an elder half-brother of Sir William Pelham, defended Seaford against the French in 1545, and sat for Arundel and for Sussex in parliament. He was the ancestor of the earls of Chichester. His second son, Sir THOMAS PELnAu (d. 1624), was created a baronet in 1611. His descendant, Sir THOMAS P12111411, 4th baronet (c. 1650-1712), represented successively East Grinstead, Lewes and Sussex in parliament, and was raised to the House of Lords as Baron Pelham of Laughton in 1706. By his second marriage with Grace (d. 1700), daughter of Gilbert Holles, 3rd earl of Clare, and sister of John Holles, duke of Newcastle, he had five daughters, and two sons—Thomas Pelham, earl of Clare, duke of Newcastle-on-Tyne and rst duke of Newcastle-under-Lyme (see Newcasrrn, DUKES or), and Henry Pelham (q.v.). The duke of Newcastle died without heirs, and the dukedom of Newcastleunder-Lyme descended to his nephew, Henry Fiennes Clinton, afterwards known as Pelham-Clinton, and his heirs, but the barony of Pelham of Laughton became extinct. In 1762 Newcastle had been created Baron Pelham of Stanmer, with reversion to his cousin and heir-male, THOMAS PELHAM (172& 1805), who became commissioner of trade (1754), lord of the admiralty (1761—1764), comptroller of the household (1765— 1774), privy councillor (1765), surveyor-general of the customs of London (1773-1805), chief justice in eyre (1774—1775) and keeper of the wardrobe (177 5—1782), and was created earl of Chichester in 1801. His third son, George (1766—1827), was successively bishop of Bristol, Exeter and Lincoln. THOMAS PELHAM, 2nd earl of Chichester (17 56—1826), son of the rst earl, was surveyor-general of ordnance in Lord Rockingham’s ministry (1782), and chief secretary for Ireland in the coalition ministry of 1783. In 1795 he .became Irish chief secretary under Pitt’s government, retiring in 1798; he was home secretary from July 1801 to August 1803 under Addington, who made him chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster in 1803. Pelham went out of office in 1804, and in the next year succeeded to the earldom. He was joint postmaster-general from 1807 to 1823, and for the remaining three years of his life postmaster-general. His son and heir, HENRY THOMAS PELHAM (1804—1886), 3rd earl, was an ecclesiastical commissioner from 1850 until his death,and was greatly interested in various religious, philanthropic and educational movements; and two other sons were well-known men—Frederick Thomas Pelham (1808-1861), who became a rear-admiral in 1858, and subsequently lord-commissioner of the admiralty, and John Thomas Pelham (1811—1894), who was bishop of Norwich from 1857 to 1893. The third earl’s son, Walter John Pelham (1838—1892), succeeded his father in 1886, and his nephewJocelyn Brudenell Pelham (b. 1871) became 6th earl of Chichester in 1905.

PELHAM, HENRY (1696—17 54), prime minister of England, younger brother of Thomas Holles Pelham, duke of Newcastle, was born in 1696. He was a younger son of Thomas, 1st Baron

Pelham of Laughton (1650—1712; cr. 1706) and of Lady Grace ,

Holles, daughter of the 31d earl of Clare (see above). He was educated by a private tutor and at Christ Church, Oxford, which he entered in July 1710. As a volunteer he served in Dormer’s regiment at the battle of Preston in 1715,spent some time on the Continent, and in 1717 entered parliament for Seaford, Sussex. Through strong family influence and the


recommendation of Walpole he was chosen in 1721 a. lord of the Treasury. The following year he was returned for Sussex county. In 1724 he entered the ministry as secretary of war, but this office he exchanged in 1730 for the more lucrative one of paymaster of the forces. He made himself conspicuous by his support Of Walpole on the question of the excise, and in 1743 a union of parties resulted in the formation of an administration in which Pelham was prime minister, with the oflice of chancellor of the exchequer; but rank and influence made his brother, the duke of Newcastle, very powerful in the cabinet, and, in spite of a genuine attachment, there were occasional disputes between them, which led to difficulties. Being strongly in favour of peace, Pelham carried on thewar with languor and indifferent success, but the country, wearied of the interminable struggle, was disposed to acquiesce in his foreign policy almost without a murmur. The king, thwarted in his favourite schemes, made overtures in 1746 to Lord Bath, but his purpose was upset by the resignation of the two Pelhams (Henry and Newcastle), who, however, at the king’s request, resumed oflice. Pelham remained prime minister till his death on the 6th of March 1754, when his brother succeeded him. His very defects were among the chief elements of Pelham’s success, for one with a strong personality, moderate self-respect, or high conceptions of statesmanship could not have restrained the discordant elements of the cabinet for any length of time. Moreover, he possessed tact and a thorough acquaintance with the forms of the house. Whatever quarrels or insubordination might exist within the cabinet, they never broke out into open revolt. Nor can a high degree of praise be denied to his financial policy, especially his plans for the reduction of the national debt and the simplification and consolidation of its different branches. He had married in 1726 Lady Catherine Manners, daughter of the 2nd duke of Rutland; and one of his daughters married Henry Fiennes Clinton, and duke of Newcastle.

