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Oswio, and it was in his reign that Christianity was introduced into Middle Anglia by his son Peada. '
See Bede, Hist. Ecol. (ed. C. Plummer, Oxford, 1896); Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (ed. Earle and Plummer, Oxford, 1899).
PENDANT (through Fr. from Lat. fendere, to hang), any hanging object, such as a jewel or other ornament hanging from a brooch, bracelet, &c., or the loose end of a knight’s belt left hanging after passing through the buckle, and terminating in an ornamental end. In architecture the word is applied to an elongated boss, either moulded or foliated, such as hangs down from the intersection of ribs, especially in fan tracery, or at the end of hammer beams. Sometimes long corbels, under the wall pieces, have been so called. The name has also been given to the large masses depending from enriched ceilings, in the later works of the Pointed style. “ Pendants ” or “ Pendent posts ” are those timbers which are carried down the side of the wall from the plate, and receive the hammer braces.
PENDENTIVE, the term given in architecture to the bridging across the angles of a square hall, so as to obtain a circular base for a dome or drain. This may be done by corbelling out in the angles, in which case the pendentive may be a portion of a hemisphere of which the half diagonal of the square hall is the radius; or by throwing a series of arches across the angle, each ring as it rises advancing in front of the one below and being carried by it during its construction; in this case the base obtained is octagonal, so that corbels or small pendentives are required for each angle of the octagon, unless as in the church of SS. Sergius and Bacchus at Constantinople a portion of the dome is set back; or again, by a third method, by sinking a semicircular niche in the angle. The first system was that employed in St Sophia at Constantinople, and in Byzantine churches generally, also in the domed churches of Perigord and Aquitaine. The secbnd is found in the Sassanian palaces of Serbistan and Firuzabad, and in medieval architecture in England, France and Germany, where the arches are termed “ squinches.” The third system is found in the mosque at Damascus, and was often adopted in the churches in Asia Minor. There is still another method in which the pendentive and cupola are part of the same hemispherical dome, and in this case the ring courses lie in vertical instead of horizontal planes, examples of which may be found in the vault of Magnesia on Maeander in Asia Minor, and in the tomb at Valence known as Is pendenlif de Valence. The problem is one which has taxed the ingenuity of many builders in ancient times; the has-reliefs found at Nimrud show that in the 9th century B.C. domes were evidently built over square halls, and must have been carried on pendentives of some kind.
FENDER, SIR JOHN (1816—1896), British cable pioneer, was born in the Vale of chcn, Scotland, on the 10th of September 1816, and after attending school in Glasgow became a successful merchanttin textile fabrics in that city and in Manchester. His name is chiefly known in connexion with submarine cables, of which on the commercial side he was an important promoter. He was one of the 345 contributors who each risked a thousand pounds in the Transatlantic Cable in 1857, and when the Atlantic Telegraph Company was ruined by the loss of the 1865 cable he formed the Anglo-American Telegraph Company to continue the work, but it was not till he had given his personal guarantee for a quarter of a million pounds that the makers would undertake the manufacture ,of a new cable. But in the end he was justified, and telegraphic communication with America became a commercial success. Subsequently be fostered cable enterprise in all parts of the world, and at the time of his death, which occurred at Footscray Place, Kent, on the 7th of July 1896, be controlled companies having a capital of 15 millions sterling and owning 73,640 nautical miles of cables. He represented Wick Burghs in parliament from 1872 to 1885 and from 1892 to 1896. He was made a K.C.M.G. in 1888 and was promoted in 1892 to be G.C.M.G. His eldest son James (b. 1841), who was MP. for Mid Northamptonshire in 1895-1900, was created a baronet in 1897; and his third son, John Denison (b. 1855), was created a K.C.M.G. in 1901.
PENDLESIDE SERIES, in geology, a series of shales between the upper division of the Carboniferous Limestone and the Millstone Grits occurring in the Midlands between Stoke-onTrent and Settle. It consists of black limestones at the base, followed by black shales with calcareous nodules, which pass into sandy shales with ganister-like sandstones. In places the series attains a thickness of 1500—1000 ft., and where it is thickest the Millstone Grits also attain their maximum thickness. The peculiarities of the series, which is characterized by a rich fauna with Produclus gigantcus, P. slrialus, Dibunophyllum, Cyathaxonia coma and Lonsdaleia flariformis, can be best studied on the western slope of Pendle Hill, Lancashire, in the valley of the Hodder, dividing the counties of Lancashire and Yorkshire, at Mam Tor and the Edale valley in Derbyshire, and Morredge, the Dane valley in north Stafi'ordshire, Bagillt and Teilia in North Wales, and Scarlett and Poolvash, Isle of Man. The limestones at the base are hard, compact and fissile, often cherty, and vary much in the amount of calcium carbonate which they contain, at times passing into calcareous shales.
