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M. 0. B. C: "MAxnIILIAN OTTO BISMARCK CASPARI, MA.

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KARL FRIEDRICH GELONER, PILD. '
Professor of Sanskrit and Comparative Philology in the University of Marburg.
Author of Vedische Studien; SIC.

REv. KIRSOPP LARE, M.A.

Lincoln College. Oxford. Professor of Early Christian Literature and New Testa-
ment Exegcsis in the University of Leiden. Author of The Text of the New Testa-
ment; The Historical Evidence for the Resurrection of Jesus Christ; 8tc.

{ Persia: Language.

Peter, Saint;
Peter, Epistles oi.

Pedal Clarinet;
KATHLEEN SCHLESINGER. Philomel; Physharmonica;

Editor of the Portfolio of Musical Archaeology. Author of The Instruments of the Pianoiorte (in part); O'cheslm- Piccolo; Pipe and Tabor; i- , Platerspiei.

COUNT Liirzow, LITT.D., Pn.D., F.R.G.S.
Chamberlain of Hill. the Emperor of Austria, King of Bohemia. Hon. Member
of the Royal Society of Literature. Member of the Bohemian Academy, 8tC. Author
of Bohemia, a Historical Sketch; The Historians of Bohemia (llchester Lecture,
Oxford, 1904); The Life and Times of John Hus; 8w.

Podébrad, George of.

,REY. LEWIs CAMPBELL, D.C.L., LL.D. Plat
See the biographical article: CAMPBELL, LEWIS. 0'
LEVESON FRANCIS VERNON-HARCOURT, M.A., M.INST.C.E. (r83g-Igo7).
Professor of Civil Engineering at University College, London, I882—Ioo5. Author l men

of Rivers and Canals; Harbours and Docks: Civil Engineering as applied in Con-
struction; Sac.

Perovskite; Petallte;
Pharmacosiderite;
Phenacite; Phillipsite;
Phlogopite; Phosgenlte;
Pitchblende; Plagioclase.

LEONARD JAMES SPENCER, M.A.
Assistant in Department of Minerang , British Museum. Formerly Scholar of
- Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, an Harkness Scholar. Editor of the Miner-
alogical Magazine.

LORD M AerLAY.

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See the biographical article: MACAULAY, THOMAS BABINGTON MACAULAY, BARON. Pm'
MALCOLM BELL. {pewten
Author of Pewter Plate; &C.
REv. MARCUS Dons, D.D. - .
See the biographical article: Dons, Mucus. { P6138”-
MARCUS NIEBUHR TOD, M.A. -
Fellow and Tutor of Oriel College, Oxford. University Lecturer in Epigraphy. .
J Oint-author of Catalogue of the Sparta Museum. pefioed

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Reader in Ancient History at London University. Lecturer in Greek at Birmingham
University, 1905—1908.

MAX VERWORN, D.Sc., M.D., PILD.
Professor of Physiology and Director of the Physiological Institute in the University { Physiology.
. of Bonn. Author of Allgemeine Physiologic; &c.
NEWTON DENNISON MERENESS, A.M., PILD. Philippine Islands:

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" Editoi- of The Ancestor, 1902—1905. Hon. Genealogist to Standing Council of the P019 (lama?)

Honourable'Society of the Baronetage.
REV. OWEN CHARLES \IVHITEHOUSE, M.A., D.D.

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Senior Theological Tutor and Lecturer in Hebrew, Cheshunt College, Cambridge. Fame-605t-
Principal of the Countess of Huntingdon's College, Cheshunt. 1895—1905.

OLAUS MACNUS FRIEDRICH HENRICI, Pn.D., LL.D.. F.R.S. _
Professor of Mechanics and Mathematics in the Central Technical College of the Penman.

City and Guilds of London Institute.

Author of Vectors and Rotors; Congruent 1
Figures; &C.

i

Perm (in part);
Podolia (in part);
Poland, Russian (in port).

PRINCE PETER ALEXEIvr'rcn KROPOTKIN.
See the biographical article: KROPOTKIN, PRINCE P. A.