See “I. Coxe, Memoirs of the Pelham Administration. (2 vols., 1829). For the family history see Lower, Pelham Family (1873); also the Pelham and Newcastle M55. in the British Museum.

PELHAM, HENRY FRANCIS (1846-1907), English scholar and historian, was born at Berg Apton, Norfolk, on the 19th of September 1846, son of the Hon. John Thomas Pelham (1811-1894), bishop of Norwich, third son of the 2nd earl of Chichester. He was educated at Harrow and at Trinity College, Oxford, where he took a first class in liteme humaniores in 1869. He was a tutor of Exeter College from 1869 to 1890. In 1887 he became university reader in ancient history, and two years later was elected to the Camden professorship. He became curator of the Bodleian library in 1892, and in 1897 president of Trinity College. He was also a fellow of Brasenose College, honorary fellow of Exeter, a fellow of the British Academy and of other learned societies, and a governor of Harrow School. His chief contribution to ancient history was his article on Roman history in the 9th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica (1886), which was republished with additions as the Outline: of Roman History (1890). His university lectures, though perhaps lacking in inspiration, were full of original research and learning. His death on the 13th of February 1907 not only prevented the publication in systematic form of his own important researches, but also delayed the appearance of much that had been left in MS. by H. Furneaux and A. H. J. Greenidge, and was at the time under his charge. Apart from the Outlines he published only The I mperial Domains and the Colonate ( 1890), The Roman Frontier System (1895), and articles in periodicals of which the most important was an article in the Quarterly Review on the early Caesars (April, 1905). He did much for the study of archaeology at Oxford, materially assisted the Hellenic Society and the British School at Athens, and was one of the founders of the British School at Rome. He married in 1873 Laura Priscilla, daughter of Sir Edward North Buxton.

PELIAS, in Greek legend, son of Poseidon and Tyro, daughter of Salmoneus. Because Tyro afterwards married her father's brother Cretheus, king of Iolcus in Thessaly, to whom she bore Aeson, Pheres and Amythaon,Pelias was by some thought to be the son of Cretheus. He and his twin-brother Neleus were exposed by their mother, but were nurtured by a herdsman. When grown to manhood they were acknowledged by their mother. After the death of Cretheus, Pelias made himself master of the kingdom of Iolous, having previously quarrelled with Neleus, who removed to Messenia, where he founded Pylos. In order to rid himself of Jason, Pelias sent him to Colchis in quest of the golden fleece, and took, advantage of his absence to put to death his father, Aeson, his mother and brother. When Jason returned he sought to avenge the death of his parents, and Medea persuaded the daughters of Pelias to cut in pieces and boil their father, assuring them- that he would thus be restored to youth. Acastus, son of Pelias, drove out Jason and Medea and celebrated funeral games in honour of his father, which were celebrated by the poet Stesichorus and represented on the chest of Cypselus. The death of Pelias was the subject of Sophocles’ Rhizolomoi (Root-cutters), and in the Tyro he treated another portion of the legend. Peliades (the daughters of Pelias) was the name of Euripides’ first play.

PELICAN (Fr. Pélican; Lat. Pelecanus or Pélicanus), a large fish-eating water-fowl, remarkable for the enormous pouch formed by the extensible skin between the lower jaws of its long, and apparently formidable but in reality very weak, bill. The ordinary pelican, the Onocrotal'us of the ancients, to whom it was well known, and the Pelecanus onocrotalus of ornithologists, is a very abundant bird in some districts of south-eastern Europe, south-western Asia and north-eastern Africa, occasionally straying, it is believed, into the northern parts of Germany and France; but the possibility of such wanderers having escaped from confinement is always to be regarded,1 since few zoological gardens are without examples. Its usual haunts are the shallow margins of the larger lakes and rivers, where fishes are plentiful, since it requires for its sustenance a vast supply of them. The nest is formed among reeds, placed on the ground and lined with grass. Therein two eggs, with white, chalky shells, are commonly laid. The young during the first twelvemonth are of a greyish-brown, but when mature almost the whole plumage, except the black primaries, is white, deeply suffused by a rich blush of rose or salmon~colour, passing into yellow on the crest and lower part of the neck in front. A second and somewhat larger species, Pelecanu: crispus, also inhabits Europe. but has a more eastern distribution. This, when adult, is readily distinguishable from the ordinary bird by the absence of the blush from its plumage, and by the curled feathers that project from and overhang each side of the head, which with some difierence of coloration of the bill, pouch, bare skin round the eyes and irides give it a wholly distinct expression. Two specimens of the humerus have been found in the English fens (Ibis, 1868, p. 363; Proc. 2001. Society, 1871, p. 702), thus proving the existence of the bird in England at no very distant period, and one of them being that of a young example points to its having been bred in this country. It is possible from their large size that they belonged to P. crispus. Ornithologists have been much divided in opinion as to the number of living species of the genus Pelecanu: (cf. up. 011., 1868, p. 264; 1869,p. 571; 1871, p. 631)—the estimate varying from six to ten or eleven; but the former is the number recognized by M. Dubois (Bull. M us. de Belgique, 1883). North America has one, P. erythrorhynchds, very similar to P. onacrotalus both in appearance and habits, but remarkable for a triangular, horny excrescence developed on the ridge of the male’s bill in the breeding season, which falls off without leaving trace of its existence when that is over. Australia has P. conspicillatus, easily distinguished by its black tail and wingcoverts. Of more marine habit are P. Philippensis and P. fuscus, the former having a wide range in Southern Asia, and, it is said, reaching Madagascar, and the latter common on the coasts of the warmer parts of both North and South America.