These limestones and shales contain a distinct fauna which appears for the first time in the Midlands, characterized by Pterinopeclen papyraceus, Posidoniella laevis, Posidonomya Becheri, Posidanomya. membranacca, N omismoreras rali]orme and Glyphioceras strialus. Immediately below beds with this fauna are thin limestones with Prolecanites compressus, Slraboceras bisulcatus, many trilobites, and corals referable to the genera Cyalhaxania, Zap/mantis and Amplexizaphrenlis. The fauna characteristic of the Carboniferous Limestone becomes largely extinct and is replaced by a shale fauna, but the oncoming of the age of Goniatites is shown by the presence in the upper part of the Carboniferous Limestone of numerous species and genera of this group, Glyphiaceras crencstria being the most common and having the wider horizontal range. The whole Pendleside series can be divided into zones by the different species of Goniatites. At the base Prolecaniles compressus characterizesthe passage beds between the Carboniferous Limestone and the Pendlesides; Numismoceras rotiforme and Glyphiaceras sln'alu: are found in a narrow zone immediately above. Then Glyphioceras reticulalum appears and reaches its maximum, and is succeeded by Glyphioceras diadema and Glyphioceras spirals, while immediately below the Millstone Grits Glyphioccras bilingue appears and passes up in that series. The Millstone Grits are characterized by the presence of Gastrioceras Lisleri. The Pendleside series is therefore characterized by an Upper Carboniferous fauna, Pterinopecten pajayraceus, Posidoniella laevis and some other species which pass up right through the Coal Measures appearing for the first time, and the base of the series marks the division between Upper and Lower Carboniferous times.
The series passes eastward into Belgium and thence into Germany, when the same fossil zones are found in the basin of Namur and the valley of the Dill. Traced westward the series is well developed in C0.Dublin and on the west coast of Cos. Clare and Limerick. There can be no doubt that the Pendleside series of the Midlands represents the Lower Culm of Codden Hill, north Devon, and the Lower Culm of the continent of Europe. The faunas in these localities have the same biological succession as in the midlands.
See Wheelton Hind and J. Allen Howe, Quart. Jaum. Geog. Soc. vol. lvii. (1901), and numerous other papers by the first-named author. __ (W. H1.)
PENDLETON, EDMUND (1721—1803), American lawyer and statesman, was born, of English Royalist descent, in Caroline county, Virginia, on the 9th of September 1721. He was self-educated, but after reading law and being admitted to the bar (1744) his success was immediate. He served in the Virginia House of Burgesses from 1752 until the organization of the state government in 1776, was the recognized leader of the conservative Whigs, and took a leading part in opposing the British government. He was a member of the Virginia committee of correspondence in 1773, in 1774 was president of the Virginia provincial convention, and a member of the first
Continental Congress. In 1776, as president of the provincial convention, which adopted a state constitution for Virginia, he drew up the instructions to the Virginia members of Congress directing them to advocate the independence of the American colonies. In the same year he became president of the Virginia committee of safety, and in October was chosen the first speaker of the House of Delegates. With Jefferson and Chancellor George Wythe he drew up a new law code for Virginia. He was president of the court of Chancery in 1777—1788, and from 1779 until his death was president Of the Virginia court of appeals. He was an enthusiastic advocate of the Federal constitution, and in 1788 exerted strong influence to secure its ratification by his native state. He was a leader of the Federalist party in Virginia until his death at Richmond, Va., on the 23rd of October 1803.
PENDLETON, GEORGE HUNT (182 5—1889), American lawyer and legislator, was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, on the 25th of July 1825. He was educated at the university of Heidelberg, studied law, was admitted to the bar, and began to practise at Cincinnati. He was a member of the Ohio Senate in 1854 and 1855, and from 1857 to 1865 was a Democratic member of the national House of Representatives, in which he opposed the war policy of Lincoln. In 1864 he was the Democratic candidate for vice-president. After leaving Congress he became one of the earliest champions of the “Ohio idea” (which he is said to have originated), demanding that the government should pay the principal of its 5—2o-year 6% bonds in the “ greenback ” currency instead of in coin. The agricultural classes Of the West regarded this as a means of relief, and Pendleton became their recognized leader and a candidate for the Democratic nomination to the presidency in 1868, but he failed to receive the requisite two-thirds majority. In 1869 he was the Democratic candidate for governor of Ohio, but was defeated by Rutherford B. Hayes. For the next ten years he devoted himself to the practice of law and to the supervision of the Kentucky Railroad Company, of which he had become president in 1869. From 1879 to 1885 he was a Democratic member of the United States Senate, and introduced the so-called Pendleton Act of 1883 for reforming the civil service, hostility to which lost him his seat in 1885. He was minister to Germany from 1885 to the summer of 1889, and died at Brussels on the 24th of November 1889.