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P. A. TIELE. _
Formerly Librarian, Utrecht University. Author of Biographical and Historical Plantm.
Memoir on the Voyages of the Dutch Navigators; &c.

PETER CHALMERs MITCHELL, M.A., F.R.S., F.Z.S., D.SC., LL.D.
Secretary of the Zoological Society of London. University Demonstrator in Phos h l- s z ' 1
Comparative Anatomy and Assistant to Linacre Professor at Oxford, I888—I891. p o e cease m 200 08y.
Author of Outlines of Biology; &c.

PERCY GARDNER, LL.D., F.S.A., D.LITT.
See the biographical article: GARDNER, PERCY.

PETER GILEs, M .A., LL.D., LITT.D.
Fellow and Classical Lecturer of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, and University Philology (in PM).

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girder in Comparative Philology. Formerly Secretary of the Cambridge Philological

iety.

PHILIP LAKE, M.A., F.G.S.
Lecturer on Physical and Re ional Geo aphy in Cambridge University. Formerly - .
of the Geological Survey 0 India. guthor of Monograph of British Cambrian Fenla' Gadogy'
Trilobites. Translator and Editor of Keyser's Comparative Geology.

PRESERVED SMITH, PILD.

Rufus B. Kellogg University Fellow, Amherst College, U.S.A. { Plus L and 11'
PASQUALE VILLARI. ~ Pisa

See the biographical article: VILLARI, PASQUALE. '

SIR RICHARD CLAVERHOUSE JEEE LL.D., D.C.L.

See the biographical article: JEBB, SIR RICHARD CLAVERHOUSE. {Pindal‘ (in part).
RICHARD GARNETT, LL.D.

See the biographical article: GARNETT, RICHARD. {peacock Thomas Love.
REGINALD INNEs POCOCK, F.Z.S. ._ ‘.

Superintendent of the Zoological Gardens, London. {Pedlpalpl' Penmmmlda' SIR ROBERT KENNAWAY DOUGLAS.

Formerly Professor of Chinese, King's College, London. Keeper of Oriental Printed

Books and M55. at British Museum, 1892—1907. Member 0 the Chinese Consular Peking

Service, 1858—1865. Author of The Language and Literature of China; China;

Europe; and the Far East; &c.

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SYDNEY HOWARD VINEs, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S.
Sherardian Professor of Botany, University of Oxford and Fellow of Magdalen
College. Fellow of the University of London. President of the Linnean Society,
I900-I904. Formerly Reader in Botany in the University of Cambridge and
Fellow and Lecturer of Christ's College. Author of A Student's Textbook of Botany;
&c.

SIMON NEWCOM‘B, D.Sc., LL.D.
See the biographical article: Newcoua, SIMON.

TI-IOMAs Asnav, M.A., D.LITT.
Director of British School of Archaeology at Rome. Formerly Scholar of Christ Perugia;
Church, ,Oxford. Craven Fellow, I8 7. Conington Prizeman, I906. Member of Picenum (in Pa").
the Imperial German Archaeologica Institute. Author of The Classical Topo- Pi em ’
graphy of the Roman Campagna. p 0'

SIR TIIOMAs BARCLAY. {

Plants: Morphology.

Planet;
Planets, Minor.

Peace;
Peace Conlerences;
Pirate and Piracy: Law.

Member of the Institute of International Law. Officer of the Legion of Honour.
Author of Problems of International Practice and Diplomacy; &c. MP. for
Blackburn, 1910.

THEODORE FREYLINGHUYSEN COLLIER, PHI).
Assistant Professor of History, Williams College, Williamstown, Mass, U.S.A.

THOMAS GREGOR BRODIE, M.D., F.R.S. -
Professor Superintendent, Brown Animal Sanatory Institution, University of
London. Professor of Physiology, Royal Veterinary College, London. Lecturer
on Physiology, London School of Medicine for Women. Fellow of King's College,
London. Author of Essentials of Experimental Physiology;

REv. THOMAS MAII'IIN LINDSAY, LL.D., D.D.
Principal of the United Free Church College, Glasgow. Formerly Assistant to the Plymou‘h Brethren (in Pa";

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Professor of Logic and Meta hysics in the University of Edinburgh. Author of
History of the Reformation; Li e of Luther; &c.

