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history had inspired among the Portuguese, the union of 1581 might have endured if the terms of the Thomar compact had been observed. But few of the promises made in 1581 were kept by the three Spanish kings who ruled over Portugal— Philip II. (1581—1598), Philip III. (1598—1621) and Philip IV. (r62r--r64o).1 The cortes was only once summoned (1619), and the government of Portugal was entrusted by Philip III. chiefly to Francis duke of Lerma, by Philip IV. chiefly to Olivares (q.v.). The kingdom and its dependencies were also involved in the naval disasters which overtook Spain. Faro in Algarve was sacked in 1595 by the English, who ravaged the Azores in r 596; and in many parts of the world English, French and Dutch combined to harass Portuguese trade and seize Portuguese possessions. (See especially BRAZIL; INDIA; MALAY ARCHIPELAGO.) Union with Spain had exposed Portugal to the hostility of the strongest naval powers of western Europe, and had deprived it of the power to conclude an independent peace.

Insurrections in Lisbon (1634) and Evora (1637) bore witness to the general discontent, but until 1640 the Spanish ascendancy The was never seriously endangered. In 1640 war with Rebellion France and a revolution in Catalonia had taxed the °' 'W' military resources of Spain to the utmost. The royal authority in Portugal was delegated to Margaret of Savoy, duchess of Mantua, whose train of Spanish and Italian courtiers aroused the jealousy of the Portuguese nobles, while the harsh rule of her secretary of state, Miguel de Vasconcellos de Brito, provoked the resentment of all classes. Even the Jesuits, whose influence in Portugal had steadily increased since 1555, were now prepared to act in the interests of Cardinal Richelieu, and therefore against Philip IV. A leader was found in John, 8th duke of Braganza, who as a grandson of the duchess Catherine was descended from Emanuel I. The duke, however, was naturally indolent, and it was with difficulty that his ambitious and energetic Castilian wife, D. Luiza de Guzman, obtained his assent to the proposed revolution. He refused to take any active part in it; but D. Luiza and her confidential adviser, Joao Pinto Ribeiro, recruited a powerful band of conspirators among the disaffected nobles. Their plans were carefully elaborated, and on the rst of December 1640 various strategic points were seized, the few partisans of Spain who attempted resistance were overpowered, and a provisional government was formed under D. Rodrigo da Cunha, archbishop of Lisbon, who was appointed lieutenantgeneral of Portugal.

6. The Restoration: 1640—r755.—-On the 13th of December 1640 the duke of Braganza was crowned as John IV., and on the rcth of January 1641 the cortes formally accepted him as king. The whole country had already declared in his favour and expelled the Spanish garrisons, an example followed by all the Portuguese dependencies. Thus the “ Sixty Years’ Captivity ” came to an end and the throne passed to the house of Braganza. But the Portuguese were well aware that they could hardly maintain their independence without foreign assistance, and ambassadors were at once sent to Great Britain, the Netherlands and France. The struggle between the Crown and the parliament prevented Charles I. from offering aid, but he immediately recognized John IV. as king. Richelieu and the states-general of the Netherlands despatched fleets to the Tagus; but commercial rivalry in Brazil and the East led soon afterwards to a colonial war with the Dutch, and Portugal was left without any ally except France.

The Portuguese armies were at first successful. D. Matheus d'Albuquerque defeated the Spaniards under the baron of wnwnb Molingen at Montijo (May 26, 1644), and throughSnln, out the reign of John IV. (1640—r656) they suffered "40"‘“- no serious reverse. But great anxiety was caused by a plot to restore Spanish rule, in which the duke of Caminha and the archbishop of Braga were implicated; and especially by the action of Mazarin, who had assumed control of French foreign policy in r642. At the congress of Miinster (r643) he refused to make the independence of Portugal a condition of

' Philip 1., II. and III. of Portugal.

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peace between France and Spain; and in a letter dated the 4th of October 1647 he even offered the Portuguese Crown to the duke of Longueville—an offer which. illustrates the weakness of John IV. and the dependence of Portugal upon France.

