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PHILIP CHESNEY YORKE, M.A. Prynne, William (in part);

Magdalen College, Oxford. Editor of Letters of Princess Elizabeth of England. Pym John
PERCY GARDNER, LITT.D., LL.D., F.S.A. Pol clitus; Po otus’
See the biographical article: GARDNER, PERCY. Praynteles_ lygn ,

PETER GILEs, M.A., LL.D., LITT.D.

Fellow and Classical Lecturer of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, and University

lslzgderin Comparative Philology. FormerlySecretaryof the Cambridge Philological Q; R-
ety.

PAUL GEORGE KONODY.
Art Critic of the Observer and the Daily Mail. Formerly Editor of the Artist. Potter, Paul.
Author of The Art of Walter Crane; Velasquez, Life and Work; &c.

PETER GUTIIRIE TAIT, LL.D. -
See the biographical article: TAIT, PETER GUTIIRIE. { Quatermons (m pam'
f Provencal Language;
‘. Provencal Literature (in part)

PRIMROSE McCONNELL, F.G.S. I
gilember of the Royal Agricultural Society. Author of Diary ofa Working Farmer; l Reaping.
c.

REv. ROBERT HATCH KENNETT, M.A., D.D.
Regius Professor of Hebrew, Cambridge, and Canon of El . Formerly Fellow and
Lecturer in Hebrew and Syriac, Queens! College, and Universit Lecturer in
Aramaic. Author of A Short Account of the Hebrew Tenses; In our ongues; &c.

REGINALD INNEs Pococx, F.Z.S.
Superintendent of the Zoological Gardens, London.

RONALD JOHN McNEILL, M.A.
Christ Church, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law. Formeriy Editor of the St James‘s
Gazette, London.

RIcrIARD LYDEKKER, F.R.S., F.Z.S., F.G.S.
Member of the Staff of the Geological Survey of India, 1874—I882. Author of
Catalo ues of Fossil Mammals, Reptiles and Birds in the British Museum; The Deer
of all ands; &c.

PAUL MEYER.
See the biographical article: MEYER, PAUL HYACINTHE.

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' Porcupine (in part);

Porpoise; Primates;
Proboscidea; Prongbuck;
Rabbit (in part);

Rat; Rate].

Railways: General Statistics and Financial Organization.

RAY MORRIS, M.A. _ .
Formerly Managing Editor, Railway Age Gazette, New York. Author of Railroad
Administration. -

ROBERT MURRAY LESLIE, M.A., M.D., M.R.C.P.
Senior Physician, Prince of Wales's General Hospital, London. Lecturer on
Medicinérl, London Post-Graduate College. Author of Clinical Types of Pneu-
monia; c.

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R. MORTIMER WHEELER.

ROBERT NISBET BAIN (d. 1909).
Assistant Librarian, British Museum, 1883—I909. Author of Scandinavia: the
Political History of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, 1513—1900; The First Romanovs,
161 3—(1572 ; Slavonic Europe: the Political History of oland and Russia from 1469
to I79 ; c.

RENE POUPARDIN, D.-Es-L.
Secreta of the Ecole des Chartes. Honorary Librarian at the Bibliothirque
Nationa e, Paris. Author of Le Royaume de Provence sous les Carolingiens; chucil
des chartes de Saint-Germain; &c.

R. PIIENE SPIERS, F.S.A., F.R.I.B.A.
Formerly Master of the Architectural School, Royal Academy, London. Past
President of Architectural Association. Associate and Fellow of Kin 's College,
London. Corresponding Member of the Institute of France. Editor of Pergusson's
History of Architecture. Author of Architecture: East and West; &c.

ROBERT RANULR MARETT, M.A.
Reader in Socral Anthropology. Oxford University, and Fellow and Tutor of Exeter
College. Author of The Threshold of Religion; ‘

ROBERT SEYMOUR CONWAY, M.A., D.LITT. [ pompali; 0mm [mm-Miam;
Professor of Latin and lndo-European Philology in the University of Manchester. menesm (in Pa”).
Formerly Professor of Latin in University College, Cardiff; and Fellow of Gonville ’

Provence;
Quierzy, Capitulary ol.