PENELOPE, in Greek legend, wife of Odysseus, daughter of Icarius and the nymph Periboea. During the long absence of her husband after the fall of Troy many Chieftains of Ithaca and the islands round about became her suitors; and, to rid herself of the importunities Of the weocrs, she bade them wait till she had woven a winding-sheet for old Laé'rtes, the father of Odysseus. But every night she undid the piece which she had woven by day. This she did for three years, till her maids revealed the secret. She was relieved by the arrival of Odysseus, who returned after an absence of twenty years, and slew the wooers. The character of Penelope is less favourable in late writers than in the Homeric story. During her husband’s absence she is said to have become the mother of Pan by Hermes, and Odysseus. on his return, repudiated her as unfaithful (Herodotus ii. 145 and schol.). ’She thereupon withdrew to Sparta and thence to Mantineia, where she died and where her tomb was shown. According to another account she married Telegonus the son of Odysseus and Circe, after he had killed his father, and dwelt with him in the island of Aeala or in the Islands of the Blest (Hyginus, Feb. 127).
PENGELLY, WILLIAM (1812—1894), English geologist and anthropologist, was born at East Looe in Cornwall on the 12th of January 1812, the son of the captain of a small coasting vessel. He began life as a sailor, after an elementary education in his native village, but in 1828 he abandoned a seafaring life. He had developed a passion for learning, and about 1836 he removed to Torquay and started a school; in 1846 he became a private tutor in mathematics and natural science. Geology had in early years attracted his attention, but it was not until he was about 30 years of age that he began seriously to cultivate
the study. In 1837 he was instrumental in the reorganization of the Torquay Mechanics’ Institute, in 1844 mainly owing to his energy the Torquay Natural History Society was founded, and in 1862 he assisted in founding the Devonshire Associationl for the Advancement of Literature, Science and Art. Meanwhile he had been occupied in collecting fossils from many parts of Devon and Cornwall, and in 1860 the Baroness BurdettCoutts acquired and presented them to the Oxford Museum, where they form “The Pengelly Collection.“ Through the generosity of the same lady he was called upon to examine the lignites and clays of Bovey Tracey, in conjunction with Dr Oswald Heer, who undertook the determination of the plant-remains. Their report was published by the Royal Society (1862), and Pengelly was elected F.R.S. in 1863. He aided in the investigations of the Brixham bone-cavern from the date of its discovery in 1858, the full report being issued in 1873; and he was the main explorer Of Kent’s Hole, Torquay, and from 1864 for more than fifteen years he laboured with unflagging energy in examining and recording the exact position of the numerous organic remains that were disinterred during a systematic investigation of this cave, carried on with the aid of grants from the British Association. He first attended the British Association at the Chcltenham meeting in 1856, and was present at subsequent meetings (except that at Montreal in 1884) until 1889. His observations assisted in establishing the important fact of the contemporaneity of Palaeolithic man with various Pleistocene mammalia, such as the mammoth, cave-bear, cave-lion, &c. He was awarded the Lyell medal by the Geological Society of London in 1886. He died at Torquay on the 16th of March 1894.
See Memoir of William Pengelly, edited by his daughter Hester Pcngellly, with a summary of his scientific work by the Rev. Professor . G. Bonncy (1897). .
PENGUIN, the name of a flightless sea-bird,l but, so faras is known, first given to one inhabiting the seas of Newfoundland as in Hore’s “ Voyage to Cape Breton,” 1536 (Hakluyt, Researches, iii. 168-170), which subsequently became known as the great auk or garefowl (q.v.); though the French equivalent Pingouin2 preserves its old application, the word penguin is by English ornithologists always used for certain birds inhabiting the Southern Ocean, called by the French M anchots, the Splzcniscidae of ornithologists. For a long while their position was very much misunderstood, some systematists having placed them with the Alcidae or Auks, to which they bear only a relationship of analogy, as indeed had been perceived by a few ornithologists, who recognized in the penguins a very distinct order, Impermes. L. Stejneger (Standard Nat. Hist. vol. iv., Boston, 1885) gave the Imflcnnes independent rank equivalent to the rest of Carinate birds; M. A. Menzbier (Vergl. Ostcol. d. Pcngm'ne, Moscow, 1887) took a similar view; M. Furbringer was first to show their relation to Prorcllariformes, and this view is now generally accepted.