The genus Pelccanus as instituted by Linnaeus included the

‘ This caution was not neglected by the prudent, even so long ago as Sir Thomas Browne's da 5; for he, recording the occurrence of a pelican in Norfolk. was care ul to notice that about the same time one of the pelicans kept by the king (Charles ll.) in St James's Park, had been. lost.


cormorant (q.v.) and gannet (q.v.) as well as the true pelicans, and for a long while these and some other distinct groups, as the snake-birds (q.v.), frigate-birds (q.'v.) and tropic-birds (q.v.), which have all the four toes of the foot connected by a web, were regarded as forming a single family, Pelecanidae; but this name has now been restricted to the pelicans only, though all are still usually associated in the suborder Steganopodes of Ciconiiform birds. It may be necessary to state that there is no foundation for the venerable legend of the pelican feeding her young with blood from her own breast, which has given it an important place in ecclesiastical heraldry, except that, as A. D. Bartlett, suggested (Proc. Zool. Society, 1869, p. 146), the curious bloody secretion ejected from the mouth of the flamingo may have given rise to the belief, through that bird having been mistaken for the “ Pelican of the wilderness.”2 (A. N.)

PELION, a wooded mountain in Thessaly in the district of Magnesia, between Volo and the east coast. Its highest point (mod. Plessidi) is 5340 ft. It is famous in Greek mythology; the giants are said to have piled it on Ossa in order to scale Olympus, the abode of the gods; it was the home of the centaurs, especially of Chiron, who had a cave near its summit, and educated many youthful heroes; the ship “ Argo” was built from its pine-woods. On its summit was an altar of Zeus Actaeus, in whose honour an annual festival was held in the dog-days, and worshippers clad themselves in ,skins.

PELISSE (through the Fr. from Lat. pellicia: sc. ueslis, a garment made of fur, pellis, skin), properly a name of a cloak made of or lined with fur, hence particularly used of the furtrimmed “ dolman ” worn slung from the shoulders by hussar regiments. The word is now chiefly employed as the name of a long-sleeved cloak of any material worn by women and children.

PELISSIER, AIMABLE JEAN JACQUES (1794—1864), duke of Malakofi, marshal of France, was born on the 6th of November 1794 at Maromme (Seine Inférieure), of a family of prosperous artisans or yeoman, his father being employed in a powdermagazine. After attending the military college of La Fleche and the special school of St Cyr, he in 1815 entered the army as sub-lieutenant in an artillery regiment. A brilliant examination in 1819 secured his appointment to the staff. He served as aide-de-camp in the Spanish campaign of 1823, and in the expedition to the Morea. in 1828-29. In 1830 he. took part in the expedition to Algeria, and on his return was promoted to the rank of chef d’escadron. After some years’ stafl service in Paris he was again sent to Algeria as chief of staff of the province of Oran with the rank of lieutenant-colonel, and remained there till the Crimean War, taking a prominent part in many important operations. The severity of his conduct in suffocating a whole Arab tribe in the Dahra or Dahna caves, near M ustaganem, where they had taken refuge (June 18, 1845), awakened such indignation in Europe that Marshal Soult, the minister of war, publicly expressed his regret; but Marshal Bugeaud, the governor-general of Algeria, not only gave it his approval, but secured for Pélissier the rank of general of brigade, which he held till 1850, when he was promoted general of division. After the battles of October and November 1854 before Sevastopol, Pélissier was sent to the. Crimea, where on the 16th of May 1855 he succeeded Marshal Canrobert as commander-in-chief of the French forces before Sevastopol (see CRIMEAN WAR). His command was marked by relentless pressure of the enemy and unalterable determination to conduct the campaign without interference from Paris. His perseverance was crowned with