Porch.

Prayer.

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and Caius College, Cambridge. Author of The Italic Dialects. nutuml' VISCOUNT ST CYREs. j Quesnel, Pasquier; See the biographical article: IDDESLEIGII, lST, EARL OF. [Quietlsnh

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' \ See the biographical article: GARDINER, S. R. {mum William (m pan"

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Pompeii (in part);
Pomposa; Pomptine Marshes;
Popilia, Via; Portus;
Postumia, Via;

Praeneste (in part);
Praenestina, Via;

Puteoli; Pyrgi;

Ravenna (in part).

THOMAS ASIIBY, M.A., D.LITT.
Director of British School of Archaeology at Rome. Formerly Scholar of Christ
Church, Oxford. Craven Fellow, 1897. Conington Prizeman, 1906. Member of
the Imperial German Archaeological Institute. Author of The Classical Topo-
graphy of the Roman Campagna. _

TIMOAI‘HY ACUGUSTINE COGHLAN, I.S_O.
gent- veneral for New South Wales. Government Statistician, New South \Valcs, i .
1886—1905. Honorary Fellow of the Royal Statistical Society. Author of Wealth ' queensiaild' Gong'aphy and
and Progress of New South Wales; Statistical Account of Australia and New Zealand ; l Stanms'
c.

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Trinity College, Dublin.

Praemunire.
SIR THOMAS BARCLAY. Privateer.
Member of the Institute of International Law. Officer of the Legion of Honour. . _ I.’ _
Author Of Problems of International Practice and Diplomacy; &c. M.P. for l Pnze' H “'13
Blackburn, 1910. l Raid; Rebellion.

THOMAS F. DALE, M.A.
ueen‘s Colleggé'Oxford. Steward and Member Of the Council of the Polo and P010_
1

iding Pony ety. Author of Polo, Past and Present; &c.
THOMAS HODGKIN, D.C.L. LITT.D. f .
See the biographical ariicle: I'IODGKIN, THOMAS. 1 Raven“ (m Pa)-

SIR THOMAS HUNGERFORD HOLDICH, K.C.M.G., K.C.I.E., D.Sc.
Superintendent, Frontier Surveys, India, 1892—1898. Gold Medallist, R.G.S., q“ “a
London, 1887. Author of The Indian Borderland; The Countries of the King's 0 °
Award; India; Tibet.

SIR THOMAS LITTLE HEATH, K.C.B., Sc.D. '
Assistant-Secretary to the Treasury. London. Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. Porism

Author of Apollonius of Perga; Treatise on Conic Sections; The Thirteen Books of
Euclid’s Elements; &c.

THOMAS SEcc0MaI-1,OM.A. H Ea LO d B (
Balliol College, xford. Lecturer in istory, st n on and irkbeck Colleges,
University of London. Stanhope Prizeman, Oxford, 1887. Assistant Editor ofiLReeve’ Henry'
Dictionary of National Biography, 1891—1901. Author of The Age of Johnson; &c.

THOMAS WOODHOUSE.
Head Of the Weaving and Textile Designing Department, Technical College, Dundee.

REv. WILLIAM AUGUSTUS BREVOORT COOLIDGE, M.A., F.R.G.S., PILD.
Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Professor of English History, St David's
Colle c, Lampeter, 1880—1881. Author of Guide du Haut Dauphiné; The Range of
the odi; Guide to Grindelwald; Guide to Switzerland: The Alps in Nature and
in History; &c. Editor of the Alpine Journal, 1880—1881; &c.

WILLIAM ALEXANDER LINDSAY, K.C., M.A., ].P., D.L., F.S.A. _
Windsor Herald. Bencher of the Middle Temple. Peerage Counsel. Author of The Precedence (m part).
Royal Household, 1837-1897; &c.

WALTER ALISON PHILLIPS, M.A. ( _
Formerly Exhibitioner of Merton College and Senior Scholar of St John's College, ’ Prince, _
Oxford. Author of Modern Europe; &c. 7 lProvost (m part).