1 Of the three derivations assigned to this name, the first is b Drayton in 1613 (Polyvlbion, Song 9), where it is said to be the Wels Pen g-wyn, or “white head "; the second, which seems to meet with Littré’s approval, deduccs it from the Latin pinguis (fat), which idea has given origin to the German name, Feltgdnse, for these birds; the third supposes it to be a corruption of “ pin-wing " (A rm. Nat. History, 4th series, vol. iv. p. 133). meaning a bird that has undergone the operation of pinioning or, as in one art at least of England it is commonly called, “ pin-winging." The first hypothesis has been supported on the ground that Breton sailors speaking a language closely allied to Welsh were acquainted with the great auk. and that the conspicuous white patches on the head of that bird justified the name " white head." To the second h 'pothesis Skeat (Dictionary, .433) objects that it “ will not account or the suffix -in, and is there ore wrong; besides which the ‘ Dutchmen ' [who were asserted to be the authors of the name} turn out to be Sir Francis Drake " and his men. In support of the third h rpothesis Mr Reeks wrote (Zoologist, 2nd series, p. 18'4) that the people in Newfoundland who used to meet with this ird alwa s pronounced its name “ pin wing." Skcat's inquiry (loc. cit.), w other the name may not after all be South American, is to be answered in the negative, since, so far as evidence goes, it was given to the North-American bird before the South-American was known in Europe.
’Gorfou has also been used by some French writers, being a corruption of Gcirfugl or Garefowl.
There is a total want of quills in their wings, which are incapable of flexure, though they move freely at the shoulder—joint, and some at least of the species occasionally make use of them for progressing on land. In the water they are most efficient paddles. The plumage, which clothes the whole body, generally consists of small scale-like feathers, many of them consisting only of a simple shaft without the development of barbs; but several of the species have the head decorated with long cirrhous tufts, and in some the tail-quills, which are very numerous, are also long.1 In standing these birds preserve an upright position, sometimes resting on the “ tarsus "2 alone, but in walking or running this is kept: nearly vertical, and their weight is supported by the toes alone.
The most northerly limit of the penguins’ range in the Atlantic is Tristan d’Acunha, and in the Indian Ocean Amsterdam Island, but they also occur off the Cape of Good Hope and along the coast of Australia, as well as on the south and east of New Zealand, while in the Pacific one species at least extends along the west coast of South America and to the Galapagos; but north of the equator none are found. In the breeding season they resort to the most desolate lands in higher southern latitudes, and indeed have been met with as far to the southward as navigators have penetrated. Possibly the Falkland Islands are richest in species, though, as individuals, they
molluscs, varied by fish and vegetable matter. The birds form immense breeding colonies, known as “rookeries.” The nest of grass, leaves, or where vegetation is scanty of stones or rubbish, is placed on the ground or in holes. Two chalky white or greenish eggs are laid. The young penguins, clad in thick down, are born blind and are fed by the parents for an unusually long time before taking to the water. Penguins bite savagely when molested, but are easily trained and display considerable intelligence.
The Sphcniscidae have been divided into at least eight genera, but three, or at most four, seem to be all that are needed, and
l The pterylographical characters of the nguins are well described by A. Hyatt (Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. History, 1871). A. D. Bartlett has observed (Proc. Zoot. Soc., 1879, pp. 6—9) that, instead of moulting in the way that birds ordinarily do, penguins, at least in passing from the immature to the adult dress, cast off the short scale-like feathers from their wings in a manner that he com ares to “ the shedding of the skin in a serpent."
’ he three metatarsals in the penguins are not, as in other birds, united for the whole of their length, but only at the extremities, thus preserving a rtion of their originally distinct existence, a fact probably attri ntable to arrest of development, since the researches of C. Gegenbaur show that the embryos of all birds, so far as is known, possess thesi- bones in an independent condition.
three can be well distinguished, as pointed out by E. Cones in Proc. Acad. of Nat. Sci. of Philadelphia, 1872 (pp. 170—212), by anatomical as well as by external characters. They are: (1) Aptcnodylcs, easily recognized by its long and thin bill, slightly decurved, from which Pygoscclis, as M. Watson has shown, is hardly distinguishable; (2) Eudyptes, in which the bill is much shorter and rather broad; and (3) Sphenircur, in which the shortish bill is compressed and the maxilla ends in a conspicuous hook. Aptenodytes contains the largest species, among them those known as the “Emperor ” and “ King” penguins A. Patagonica and A. longirostris. Three others belong also to this genus, if Pygoscelis be not recognized, but they seem not to require any particular remark. Eudyptcs, containing the crested penguins, known to sailors as “Rock~hoppcrs” oru Macaronis,” would appear to have five species, and S phcniscus four, among which S. mendiculus, which occurs in the Galapagos, and therefore has the most northerly range of the whole group,- alone needs notice here. (A. N.) The generic and specific distribution of the nguins is the subject of an excellent essay by Alphonse Milne-E wards in the Annales
des sciences natureltes for 1880 (vol. ix. art. 9, pp. 23—81); see also the Records of the Antarctic Expedition, 1901—1904.