1 The legend was commonly believed in the middle 2 es. Epiphanius, bishop of Constantia, in his Physiologus (I588), writes that the female bird, in cherishin her young, wounds them with loving, and pierces their sides, an they die. After three days the male pelican comes and finds them dead, and his heart is pained. He smites his own side, and as he stands over the wounds of the dead young ones the blood trickles down, and thus are they made alive again. The pelican “ in his piety "—1'.e. in this pious act of reviving hlS offspring—was a common sub'ect for 15th-century emblem books; it became a symbol of sel -sacrifice, a type of Christian redemption and of the Eucharistic doctrine. The device was adopted by Bish {1 Fox in 1516 for his new college of Corpus Christi, Oxford—[PL CH.

success in the storming of the Malakofi on the 8th of September. On the 12th he was promoted to be marshal. On his return to Paris he was named senator, created duke of Malakofl' (July 22, 1856), and rewarded with a grant of 100,000 francs per annum. From March 1858 to May 18 59 he was French ambassador in London, whence he was recalled to take command of the army of observation on the Rhine. In the same year he became grand chancellor of the Legion of Honour. In 1860 he was appointed governor-general of Algeria, and he died there on the 22nd of May 1864.

See Marbaud, Le llaréchal Pelissier (1863); Castillo, Portraits historigues, 2nd series (1859).

PELL, JOHN (1610—1685), English mathematician, was born on the rst of March 1610 at Southwick in Sussex,‘where his father was minister. He was educated at Stcyning, and entered Trinity College, Cambridge, at the age of thirteen. During his university career he became an accomplished linguist, and even before he took his MA. degree (in 1630) corresponded with Henry Briggs and other mathematicians. His great reputation and the influence of Sir William Boswell, the English resident, with the states-general procured his election in 1643 to the chair of mathematics in Amsterdam, whence he removed in 1646, on the invitation of the prince of Orange, to Breda, where he remained till 1652.

F mm. 16 54 to 1658 Poll acted as Cromwell’s political agent to the Protestant cantons of Switzerland. On his return to England he took orders and was appointed by Charles II. to the rectory of Fobbing in Essex, and in 1673 he was presented by Bishop Sheldon to the rectory of Laindon in the same county. His devotion to mathematical science seems to have interfered alike with his advancement in the Church and with the proper ‘ management of his private affairs. For a time he was confined as a debtor in the king’s bench prison. He lived, on the invitation of Dr Whistler, for a short time in 1682 at the College of Physicians, but died on the 12th of December 1685 at the house of Mr Cothorne, reader of the church of St Giles-in-the Fields. Many of Pell's manuscripts fell into the hands of Dr Busby, master of Westminster School, and afterwards came into the possession of the Royal Society; they are still preserved in something like forty folio volumes, which contain, not only Pell’s own memoirs, but much of his correspondence with the mathematicians of his time.

The Diophantine analysis was a favourite subject with Pcll; he lectured on it at Amsterdam; and he is now best remembered for the indeterminate equation axi+1 =y“, which is known by his name. This problem was proposed by Pierre de Fermat first to Bernhard Frcnicle de Bessy, and in 1657 to all mathematicians. Pell‘s connexion with the problem simply consists of the publication of the solutions of John Wallis and Lord Brounker in his edition of Branker‘s Translation of Rhonius's Algebra (1668). His chief works are: Astronomical History of Observations oi“ Heavenly Jlotions and A pPearances (1634); Ecliptica Prognostzca 1634); Controversy wrth Lorigomontanus concerning the Quadrature of the Circle (1646?); An Idea of the Mathematics, 12mo (1650); A Table of Ten Thousand Square Numbers ([0].; 1672).

PELLA, the capital of ancient Macedonia under Philip II. (who transferred the seat of government hither from Edessa) and Alexander the Great, who was born here. It seems to have retained some importance up to the time of Hadrian. Scanty remains exist and some springs in the neighbourhood are still known as the baths of Pel. The site (identified by Leake) is occupied by the village of Neochori (Turk. Yeni-Keui) about 32 m. north-west of Salonika.