WILHELM BAcrrER, PILD.
Professor at the Rabbinical Seminary, Budapest. Knight of the Iron Crown. Rabbi.
Author of Die Agada der Tannaiten; &c.

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WILLIAM BARCLAY PARSONS, C.E., LL.D. . _ . .
Formerly Chief Engineer, Rapid Transit Commission, New York. Advisory Railways° Imm'b'ba" Raa'
Engineer, Royal Commission on London Traffic. Author of Track; Turnouts; 8x. ways-

WILLIAM ERNEST DALBY, M.A., M.INST.C.E.

Professor of Civil and Mechanical Engineering at the City and Guilds of London Power Transmission: Intro-
Institute Central Technical College, South Kensington. Formerly University dud”), and Mechanical-
Demonstrator in the Engineerin Department, Cambridge. Author of The R -lwa s. L I~ P '
Balancing of Engines; Valves and alve-Gear Mechanism; &c. m y ’ 060"“) we awe"

WILLIAM FEILDEN CRAIES, M.A.
Barrister-at-Iaw, Inner Temple. Lecturer on Criminal Law, King's College,
London. Editor of Archbold‘s Criminal Pleading (23rd edition).

{Quarter Sessions, Court 0!; WILLIAM GARNETT, M.A., D.C.L. i

Recognizance.

Educational Adviser to the London County Council. Formerl Fellow and
Lecturer of St John's College, Cambridge. Principal and Professoro Mathematics,

Durham College of Science, Newcastle-on-Tyne. Author of Elementary Dynamics; Pelytecmnc (m paro'
c.

L
SIR WILLIAM HENRY FLOWER, F.R.S. Porcupine (in part);
See the biographical article: FLOWER, SIR W. H. Rabbit (in Pa”)

WILLIAM H. LANo, M.B., D.Sc.

Barker Professor of Cryptogamic Botany, University of Manchester. {mrldophyta'

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W. L. G. WILLIAM LAWSON GRANT, M.A. Prince Edward [sun -
Professor at Queen's University, Kingston, Canada. Formerly Beit Lecturer in [Quebec. Profit-“CL, (is, a”).
Colonial History at Oxford University. Editor of Ads of the Privy Council (Colonial . i p '
Series); Canadian Constitutional Development (in collaboration). Quebec- C1,)"
W. M. WILLIAM MINTO, M.A., LL.D. { -
See the biographical article: MINTO, WILLIAM. Pope, Alexander (m Pa")-
W. M. F. P. WILLIAM MATTHEW FLINDERS PETRIE, F.R.S., D.C.L., LI'I'I.D. {Pyramid
See the biographical article: PETRIE, W. M. F. '
W. 0. B. VEN.A\V;:PRID OfIbBI'ILLn lguxaogvs,dM.A. d T of Ch Ch h 0 f d
n: eacon o irming am. tu ent an utor rist urc , x or , 1884—
1891. Principal of Leeds Clergy School, I891—1900. Author of The Mystery of the Prayers for the Dead'
Cross.
W. R. M. WILLIAM RIcIIARn MORFILL, M.A. ((1. I910).
Formerly Professor of Russian and the other Slavonic Languages in the University Pushkm
of Oxford. Curator of the Taylorian Institution, Oxford. Author of Russia; '
Slavonic Literature; &c.
Priest (in part);
W. R. S. WILLIAM ROBERTSON SIIIIII, LL.D. Prophet (in part);
See the biographical article: Sin-III, WlLLlAM ROBERTSON. Psalms, Book 0! (in pan);
Rameses (in part). '
W. W. F.‘ WILLIAM WARDE FOWLER, MA.
Fellow of Lincoln College, Oxford. Sub-Rector, 1881—1904. Gifi'ord Lecturer, ponmex
Edinburgh University. 1908. Author of The City-Slate of the Greeks and Romans; '
The Roman Festivals of the RePublican Period; 8w.
W. Y. Rev. WILLIAM YOUNG.
Minister, Higher Broughton Presbyterian Church, Manchester, 18 7—1901, and Presbyteriaan
Association Secretary for the Religious Tract Society in the North of ngland.
PRINCIPAL UNSIGNED ARTICLES
Pollination. Petentiometer. Prussie Acid. Quinine.
Polygon. Prerogative. Public Health. Quinoline.
Polyhedron. Press Laws. Publishing. Quinones.
Polynesia. Primrose. Puflin. Radium. '
Pomegranate. Primulaceae. Pugilism. Rainbow.
Pomerania. Princeton University. Pump. Ranunculaeeae.
Pontoon. Principal and Agent. Punjab. Rare Earths.
Poor, Law. Probate. Pyrazoles. Raspberry.
Poplar. Procession. Pyrenees. Rationalism.
Porto Rico. Proctor. Pyridine. Ravenna. Exarchate of.
Portuguese Guinea. Prohibition. Pyrones. Real Property.
Potassium. Protestant. Quarantine. Red River.
Potato. Prussia.