PENHALLOW, SAMUEL (1665—1726), American colonist and historian, was born at St Mabon, Corn. ‘ll, England, on the 2nd of July 1665. From 1683 to 1686 he attended a school at Newington Green (near London) conducted by the Rev. Charles Morton (1627—1698), a dissenting clergyman, with whom he emigrated to Massachusetts in 1686. He was commissioned by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in New England to study the Indian languages and to preach to the Indians; but he was soon diverted from this work. Removing to Portsmouth, New Hampshire, he there married a daughter of John Cutt (1625—1681), president of the province of New Hampshire in 1679—1680, a successful merchant and mill-owner, and thus came into possession of considerable property (including much of the present site of Portsmouth). In 1700 he was speaker of the Assembly and in 1702 became a member of the Provincial Council, but was suspended by Lieut.-Governor George Vaughan (1676—1724). Penhallow, however, was sustained by Governor Samuel Shute (1662—1742), and Vaughan was removed from office in 1716. In 1714 Penhallow was appointed a justice of the superior court of judicature, and from 1717 until his death was chief justice of that court; and he also served as treasurer of the province in 1699— 1726, and as secretary of the province in 1714—1726. He died at Portsmouth on the 2nd of December 1726. He wrote a valuable H irtory of the War of New England with the Eastern Indians, or a Narrative of their Continued Perfidy and Cruelty (1726; reprinted in the Collections of the New Hampshire Historical Society, vol. i., 1824, and again at Cincinnati in 1859), which covers the period from 1703 to 1726, and is a standard contemporary authority.
PENINGTON, SIR ISAAC (c. 1 587—1661), lord mayor of London, eldest son of Robert Penington, a London fishmonger, was born probably in 1587. His father besides his London business had landed estates in Norfolk and Sufi'olk, which Isaac inherited in addition toa property in Buckinghamshire which he himself purchased. In 1638 Isaac became an alderman and high sheriff of London. In 1640 he was elected to the House of Commons as member for the city of London, and immediately took a prominent place among the Puritan party. In 1642 he was elected lord mayor of London, but retained his seat in parliament by special leave of the Commons; and he was elected lord mayor for a second term in the following year, continuing while in office to raise large sums of money for the opposition to the Court party. From 1642 to 1645 he was lieutenant of the Tower, in which capacity he was present at the execution of Laud; but, though one of the commissioners for the trial of Charles I., he did not sign the death warrant. After the king’s death Penington served on Cromwell’s council of state, and on several committees of government. His 1services were rewarded by considerable grants of land, and a knighthood conferred in 1649. He was tried and convicted of treason at the Restoration, and died while a prisoner in the Tower on the 17th of December 1661. He was twice married, and had six children by his first wife, several of whom became Quakers. ,
ISAAC PENINGTON (1616—1679), Sir Isaac’s eldest son, was one of the most notable of the 17th-century Quakers. He was early troubled by religious perplexities, which found expression in many voluminous writings. No less than eleven religious works, besides a political treatise in defence of democratic principles, were published by him in eight years. He belonged for a time to the sect of the Independents; but about 1657, influenced probably by the preaching of George Fox, whom he heard in Bedfordshire, Penington and his wife joined the Society of Friends. His wife was daughter and heiress of Sir John Proude, and widow of Sir William Springett, so that the worldly position of the couple made them a valuable acquisition to the Quakers. Isaac Penington was himself a man of very considerable gifts and sweetness of character. In 1661 he was imprisoned for refusing to take the oath of allegiance, and on several subsequent occasions he passed long periods in Reading and Aylesbury gaols. He died on the 8th of October 1679; his wife, who wrote an account of his imprisonments, survived till 1682. In 1681 Penington’s writings were published in a collected edition, and several later editions were issued before the end of the 18th century. His son John Penington (165 5—1710) defended his father's memory against attack, and published some controversial tracts against George Keith. Edward Penington (1667—1711), another of Isaac Penington’s sons, emigrated to Pennsylvania, where he founded a family. Isaac Penington’s stepdaughter, Gulielma Springett, married William Penn.