< PELLAGRA (Ital. pelle agra, smarting skin), the name given, from one of its early symptoms, to a peculiar disease, of comparatively modern origin. For some time it was supposed to be practically confined to the peasantry in parts of Italy (particularly Lombardy) and France, and in the Asturias (mal de la rosa), Rumania and Corfu. But it has recently been identified in various outlying parts of the British Empire (Barbadoes, India) and in both Lower and Upper Egypt; also among the Zulus and Basutos. In the United States sporadic cases had been observed up to 1906, but since then numerous cases have been reported. It is in Italy, however, that it has been most


prevalent. The malady is essentially chronic in character. The indications usually begin in the spring of the year, declining towards autumn, and recurring with increasing intensity and permanence in the spring seasons following. A peasant who is acquiring the malady feels unfit for work, sufi'ers from headaches, giddiness, singing in the ears, a burning of the skin, especially in the hands and feet, and diarrhoea. At the same time a red rash appears on the skin, of the nature of erysipclas, the red or livid spots being tense and painful, especially where they are directly exposed to the sun. About July or August of the first season these symptoms disappear, the spots on the skin remaining rough and dry. The spring attack of the year following will probably be more severe and more likely to leave traces behind it; with each successive year the patient becomes more like a mummy, his skin shrivelled and sallow, or even black at certain spots, as in Addison’s disease, his angles protruding, his muscles wasted, his movements slow and languid, and his sensibility diminished. Meanwhile there are more special symptoms relating to the nervous system, including drooping of the eyelid, dilatation of the pupil, and other disorders of vision, together with symptoms relating to the digestive system, such as a red and dry tongue, a burning feeling in the mouth, pain on swallowing, and diarrhoea. After a certain stage the disease passes into a profound disorganization of the nervous system; there is a tendency to melancholy, imbecility, and a curious mummified condition of body. After death a general tissue degeneration is observed.

The causation of this obscure disease has recently come up for new investigation in connexion with the new work done in relation to sleeping-sickness and other tropical diseases. So long as it was supposed to be peculiar to the Italian peasantry, it was associated simply with their staple diet, and was regarded as due to the eating of mouldy maize. It was by his views in this regard that Lombroso (q.v.) first made his scientific reputation. But the area of maize consumption is now known to be wider than that of pellagra, and pellagra is found where maize is at least not an ordinary diet. In 1905 Dr L. W. Sambon, the meeting of the British Medical Association, suggested that pellagra was probably protozoal in origin, and subsequently be announced his belief that the protozoon was communicated by sand-flies, just as sleeping-sickness by the tsetse fly; and this opinion was supported by the favourable action of arsenic in the treatment of the disease. His hypothesis was endorsed by Sir Patrick Manson, and in January 1910 an influential committee was formed, to enable Dr Sambon to pursue his investigations in a pellagrous area.

PELLETAN, CHARLES CAMILLE (1846— ), French politician and journalist, was born in Paris on the 28th of June 1846, the son of Eugene Pelletan (1813—1884), a writer of some distinction and a noted opponent of the Second Empire. Camille Pelletan was educated in Paris, passed as licentiate in laws, and was qualified as an “archiviste paléographe.” At the age of twenty he became an active contributor to the press, and a bitter critic of the Imperial Government. After the war of 1870—71 he took a leading place among the most radical section of French politicians, as an opponent of the “ opportunists ” who continued the policy of Gambetta. In 1880 he became editor of Justice, and worked with success to bring about a revision of the sentences passed on the Communards. In 1881 he was chosen member for the tenth arrondissement of Paris, and in 1885 for the Bouches. du Rhone, being re-elected in 1889, 1893 and 1898; and he was repeatedly chosen as “ reporter ” to the various bureaus. During the Nationalist and Dreyfus agitations he fought vigorously on behalf of the Republican government and when the coalition known as the “Bloc ” was formed he took his place as aRadical leader. He was made minister of marine in the cabinet of M. Combes, June 1902 to January 1905, but his administration was severely criticized, notably by M. de Lanessan and other naval experts. During the great sailors’ strike at Marseilles in 1904 he showed pronounced sympathy with the socialistic aims and methods of the strikers, and a strong feeling was aroused that his Radical sympathies tended to a serious weakening of the navy and to destruction of discipline. A somewhat violent controversy resulted, in the course of which M. Pelletan’s indiscreet speeches did him no good; and he became a common subject for ill-natured caricatures. On the fall of the Combes ministry he became less prominent in French politics.