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POLL, strictly the head, in men or animals. Skeat connects the word with O. Swed. kalle (initial p and k being interchangeable) and Considers a Celtic origin probable; cf. Irish coll, Welsh col, peak, summit. “ Poll ” is chiefly used in various senses derived from that of a unit in an enumeration of persons or things, e.g. poll-tax (11.11.), or “challenge to the polls "in the case of a jury ((1.2).). The most familiar derivative uses are those connected with voting at parliamentary or other elections; thus “ to poll ” is to vote or to secure a number of votes, and “ the poll,” the voting, the number of votes cast, or the time during which voting takes place. The verb “to poll ” also means to clip or shear the top of anything, hence “ polled ” of hornless cattle, or “deed-poll ” (Le. a deed with smooth or unindented edges, as distinguished from an “ indenture ”). A tree which has been “polled,” or cut back close in order to induce it to make short bushy growth, is called a “ pollard.”

At the university of Cambridge, a “ pass" degree is known as a " poll-degree." This is generally explained as from the Greek 01 roMol, the many, the common people.

POLLACK (Gadus pallachius), a fish of the family Gad'idae, abundant on rocky coasts of northern Europe, and extending as far south as the western parts of the Mediterranean, where, however, it is much scarcer and does not attain to the same size as in its real northern home. In Scotland and some parts of Ireland it is called lythe. It is distinguished from other species of the genus Gadus by its long pointed snout, which is twice as long as the eye, with projecting lower jaw, and without a barbel at the chin. The vent is below the anterior half of the first dorsal fin. A black spot above the base of the pectoral fin is another distinguishing mark. Although pollack are wellflavoured fish, and smaller individuals (from 12 to 16 in.) excellent eating, they do not form any considerable article of trade, and are not preserved, the majority being consumed by the captors. Specimens of 12 lb are common, but the species is said to attain occasionally as much as 24 lb in weight. (See also COALFISH.) .

POLLAIUOLO, the popular name of the brothers Antonio and Piero di Jacobo Benci, Florentines who contributed much to Italian art in the 15th century. They were called PoHaiuolo because their father was a poulterer. The nickname was also extended to Simone, the nephew of Antonio.

ANTONIO (1429—1498) distinguished himself as a sculptor, jeweller, painter and engraver, and did valuable service in perfecting the art of enamelling. His painting exhibits an excess

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of brutality, of which the characteristics can be studied in the “ Saint Sebastian,” painted in 1475, and now in the National Gallery, London. A “St Christopher and the Infant Christ ” is in the Metropolitan Museum, New York. But it was as a sculptor and metal-worker that he achieved his greatest successes. The exact ascription of his works is doubtful, as his brother Piero did much in collaboration with him. The museum of Florence contains the bronze group “ Hercules strangling Cacus ” and the terra~cotta bust “ The Young Warrior ”; and in the South Kensington Museum, London, is a bus-relief representing a conteSt between naked men. In 1489 Antonio took up his residence in Rome, where he executed the tomb of Sixtus IV. (1493), a composition in which he again manifested the quality of exaggeration in the anatomical features of the figures. In 1496 he went to Florence in order to put the finishing touches to the work already begun in the sacristy of Santo Spirito. He died in 1498, having just finished his mausoleum of Innocent VIII., and was buried in the church of San Pietro in Vincula, where a monument was raised to him near that of his brother.