See Maria \Vebb, The Perms and Penington: a the 17th Century (London, 1867); Lord Clarendon, History of the ebellion and Civil Wars in England (Z vols., Oxford, 1839); Bulstrode \Vhitelocke, Memorials of Englis Aflairs: Charles I. to the Restoration (London, 1732); J. Gurney Bevan, Life of Isaac Penington (London, 1784); Thomas Ellwood, History of the Life of Ellwood by his own hand (London, 1765); Willem Sewel, History of the Quakers (6th ed., 2 vols., London, 1834).
PENINSULA (Lat. paeninsula, from paen-e, almost, and insula, an island), in physical geography, a piece of land nearly surrounded by water. In its original sense it connotes attachment to a larger land-mass by a neck of land (isthmus) narrower than the peninsula itself, but it is often extended to apply to any long promontory, the coast-line of which is markedly longer than the landward boundary.
PENINSULAR WAR (1808—14). This important war, the conduct and result of which greatly enhanced the prestige of British arms, had for its main object the freedom of the Peninsula of Spain and Portugal from the domination of Napoleon; and hence it derives its name, though it terminated upon the soil of France.
Nelson having destroyed the French fleet at Trafalgar, Napoleon feared the possibility of a British army being landed onthe Peninsular coasts, whence in conjunction with Portuguese and Spanish forces it might attack France from the south. He therefore called upon Portugal, in August 1807, to comply with his Berlin decree of the 21st of November 1806, under which continental nations were to close their ports to British subjects, and have no communication with Great Britain. At the same time be persuaded the weak king of Spain (Charles IV.) and his corrupt minister Godoy to permit a French army to pass through Spain towards Portugal; while under a secret treaty signed at Fontainebleau on the 27th of October 1807 Spanish troops were to support the French. Portugal was to be subsequently divided between Spain and France, and a new princi— pality of the Algarve was to be carved out for Godoy. Portugal remonstrated against Napoleon’s demands, and a French corps (30,000) under General Junot was instantly despatched to Lisbon. Upon its approach the prince regent fled, and the country was occupied by Junot, most of the Portuguese troops being disbanded or sent abroad. Napoleon induced the king of Spain to allow French troops to occupy the country and to
send the flower of the Spanish forces (15,000) under the marquis of Romana1 to assist the French on the Baltic. Then Dupont de l’Etang (25,000) was ordered to cross the Bidassoa on the 22nd of November 1807; and by the 8th of January 1808 he had reached Burgos and Valladolid. Marshal Moncey with a corps occupied Biscay and Navarre; Duhesme with a division entered Catalonia; and a little later Bessiéres with another corps had been brought up. There were now about 100,000 French soldiers in Spain, and Murat, grand duke of Berg, as “ lieutenant for the emperor,” entered Madrid. During February and March 1808 the frontier fortresses of Pampeluna, St Sebastian, Barcelona and Figueras were treacherously occupied and Spain lay at the feet of Napoleon. The Spanish people, in an outburst of fury against the king and Godoy, forced the former to abdicate in favour of his son Ferdinand; but the inhabitants of Madrid having (May 2, 1808) risen against the French, Napoleon refused to recognize Ferdinand; both he and the king were compelled to renounce their rights to the throne, and a mercenary council of regency having been induced to desire the French emperor to make his brother, Joseph Bonaparte, king, he accededto their request.2
The mask was now completely thrown off, and Spain and Portugal rose against the French. Provincial “ juntas ” (committees of government) were organized; appeals for assistance made to the British government, which granted arms, money and supplies, and it was resolved to despatch a British force to the Peninsula. Before it landed, the French under Dupont, Moncey and Marshal Bessiéres (75,000) had occupied parts of Biscay, Navarre, Aragon and the Castiles, holding Madrid and Toledo, while General Duhesme (14,000) was in Catalonia. Moncey (7000) had marched towards the city of Valencia, but been repulsed in attempting to storm it (June 28); Bessieres had defeated the Spanish general Joachim Blake at Medina de Rio Seco (June 14, 1808) and Dupont (13,000) had been detached (May 24) from Madrid to reduce Seville and Cadiz in Andalusia. Spanish levies, numbering nearly 100,000 regulars and militia, brave and enthusiastic, but without organization, sufiicient training, or a commander-in-chief, had collected together; 30,000 being in Andalusia, a similar number in Galicia, and others in Valencia and Estremadura, but few in the central portion of Spain.