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THOMAS WILLIAM ans DAVIDs, LL.D., PILD.
Professor of Comparative Religion, Manchester University. President of the
Pali Text Society. Fellow of the British Academy. Secretary and Librarian of Plpriwa.
Royal Asiatic Societ , 1885—1 2. Author of Buddhism; Sacred Books of the
Buddhists; Early B hism; B hisl India; Dialogues of the Buddha; &c.
WALTER COVENTRY SUMMERS, M.A.
Professor of Latin in the University of Sheffield. Formerly Fellow of St
College, Cambridge. Craven Scholar, I890. Chancellor's Medallist, I892.
of A Study of Valerius Flaccus; &c.

WILLIAM DoucLAs CARtSE, M.A., F.S.A., F.R.I.B.A.
Trinity College, Cambridge. Architect to the Ecclesiastical Commission and the Pearson, John Loughborouzh.
Charity Commission, London.

WILLIAM DWIcm WIIITNEv.
See the biographical article: WHITNEY, WILLIAM Dwrcnr.

SIR WILLIAM nE WIVELESLIE ABNEY, K.C.B., D.C.L., D.Sc., F.R.S.
Adviser in Science to the Board of Education for England. Member of the
Advisory Council for Education to the War Office. Formerly President of Royal Photography_
Astronomical Society, Physical Society and Royal Photographic Society. Author
of Instruction in Photography; Colour Vision; 8w.

WILLIAM EDWARD GARREr'r FISIIER, M.A. f
Author of The Transvaal and the Boers. L Phylloxern-

WILLIAM FREAM, LL.D. (d. 1906). I _
Formerly Lecturer on Agricultural Entomology, University of Edinburgh, and Pig (in part).
Agricultural Correspondent of The Times. 1

WILLIAM 'FEILDEN CRAIES, M.A. -
Barrister-at-Law, Inner Temple and Lecturer on Criminal Law, King's College, Pleading.
l.

{ Phillips, Wendell.

ohn's [Parsing
uthor Petronius (in part).

{Philology (in port).

London. Editor of Archbold‘s Criminal Pleading (23rd edition).

WALTER GARSTANG, M.A., D.Sc.
Professor of Zoology in the Universit of Leeds.
College, Oxford. Screntific Adviser to i506; ti; Exploration of the Sea, 1901—1907.
; c.

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Formerl Fellow of Lincoln
M. Delegates on the nternational Council
Author of The ImPoverishment of the

Plscleulture.

Surgeon, North Staffs Infirmary. Lyell Medallist, Geological Society, 1902. Author Pendleside 587168.

of British Carboniferous Lambellibranchiata; &c.