PELLICANUS, CONRAD (1478—1556), German theologian, was born at Rufiach in Alsace, on the 8th of January 1478. His German name, Kiirsner, was changed to Pellicanus by his mother’s brother Jodocus Gallus, an ecclesiastic connected with the university of Heidelberg, who supported his nephew for sixteen months at the university in 1491—1492. On returning to Ruffach, he taught gratis in the Minorite convent school that he might borrow books from the library, and in his sixteenth year resolved to become a friar. This step helped his studies, for he was sent to Tiibingen in 1496 and became a favourite pupil of the guardian of the Minorite convent there, Paulus Scriptoris, a. man of considerable general learning. There seems to have been at that time in south-west Germany a considerable amount of sturdy independent thought among the Franciscans; Pellicanus himself became a Protestant very gradually, and. without any such revulsion of feeling as marked Luther’s conversion. At Tiibingen the future “ apostate in three languages ” was able to begin the study of Hebrew. He had no teacher and no grammar; but Paulus Scriptoris carried him a huge codex of the prophets on his own shoulders all the way from Mainz. He learned the letters from the transcription of a few verses in the Star of the Messiah of Petrus Niger, and, with a subsequent hint or two from Reuchlin, who also lent him the grammar of Moses Kimhi, made his way through the Bible for himself with the help of Jerome’s Latin. He got on so well that he was not only a useful helper to Reuchlin but anticipated the manuals of the great Hebraist by composing in 1501 the first Hebrew grammar in the European tongue. It was printed in I 503, and afterwards included in Reysch’s Margarita philosophica. Hebrew remained a favourite study to the last. Pellican’s autobiography describes the gradual multiplication of accessible books on the subjects, and he not only studied but translated a vast mass of rabbinical and Talmudic texts, his interest in Jewish literature being mainly philological. The chief fruit of these studies is the vast commentary on the Bible (Ziirich, 7 vols., 1532—1539), which shows a remarkably sound judgment on questions of the text, and a sense for historical as opposed to typological exegesis.

Pellicanus became priest in 1501 and continued to serve his order at Ruffach, Pforzheim, and Basel till 1526. At Basel he did much laborious work for Froben’s editions, and came to the conclusion that the Church taught many doctrines of which the early doctors of Christendom knew nothing. He spoke his views frankly, but he disliked polemic; he found also more toleration than might have been expected, even after he became active in circulating Luther’s books. Thus, supported by the civic authorities, he remained guardian of the convent of his order at Basel from 1519 till 1524, and even when he had to give up his post, remained in the monastery for two years, professing theology in the university. At length, when the position was becoming quite untenable, he received through Zwingli a call to Ziirich as professor of Greek and Hebrew, and formally throwing ofl his monk’s habit, entered on a new life. Here he remained till his death on the 6th of April 1556.

Pellicanus’s scholarship, though not brilliant, was really extensive; his sound sense, and his singularly pure and devoted character gave him a great influence. He was remarkably free from the pedantry of the time, as is shown by his views about the use of the German vernacular as a vehicle of culture (Chron. r3 5, 36). As a theologian his natural affinities were with Zwingli, with whom he shared the advantage of having grown up to the views of the Reformation, by the natural progress of his studies and religious life. Thus he never lost his sympathy with humanism and with its great German representative, Erasmus.

Pellicanus's Latin autobiography (Chrom'wn C.P.R.) is one of the most interesting documents of the period. It was first published

[merged small][graphic]

by Riggenbach in 1877, and in this volume the other sources for his lie are registered. See also Emil Silberstein, Conrad Pellicanus; ein l)3eilrag zur Geschichte des Stadiums der hebr. Spraohe (Berlin, 1900 .

PELLICIER, GUILLAUME (c. 1490—1568), French prelate and diplomatist, was educated by his uncle, the bishop of Maguelonne, whom he succeeded in 1529.. In 1536 he had the seat of his bishopric transferred to Montpellier. Appointed ambassador at Venice in 1539, he fulfilled his mission to the entire satisfaction of Francis 1., but on the discovery of the system of espionage he had employed the king had to recall him in 1542. Returning to his diocese, he was imprisoned in the chateau of Beaucaire for his tolerance of the Reformers, so he replaced his former indulgence by severity, and the end of his episcopate was disturbed by religious struggles. He was a man of wide learning, a humanist and a friend of humanists, and took a keen interest in the natural sciences.

See J.Zeller, La Diplomatic francaise . . . d'apri‘s Ie corresPondanoe de G. Pellicier (Paris, 1881); and A. Tausserat-Radel, Corresprmdance politique do Guillaume Pellicier (Paris, 1899).