PIERO (1443-1496) was a painter, and his principal works were his “ Coronation of the Virgin,” an altar-piece painted in 1483, in the choir of the cathedral at San Gimignano; his “Three Saints,” an altar-piece, and “ Prudence ” are both at the Uffizi Gallery.

SIMONE (r457—1508), nephew of Antonio Pollaiuolo, a cele_ brated architect, was born in Florence and went to Rome in 1484; there he entered his uncle’s studio and studied architecture. On his return to Florence he was entrusted with the completion of the Strozzi palace begun by Benedetto de Maiano, and the cornice on the facade has earned him lasting fame. His highly coloured accounts of Rome earned for him the nickname of i1 Cronaca (chronicler). About 1408 he built the church of San Francesco at Monte and the vestibule oi the sacristy of Santo Spirito. In collaboration with Guiliano da Sangallo he designed the great hall in the Palazzo Vecchio. He was a close friend and adherent of Savonarola.

See also Maud Cruttwell, Antonio Pollaiuolo (1907).

POLLAN (Coregonus pollzm), the name given to a species of the Salmonoid genus Coregonus (Whitefish) which has been found in the large and deep loughs of Ireland only. A full account of the fish by its first describer, W. Thompson, may be found in his Natural History of Ireland, iv. 168.

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POLLARD, EDWARD ALBERT (1828—1872), American journalist, was born in Nelson county, Virginia, on the 27th of February 1828. He graduated at the university of Virginia in 1849, studied law at the College of William and Mary, and in Baltimore (where he was admitted to the bar), and was engaged in newspaper work in California until 1855. In 1857—1861 he was clerk of the judiciary committee of the National House of Representatives. By 1859 he ‘had become an outspoken Secessionist, and during the Civil War he was one of the principal editors of the Richmond Examiner, which supported the Confederacy but was hostile to President Jefferson Davis. In 1864 Pollard sailed for England, but the vessel on which he sailed was captured as a blockade runner, and he was confined in Fort Warren in Boston Harbour from the 29th of May until the 12th of August, when he was paroled. In December he was placed in close confinement at Fort Monroe by order of Secretary Stanton, but was soon again paroled by General B. F. Butler, and in January proceeded to Richmond to be exchanged there for Albert D. Richardson (1833—1869), a well-known correspondent of the New York Tribune, who, however, had escaped before Pollard arrived. In 1867—1869 Pollard edited a weekly paper at Richmond, and he conducted the Political Pamphlet there during the presidential campaign of r868.

His publications include Black Diamonds Gathered in the Darkey Homes of the South (1859), in which he advocated a reopenin of the slave trade; The Southern History of the War (3 vols.: [girst Year of the War, with B. M. DeWitt, 1862; Second Year of the War, 1862; Third lYear_ of the War, 1864); Observations in the North: Eig t Months m Prison and on Parole (1865); The Lost Cause (1866); Lee and His Lieutenants (1867); The Lost Cause Regained (1868), a southern view of_ reconstruction urging the necessity of white supremacy; The Lth of Jefi'erson Dams (1869), an arraignment of the Confederate president; and The Virginia Tourist (1870).

POLLEN'I‘IA (mod. Pollenzo), an ancient town of Liguria, Italy, 10 m. to the north of Augusta Bagiennorum, on the left bank of the Tanarus (mod. Tanaro). Its position on the road from Augusta Taurinorum to the coast at Vada Sabatia, at the .point of divergence of a road to Hasta (Asti) gave it military importance. Decimus Brutus managed to occupy it an hour before Mark Antony in 43 B.C.; and it was here that Stilicho on the 29th of March 403 fought the battle with Alaric which though undecided led the Goths to evacuate Italy. The place was famous for its brown wool, and for its pottery. Considerable remains of ancient buildings, an amphitheatre, a theatre and a temple still exist. The so-called temple of Diana is more probably a tomb.