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W. M. R. WILLIAM MICHAEL ROSSETTI. j Perino del Vaga; '..' ' '
See the biographical article: ROSSETTI, DANTE G. Perugino, Pietro,
W. M. Ra. SIR WILLIAM MITCHELL RAMSAY, LL.D., D.C.L., D.LIT'I. - . -
See the biographical article: RAMSAY, SIR w. M. {ng‘a' mm
W. P. C. WILLIAM PRIDEAUX COURTNEY. Peierborough and Monmouth,
See the article: COURTNEY, Baron. Earl of_ 'A ,7'
W. R. M. WILIFIAM RICHARD MORFILL, M.A. (d. 1910). h
ormerly Professor of Russian and the other Slavonic Languages in t e University , -- _-_'_ _T
of Oxford. Curator of the Taylorian Institution, Oxford. Author of Russia; pomnd' Li'tdaue' -
Slavonic Literature; &c. .
W. R. 8. WILLIAM ROBERTSON SMITH, LL.D. P - U t
See the biographical article: SMIIII, WILLIAM ROBERTSON. { hymen” (1" par )' _
W. R. S.‘i WILLIAM ROY SMITH, M.A., PILD. ' ~ "3 I
Associate Professor of History, Bryn Mawr College, Pennsylvania. Author of Polk, James Knox.
Seclionalism in Pennsylvania during the Revolution; &c.
W. S. \R. WILLIAM SMYTH Rocxsrno. _ .. 3 ,.
Author of A Great History of Music from the Infancy of the Greek Drama in the Plain Sons- ‘, ' ' "
Present Period; and other- works on the history of music.
W. T. T.-D. SIR WILLIAM TURNER THISELTON-DYER, F.R.S., K.C.M.G., C.I.E., D.Sc., LL.D., "‘1 5’ J‘
PII.D., F.L.S. _ _
Hon. Student of Christ Church, Oxford. Director, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Plants; Distribulwn.
1885—1905. Botanical Adviser to Secretary of State for Colonies, 19024906.
Joint-author of Flora of Miridlesex. K _ H
W. W. R.‘ WILLIAM WALKER ROCKWELL, LIC.TIIEOL. Pius V]. VI]_ and vi.
Assistant Professor of Church History, Union Theological Seminary, New York. { ’ ’
W. Y. S. WILLIAM YOUNG SELLAR, LL.D. f p tr ' t I _
See the biographical article: SELLAR, w. Y. 1 e omus (m p '1') _.i
I? .l
I -.-.-.i :r
PRINCIPAL UNSIGNED ARTICLES.
Pea. Pepper. Phllostratus. | Piquet. J" Peach. Peppermint. Phonograph. Pistoia. ‘
Pear. Perfumery. Phormium. Pitcher Plank. _c_ 1, 3') _]
Peat. Périer. . Phosphorus. Pittsburg.
Peeblesshire. Parigueux. Photius. Plantation.
Pembroke, Earls oi. Peripatotios. Photochemistry. Platinum.
Pembroke. Perjury. Physiocratic School. Pleurisy. r
Pembrokeshire. Pernambuoo. Physiologus. Pleuro-Pneumonia. ' ' "
Pen. Perrault. Piacenza. Plock.
Pencil. Perrot. Picardy. Plough and Ploughing.
Penitential. Personality. Piccolomini. Plum. 3 5;,
Pennina Chain. Perth (N.B.). Pichegru. Plymoth (U.S.A.).
Pennsylvania. Perthshire. Pietism. Pneumatic Gun.
Pennsylvania, University of. Pessimism. Pigeon-flying. Pneumonia. _ .- r: g
Pensacola. Peterborough. Pilgrim. Pnom-Penh.
Pension. Petition. Pin. Poitiers. ,-_ ",1 .1, J;
Penzanoo. Philadelphia. Pink. Poker.
Peoria. Philately. Pipe. Pola.
' I I : '- 1'
l
l I' l'!
I ' .fl .‘1
I 0 ; f'r'
‘ J ..' .ll w

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PAYN, JAMES (1830—1898), English novelist, was born at Cheltenham, on the 28th of February 1830, his father being clerk to the Thames Commissioners and treasurer to the county of Berkshire. He was educated at Eton, and afterwards entered the Military Academy at Woolwich; but his health was not equal to the demands of a military career, and he proceeded in 1847 to Trinity College, Cambridge. He was among the most popular men of his time, and served as president of the Union. Before going to Cambridge he had published some verses in Leigh Hunt’s Journal, and while still an undergraduate put forth a volume of Stories from Boccacoio in 1852, and in 1853 a volume of Poems. In the same year he left Cambridge, and shortly afterwards married Miss Louisa Adelaide Edlin, sister of Sir Peter Edlin. He then settled down in the Lake district to a literary career and contributed regularly to Household W ants and Chambers’s Journal. In 1858 he removed to Edinburgh to act as joint-editor of the latter periodical. He became sole editor in 1859, and conducted the magazine with much success for fifteen years. He removed to London in 1861. In the pages of the Journal he published in 1864 his most popular story, Lost Sir Massingberd. From this time he was always engaged in novel-writing, among the most popular of his