PELLICO, SILVIO (1788—1854), Italian dramatist, was born at Saluzzo in Piedmont on the 24th of June 1788, the earlier portion of his life being passed at Pinerolo and Turin under the tuition of a priest named Manavella. At the age of ten he composed a tragedy under the inspiration of Caesarotti’s translation of the Ossianic poems. On the marriage of his twin sister Rosina with a maternal cousin at Lyons he went to reside in that city, devoting himself during four years to the study of French literature. He returned in 1810 to Milan, where he became professor of French in the Collegio degli Orfani Militari. His tragedy Francesca da Rimim‘, was brought out with success by Carlotta Marchionni at Milan in 1818. Its publication was followed by that of the tradegy Eufemto da M essina, but the representation of the latter was forbidden. Pellico had in the meantime continued his work as tutor, first to the unfortunate son of Count Briche, and then to the two sons of Count Porro Lambertenghi. He threw himself heartily into an attempt to weaken the hold of the Austrian despotism by indirect educational means. Of the powerful literary executive which gathered about Counts Porro and Confalonieri, Pellico was the able secretary—the management of the Conciliatore, which appeared in 1818 as the organ of the association, resting largely upon him. But the paper, under the censorship of the Austrian officials, ran for a year only, and the society itself was broken up by the government. In October 1820 Pellico was arrested on the charge of carbonarism and conveyed to the Santa Margherita prison. After his removal to the Piombi at Venice in February 1821, he composed several Cantiche and the tragedies Ester d’Engaddi and Igim'a d’Asti. The sentence of death pronounced on him in February 1822 was finally commuted to fifteen years carcere duro, and in the following April he was placed in the Spielberg at Briinn. His chief work during this part of his imprisonment was the tragedy Leom'ero da Dertona, for the preservation of which he was compelled to rely on his memory. After his release in 1830 be commenced the publication of his prison compositions, of which the Ester was played at Turin in 1831, but immediately suppressed. In 1832 appeared his Gismon-da da Mendn'zio, Eradiade and the Leaniero, under the title of Tre nun-vi tragedie, and in the same year the work which gave him his European fame, Le Mie prigioni, an account of his sufferings in prison. The last gained him the friendship of the Marchesa di Barolo, the reformer of the Turin prisons, and in 1834 he accepted from her a yearly pension of 1200 francs. His tragedy Tommaso Moro had been published in 1833, his most important subsequent publication being the Opera inedite in 1837. On the decease of his parents in 1838 he was received into the Casa Barolo, where he remained till his death, assisting the marchesa in her charities, and writing chiefly upon religious themes. Of these works the best known is the Dei Doveri degli uomim', a series of trite maxims which do honour to his piety rather than to his critical judgment. A fragmentary biography of the marchesa by Pellico was published in Italian and English after her death. He died on the 3rst of January 1854, and was buried in the Campo Santo at Turin. His writings are defective in virility and breadth of thought, and his tragedies display neither the insight into character nor the constructive power of a great dramatist. It is in the simple narrative and naive egotism of Le M is prigioni that he has established his strongest claim to remembrance, winning fame by his misfortunes rather than by his genius.


See Piero Maroncelli, Addizirmi alle mic Prigiom' (Paris, 1834); the biographies by Latour; Gabriele Rosselli; Didier, Revue des deux mondes (September 1842); De Loménie, Galerie des £07121"? illustr. iv. (1842); Chiala (Turin, 1852); Nollet-Fabert (1854 ; Giorgio Briano (1854); Bourdon (1868); Rivieri (1899—1901).

PELLISSON, PAUL (1624—1693), French author, was born at Béziers on the 30th of October 1624, of a distinguished Calvinist family. He studied law at Toulouse, and practised at the bar of Castres. Going to Paris with letters of introduction to Valentin Conrart, who was a co-religionist, he became through him acquainted with the members of the academy. Pellisson undertook to be their historian, and in 1653 published a Relation contemmt l’histairc dc l’académie francaise. This panegyric was rewarded by a promise of the next vacant place and by permission to be present at their meetings. In 1657 Pellisson became secretary to the minister of finance, Nicolas Fouquet, and when in 1661 the minister was arrested, his secretary was imprisoned in the Bastille. Pellisson had the courage to stand by his fallen patron, in whose defence he issued his celebrated Mémoire in 1661, with the title Discours au roi, par un de ses fidéles sujels sur la procés de M. de Fouquet, in which the facts in favour of Fouquet are marshalled with great skill. Another pamphlet, Seconde defense de M. Fouquet, followed. Pellisson was released in 1666, and from this date sought the royal favour. He became historiographer to the king, and in that capacity wrote a fragmentary H istoire de Louis XI V., covering the years 1660 to 1670. In 1670 he was converted to Catholicism and obtained rich ecclesiastical preferment. He died on the 7th of February 1693. He was very intimate with Mlle de Scudéry, in whose novels he figures as Herminius and Acante. His sterling worth of character made him many friends and justified Bussy-Rabutin’s description of him as “encore plus bonnéte homme que bel esprit.”

See Sainte-Beuve, Causeries du lundi,'vol. xiv.; and F. L. Marcon,

ude sur la vie et les azuwes a'e Pellisson (1859).

PELLITORY, in botany, the common name for a small hairy perennial herb which grows on old walls, hedgebanks and similar localities, and is known botanically as Parietaria ofliciualis (Lat. paries, a wall). It has a short woody rootstock from which spring erect or spreading stems 1 to 2 ft. long, bearing slender leafy branches, and axillary clusters of small green flowers. It belongs to the nettle order (Urtiraceae), and is nearly allied to the nettle, U mm, but its hairs are not stinging.