At this juncture Dupont, moving upon Cadiz, met with areverse which greatly influenced the course of the Peninsular War. On the 7th of June 1808 he had sacked Cordova; but while he was laden with its spoils the Spanish general Castai'ios with the army of Andalusia (30,000), and also a large body of armed peasantry, approached. Falling back to Andujar, where he was reinforced to 22,000 strong, Dupont detached a force to hold the mountain passes in his rear, whereupon the Spaniards interposed between the detachment and the main body and seized Baylen. Failing to dislodge them, and surrounded by hostile troops and an infuriated peasantry, Dupont capitulated with over Battle of 20,000 men. This victory, together with the in- Blylen'Jllb' trepid defence of Saragossa by the Spanish general '9" 08' José Palafox (June 1 5 to August 13, 1808) temporarily paralysed the French and created unbounded enthusiasm in Spain. Duhesme, having failed to take Gerona, was blockaded in Barcelona, Joseph fled from Madrid (Aug. I, 1808), and the French forces closed to their rear to defend their communications with France. The British troops were directed towards Lisbon and Cadiz, in order to secure these harbours, to prevent the subjugation of Andalusia, and to operate up the basins of the Guadiana, Tagus and Douro into Spain. The British force consisted of 9000 men from Cork, under Sir Arthur Wellesley— at first in chief command; 5000 from Gibraltar, under General (Sir Brent) Spencer; and 10,000 under Sir John Moore coming from Sweden; Wellesley and Moore being directed towards Portugal, and Spencer to Cadiz. On the rst of August 1808
1 They subsequently escaped from Jutland. on British vessels, and reached Santander in October 1808.
2 The king, the queen and Godoy were eventually removed to Rome, and Ferdinand to Valengay in France.
Wellesley began to land his troops, unopposed, near Figueira da Foz at the mouth of the Mondego; and the Spanish victory of Baylen having relieved Cadiz from danger, Spencer now joined him, and, without waiting for Moore the army, under 15,000 in all (which included some Portuguese)l with 18 guns, advanced towards Lisbon.
Campaign in Portugal, r808.——The first skirmish took place at ()bidos on the 15th of August 1808, against Delaborde's division (5000 men with 5 guns), which fell back to Roleia (Rorica or Rolica). A battle took place here (Aug. 17)in which Sir Arthur Wellesley attacked and drove him from two successive positions. The allied loss was about 500: the French 600 and three guns.1 On the 20th of August the Allies, strengthened by the arrival of two more brigades (4000 men), occupied some heights north of Vimiera (Vimeira or Vimeiro) where the roads branch off to Torres Vedras and Mafra. Wellesley meant to turn the defile of Torres Vcdras by Mafra at once if possible; but on this night Sir Harry Burrard, his senior, arrived off Vimiera, and though he did not land, gave instructions to wait for Sir John Moore. On the zrst of August the Allies were attacked by Junot at Vimiera, who, leaving a force at Lisbon, had come up to reinforce Delaborde. In this battle the Allies Baffle of numbered about 18,000 with 18 guns, French nearly Vlmlera. 14,000, with 20 guns. Junot, believing the allied A"8""2" left to be weakly held, attacked it without reconw‘ noitring, but Wellesley‘s regiments,' marched thither behind the heights, sprang up in line; and under their volleys and bayonet charge, supported by artillery fire, Junot’s deep columns were driven off the direct road to Lisbon. The losses were: Allies about 800, French 2000 and 13 guns. It was now again Wellesley’s wish to advance and seize T orrcs Vedras; but Sir Hew Dalrymple, having at this moment assumed command, decided otherwise. On the 2nd of August Junot, knowing of the approach of Moore with reinforcements, and afraid of a revolt in Lisbon, opened negotiations, which resulted in the Convention of Cintra’ (Aug. 30, 1808), under which the French evacuated Portugal, on condition that they were sent with their artillery and arms to France. Thus this campaign had been rapidly brought to a satisfactory conclusion; and Sir Arthur Wellesley had already given proof of his exceptional gifts as a leader. ,In England however a cry was raised that Junot should have been forced to an absolutely unconditional surrender; and Sir Arthur Wellesley, Sir Hew Dalrymple and Sir Harry Burrarda were brought before a court of inquiry in London. This acquitted them of blame, and Sir John Moore in the meantime after the departure of Dalrymple (Oct. 6, 1808) had assumed command of the allied army in Portugal, now about 32,000 strong.
Moore’s Campaign in Spain, 1808—9.—The British government notified to Sir John Moore that some 10,000 men were to be sent to Corunna under Sir David Baird; that he, with 20,000, was to join him, and then both act in concert with the Spanish armies. As the conduct of this campaign was largely influenced by the operations of the Spanish forces, it is necessary to mention their positions, and also the fact that greater reliance had been placed, both in England and Spain, upon them than future events justified. On the 26th of October 1808, when Moore’s troops had left Lisbon to join Baird, the French still held a defensive position behind the Ebro; Bessiéres being in the basin of Vitoria, Marshal Ney north-west of Logrofio, and Moncey covering Pampeluna, and near Sanguessa. With the garrisons of Biscay, Navarre, and a reserve at Bayonne, their strength was about 7 5,000 men. Palafox (20,000) was near Saragossa and observing Sanguessa; Castanos with the victors of Baylen
1 In this account of the war the losses and numbers engaled in different battles are given approximately only; and the ormer include killed, wounded and missing. Historians differ much on these matters.