See G. Franchi-Pont in Alli dell’ accademia di Torm'o (1805— 1808), p. 321 sqq.'

POLLINATION. in botany, the transference of the pollen from the stamen to the receptive surface, or stigma, of the pistil of a flower. The great variety in the form, colour and scent of flowers (see FLOWER) is intimately associated with pollination which is eflected by aid of wind, insects and other agencies. Pollen may be transferred to the stigma of the same flower—— self-pollination (or autogamy), or to the stigma of another flower on the same plant or another plant of the same species—crosspollination (or allogamy). Eflective pollination may also occur between flowers of different species, or occasionally, as in the case of several orchids, of different genera—this is known as hybridization.

The method of pollination is to some extent governed by the distribution of the stamens and pistil. In the case of unisexual flowers, whether monoecious, that is, with staminate and pistillate flowers on one and the same plant, such as many of our native trees—oak, beech, birch, alder, &c., or dioecious with staminate and pistillate flowers on different plants, as in willows and pop— lars, cross pollination only is possible. In bisexual or hermaphrodite flowers, that is, those in which both stamens and pistil are presmt, though self-pollination might seem the obvious course, this is often prevented or hindered by various arrangements which favour cross-pollination. Thus the anthers and stigmas in any given flower are often mature at different times; this condition, which is known as dichogamy and was first

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pointed out by Sprengel, may be so well marked that the stigma has ceased to be receptive before the anthers open, or the anthers have withered before the stigma becomes receptive, when crosspollination only is possible, or the stages of maturity in the two organs are not so distinct, when self-pollination becomes possible later on. The flower is termed proterandrous or proteragyrwus according as anthers or stigmas mature first. The term homogomy is applied to the simultaneous maturity of stigma and anthers. Spontaneous self-pollination is rendered impossible in some homogamous flowers in consequence of the relative position of the anthers and stigma—this condition has been termed herkogamy. Flowers in which the relative position of the organs allows of spontaneous self-pollination may be all alike as regards length of style and stamens (homomorphy or homostyly), or difl'er in this respect (heteromorphy) the styles

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and stamens being of diflerent lengths in different flowers (heterostyly) or the stamens only are of diflerent lengths (heteranthery). Flowers which are closed at the time of maturity of anthers and stigmas are termed cleistogamous.

Self-pollination is efl'ected in very various ways. In the simplest case the anthers are close to the stigmas, covering these with pollen when they open; this occurs in a. number of small annual plants, also in Narcissus, Crocus, &c. In snovidrop and other pendulous flowers the anthers form a cone around the style and the pollen falls on to the underlying stigmas, or in erect flowers the pollen may fall on to the stigmas which lie directly beneath the opening anthers (e.g. Narthccium). In very many ‘ cases the pollen is carried to the stigma by elongation, curvature or some other movement of the filament, the style or stigma, or corolla or some other part of the flower, or by correlated movements of two or more parts. For instance, in many flowers the filaments are at first directed outwards so that self-pollination is not possible, but later incline towards the stigmas and pollinate them (e.g. numerous Saxifragaceae, Cruciferae and others), or the style, which first projects beyond the anthers, shortens later on so that the anthers come into contact with the stigmas (e.g. species of Cactaceae), or the style bends so that the stigma is brought within the range of the pollen (e.g. species of Oenothera, Epilobium,most Malvaceae, &c.). In M irabilis J ale [:0 and others the filaments and style finally become intertwined, so that pollen is brought in contact with the stigma. Selipollination frequently becomes possible towards the end of the life of a flower which during its earlier stages has been capable only of cross-pollination. This is associated with the fact, so ably demonstrated by Darwin, that, at any rate in a large number of cases, cross-pollination yields better results, as measured by the number of seeds produced and the strength of the offspring, than self-pollination; the latter is, however, preferable to absence of pollination. In many cases pollen has no efl'ect on the stigma of the same flower, the plants are selfsterile, in other cases external pollen is more eflective (pro-potent) than pollen from the same flower; but in a very large number of cases experiment has shown that there is little or no difference

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