' productions being Married Beneath Him (1865), Carlyon's Year (1868), By Proxy (1878), and The Talk of the Town (1885). In 1883 he succeeded Leslie Stephen as editor of the Cornhill Magazine and continued in the post until the breakdown of his health in 1896. He was also literary adviser to Messrs Smith, Elder & Company. His publications included a Handbook to the English Lakes (1859), and various volumes of occasional essays, Maxims by a Man of the World (1869), Some Private Views (1881), Some Literary Recollections (1884). A posthumous work, The Backwater of Life (1899), revealed much of his own personality in a mood of kindly, sensible reflection upon familiar topics. He died in London, on the 2 5th of March 1898.

A biographical introduction to The Backwater of Life was furnished by Sir Leslie Stephen.

PAYNE, PETER (c. 1380—145 5), English Lollard and Taborite, the son of a Frenchman by an English wife, was born at Houghon-the-Hill near Grantham, about 1380. He was educated at Oxford, where he adopted Lollard opinions, and had graduated as a master of arts before the 6th of October 1406, when he was concerned in the irregular proceedings through which a letter declaring the sympathy of the university was addressed to the Bohemian reformers. From 1410 to 1414 Payne was principal of St Edmund Hall, and during these years was engaged in controversy with Thomas Netter of Walden, the Carmelite defender of Catholic doctrine. In 1414 he was compelled to leave Oxford and taught for a time in London. Ultimately

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he had to flee from England, and took refuge in Bohemia, where he was received by the university of Prague on the 13th of February 1417, and soon became a leader of the reformers. He joined the sect of the “ Orphans,” and had a prominent part in the discussions and conferences of the ten years from 1420 to 1430. When the Bohemians agreed to send representatives to the Council of Basel, Payne was naturally chosen to be one of their delegates. He arrived at Basel, on the 4th of January 1433, and his unyielding temper and bitter words probably did much to prevent a settlement. The Bohemians left Basel in April. The party of the nobles, who had been ready to make terms, were attacked in the Diet at Prague, by the Orphans and Taborites. Next year the dispute led to open war. . The nobles were victorious at Lipau on the 29th of May 1434, and it was reported in England that Payne was killed. When soon afterwards the majority of the Orphans joined the moderate party, Payne allied himself with the more extreme Taborites. Nevertheless his reputation was so great that he was accepted as an arbitrator in doctrinal disputes amongst the reformers. In February 1437 the pope desired the emperor Sigismund to send Payne to be tried for heresy at Base]. Payne had to leave his pastorate at Saas, and took refuge with Peter Chelcicky, theBohemian author. Two years later he was captured and imprisoned at Gutenstein, but was ransomed by his Taborite friends. Payne took part in the conferences of the Bohemian parties in 1443—1444, and again in 1452. He died at Prague in 1455. He was a learned and eloquent controversialist, and a faithful adherent to Wycliffe’s doctrine. Payne was also known as Clerk at Oxford, as Peter English in Bohemia, and as Freyng, after his French father, and Hough from his birth place. Brnuoonnrnv.-—The chief facts of Payne's English career are iven in the Loci e libro veritatum of T. Gascoigne (ed. Thorold flogers, Oxford, 1881 . For his later life the principal sources are contained in the onumenta oanciliorum generalium saeculi 11., Saeculi am, or saeculi quintodecimi, vols. i.—iii. (Vienna, 1857—1894). For modern authorities consult Palacky, Geschichte van Bohmen, vii.—ix., and Creighton's Histor of the Pa acy. The biography by James_Baker, A Forgotten real Englis man (Longork 1121))4)

PAYNTER (or PAINTER), WILLIAM (c. 1540—1594), English author, was a native of Kent. He matriculated at St John’s College, Cambridge, in 1554. In 1561 he became clerk of the ordnance in the Tower of London, a position in which he appears to have amassed a fortune out of the public funds. In 1586 he confessed that he owed the government a thousand pounds, and in the next year further charges of peculation were brought against him. In 1501 his son Anthony owned that he and his father hadabused their trust, but Paynter retained his office until his death. This event probably followed

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