1 It was not, however, signed at Cintra, but at Lisbon, and was mainl negotiated near Torres Vedras.
'T e two latter were recalled from the Peninsula; Sir Arthur Welleslev had proceeded to London upon leave, and had only signed the armistice with Junot, not the convention itself.
(34,000) west and south of Tudela and near Logrofio; Blake (32,000) east of Reynosa, having captured Bilbao; Count de Belvedere (11,000) near Burgos; reserves (57,000) were assembling about Segovia, Talavera and Cordova; Catalonia was held by 23,000, and Madrid had been reoccupied.
Moore had to decide whether to join Baird by sea or land. To do so by sea at this season was to risk delay, while in moving by land he would have the Spanish armies between him and the French. For these reasons he marched by land; and as the roads north of the Tagus were deemed impassable for guns, while transport and supplies for a large force were also difiicult to procure, he sent Sir John Hope, with the artillery, cavalry and reserve ammunition column, south of the river, through Badajoz to Almaraz, to move thence through Talavera, Madrid and the Escurial Pass, involving a considerable détour; while he himself with the infantry, marching by successive divisions, took the shorter roads north of the Tagus through Coimbra and Almeida, and also by Alcantara and Coria to Ciudad Rodrigo and Salamanca. Baird was to move south through Galicia to meet him, and the army was to concentrate at Valladolid, Burgos, or whatever point might seem later on to be best. But as Moore was moving forward, the whole situation in Spain changed. Napoleon’s forces, now increased to some 200,000 men present and more following, were assuming the offensive, and he himself on the 30th of October—had left Paris to place himself at their head. Before them the Spaniards were routed in every direction: Castafios was defeated near Logrofio (Oct. 27); Castafios and Palafox at Tudela (Nov. 23); Blake at Zornoza (Oct. 20), Espinosa (Nov. 11) and Reynosa (Nov. 13); and Belvedere at Gamonal, near Burgos (Nov. 10). Thus when Moore reached Salamanca (Nov. 28) Baird was at Astorga; Hope at the Escurial Pass; Napoleon himself at Aranda; and French troops at Valladolid, Arevalo and Segovia; so that the French were nearer than either Baird or Hope to Moore at Salamanea. Moore was ignorant of their exact position and strength, but he knew that Valladolid had been occupied, and so his first orders were that Baird should fall back to Galicia and Hope to Portugal. But these were soon changed, and he now took the important resolution of striking a blow for Spain, and for the defenders of Madrid, by attacking Napoleon’s communications with France. Hope having joined him through Avila, and magazines having been formed at Benavente, Astorga and Lugo, in case of retreat in that direction, he moved forward, and on the 13th of December approached the Douro, at and near Rueda east of Toro. Here he learnt that Madrid had fallen to Napoleon (Dec. 3) after he had by a brilliant charge of the Polish lancers and chasseurs of the Guard forced the Somosierra Pass (Nov. 30) and in another action stormed the Retiro commanding Madrid itself (Dec. 3); that the French were pressing on towards Lisbon and Andalusia; that Napoleon was unaware of his vicinity, and that Soult's corps, isolated on the Carrion River, had been ordered towards Benavente. He then finally decided to attack Soult (intending subsequently to fall back through Galicia) and ordered up transports from Lisbon to Corunna and Vigo; thus changing his base from Portugal to the north-west of Spain; Blake‘s Spanish army, now rallying under the marquis de la Romar'ta near Leon, was to co-operate, but was able to give little effective aid.
On the 20th of December Baird joined Moore near Mayorga, and a'brilliant cavalry combat now took place at Sahagun, in which the British hussar brigade distinguished itself. But on the 23rd of December, When Moore was at Sahagun and about to attack Soult, he learnt that overwhelming French forces were hastening towards him, so withdrew across the Esla, near Benevente (Dec. 28), destroying the bridge there. Napoleon, directly he realized Moore’s proximity, had ordered Soult to Astorga to cut him off from Galicia; recalled his other troops from their march towards Lisbon and Andalusia, and, with 50,000 men and 150 guns, had left Madrid himself (Dec. 22). He traversed over 100 m. in less than five days across the snowcovered Escurial Pass, reaching Tordesillas on the Douro on the 26th of December. Hence he wrote to Soult, “ If the English