PELLOUX, LUlGI (1839- ), Italian general and politician, was born on the 1st of March 1839, at La Roche, in Savoy, of parents who retained their Italian nationality when Savoy was annexed to France. Entering the army as lieutenant of artillery in 1857, he gained the medal for military valour at the battle of Custozza in 1866, and in 1870 commanded the brigade of artillery which battered the breach in the wall of Rome at Porta Pia. He was elected to the Chamber in 1881 as deputy for Leghorn, which he represented until 1895, and joined the party of the Left. He had entered the war office in 1870, and in 1880 became general secretary, in which capacity he introduced many useful reforms in the army. After a succession of high military commands he received the appointment of chief of the general staff in 1896. He was minister of war in the Rudini and Giolitti cabinets of 1891—1893. In July 1896 he resumed the portfolio of war in the Rudini cabinet, and was appointed senator. In May 1897 be secured the adoption of the Army Reform Bill, fixing Italian military expenditure at a maximum of £9, 560,000 a year, but in December of that year he was defeated in the Chamber on the question of the promotion of officers. Resigning office, he was in May 1898 sent as royal commissioner to Bari, where, without recourse to martial law, he succeeded in restoring


public order. Upon the fall of Rudini in June 1898, General Pelloux was entrusted by King Humbert with the formation of a cabinet, and took for himself the post of minister of the interior. He resigned oflice in May 1899, but was again entrusted with the formation of the ministry. He took stern measures against the revolutionary elements in southern Italy, and his new cabinet was essentially military and conservative. The Public Safety Bill for the reform of the police laws, taken over by him from the Rudini cabinet, and eventually promulgated by royal decree, was fiercely obstructed by the Socialist party, which, with the Left and Extreme Left, succeeded in forcing General Pelloux to dissolve the Chamber in May 1900, and to resign office after the general election in June. In the autumn of 1901 he was appointed to the command of the Turin army corps.

PEDOMYXA, so named by R. Greefl, a genus of Lobose Rhizopoda (q.'v.), naked, multinucleate, with very blunt rounded pseudopodia, formed by eruption (see AMOEBA), often containing peculiar vesicles (glycogen?), and full of a symbiotic bacterium. It inhabits the ooze 0f decomposing organic matter at the bottom of ponds and lakes.

PELOPIDAS (d. 364 B.C.), Theban statesman and general. He was a member of a distinguished family, and possessed great wealth which he expended on his friends, while content to lead the life of an athlete. In 385 B.C. he served in a Theban contingent sent to the support of the Spartans at Mantineia, where he was saved, when dangerously wounded, by Epaminondas (q.'v.). Upon the seizure of the Theban citadel by the Spartans (383 or 382) he fled to Athens, and took the lead in a conspiracy to liberate Thebes. In 379 his party surprised and killed their chief political opponents, and roused the people against the Spartan garrison, which surrendered to an army gathered by Pelopidas. In this and subsequent years he was elected boeotarch, and about 375 he routed a much larger Spartan force at Tegyra (near Orchomenus). This victory he owed mainly to the valour of the Sacred Band, a picked body of 300 infantry. At the battle of Leuctra (371) he contributed greatly to the success of Epaminondas's new tactics by the rapidity with which he made the Sacred Band close with the Spartans. In 370 he accompanied his friend Epaminondas as boeotarch , into Peloponnesus. On their return both generals were unsuccessfully "accused of having retained their command beyond the legal term. In 369,in response to a petition of the Thessalians, Pelopidas was sent with an army against Alexander, tyrant of Pherae. After driving Alexander out, he passed into Macedonia and arbitrated between two claimants to the throne. In order to secure the influence of Thebes, he brought home hostages, including the king’s brother, afterwards Philip II., the conqueror of Greece. Next year Pelopidas was again called upon to interfere in Macedonia, but, being deserted by his mercenaries, was compelled to make an agreement with Ptolemaeus of Alorus. On his return through Thessaly he was seized by Alexander of Pherae, and two expeditions from Thebes were needed to secure his release. In 367 Pelopidas went on an embassy to the Persian king and induced him to prescribe a settlement of Greece according to the wishes of the Thebans. In 364 he received another appeal from the Thessalian towns against Alexander of Pherae. Though an eclipse of the sun prevented his bringing with him more than a handful of troops, he overthrew the tyrant’s far superior force on the ridge of Cynoscephalae; but wishing to slay Alexander with his own hand, he rushed forward too eagerly and=was cut down by the tyrant’s guards. '

Plutarch and Nepos, Pelopidas; Diodorus xv. 62—81; Xenophon, Hellenica, vii. 1. See also THEBEs. (M. O. B. C.)

PELOPONNESIAN WAR, in Greek history, the name given specially to the struggle between-Athens at the head of the Delian League and the confederacy of which Sparta was the leading power.l According to Thucydides the war, which was

‘ Some historians prefer to call it the Second Peloponnesian War, gie first berng that of 457, which ended with the Thirty Years' eace.

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