John IV. was succeeded by his second son, Alphonso VI. (1656—1683), who was then aged thirteen. During the king's minority the queen-mother, D. Luiza, acted as regent. She prosecuted the war with vigour, and on the 14th of January 1659 a Portuguese army commanded by D. Antonio Luiz de Menezes, count of Cantanhede, defeated the Spaniards under D. Luiz de Haro at Elvas. In March 1659, however, the war between France and Spain was ended by the treaty of the Pyrenees; and D. Luiz de Haro, acting as the Spanish plenipotentiary, obtained the inclusion in the treaty of a secret article by which France undertook to give no further aid to Portugal. Neither Louis XIV. nor Mazarin desired the aggrandisement of Spain at the expense of their own ally; they therefore evaded the secret article by sending Marshal Schomberg to reorganize the Portuguese army (1660), and by helping forward a marriage between Charles II. of England and Catherine of Braganza, the sister of Alphonso VI. This project had been already mooted by D. Luiza, who had foreseen the restoration of the Stuart monarchy, and had in 1650 welcomed the exiled princes Rupert and Maurice at the court of John IV. The dowry to be paid by Portugal was fixed at £500,000 and the cession to Great Britain of Bombay and Tangier. In May‘ 1663 the marriage was celebrated, and thus Great Britain took the place of France as the active ally of Portugal.

Meanwhile, on the 20th of June 1662, the regency had been terminated by a palace revolution. Alphonso VI. declared himself of age and seized the royal authority; D. Moms“? Luiza retired to a convent. The king was feeble deutelo and vicious, but had wit enough to leave the "mm" conduct of affairs to stronger hands. D. Luiz de Sousa e Vasconcellos, count of Castello Melhor, directed the policy of the nation while Schomberg took charge of its defence. The army, reinforced by British troops under the earl of Inchiquin and by French and German volunteers or mercenaries, was led in the field by Portuguese generals, who successfully carried out the plans of Schomberg. On the 8th of June 1663 the count of Villa Flor utterly defeated D. John of Austria, and retook Evora, which had been captured by the invaders; on the 7th of July 1664 Pedro de Magalhacs defeated the duke of Osuna at Ciudad Rodrigo; on the 17th of June 1665 the_marquess of Marialva destroyed a Spanish army led by the mhrquess of Carracena at the battle of Montes Claros, and Christoan de Brito Pereira followed up this victory with another at Villa Vicosa. The Spaniards failed to gain any compensating advantage, and on the r3th of February 1668 peace was concluded at Lisbon, Spain at last consenting to recognize the independence of the Portuguese kingdom.

The signature of the treaty of Lisbon had been preceded by another palace revolution. Castello Melhor, hoping to secure further French support for his country, had arranged a marriage between Alphonso VI. and Marie Francoise Elisabeth, daughter of Charles Amadeus of Nemours, and grand-daughter of Henry IV. of France. The marriage, celebrated in r666, caused the downfall both of Castello Melhor and of the king. Queen Marie detested Alphonso and fell in love with his brother D. Pedro; and after four months of a hated union she left the palace and applied to the chapter of Lisbon cathedral to annul her marriage on the ground of non-consummation. D. Pedro imprisoned the king and assumed the regency; on the rst of January 1668 his authority was recognized by the cortes; on the 24th of March the annulment of the queen’s marriage was pronounced and confirmed by the pope; on the 2nd of April she married the regent. Castello Melhor was permitted to escape to France, while Alphonso VI. was banished to Terceira in the Azores. A conspiracy to restore him to the throne was discovered in 1674, and he was removed to Cintra, where he died in 1683.

Pedro 11., who had acted as regent for fifteen years, now became king. His reign (1683—1706) is a period of supreme importance in the economic and constitutional history of PorThe Car," tugal. The goldfields of Minas Geraes in Brazil, Great Britain was reduced, by the formation of chartered companies, the first of which (1753) was given control of the Algarve sardine and tunny fisheries. The Oldembourg Company (r7 54) received a monopoly of trade with the Portuguese colonies in the East; extensive monopolist rights were also conceded to the Fruit and Maranhao Company (17 5 5) and the Pernambuco and Parahyba Company (r7 59). In Lisbon a chamber of commerce (Junta do commercio) was organized in 1756 to replace an older association of merchants, the M can dos homens dc negacia, which had attacked the Para Company; and in the same year the Alto Douro Company was formed to control the port-wine trade and to break the monopoly enjoyed by a syndicate of British wine merchants. This company met with strong opposition, culminating in a rising at Oporto (February 1757), which was savagely suppressed.

and the Methuen royalties to the Crown, which was thus enabled to M- govern without summoning the cortes to vote supply.

In 1697 the cortes met for the last time before the era of con— stitutional government. Even more important was the change eflected when the Whig ministry of Great Britain sent John Methuen to Lisbon to negotiate a commercial agreement. The Methuen Treaty, signed on the 27th of December 1703, detached Portugal from the French alliance, and made her for more than 150 years a commercial and political satellite of Great Britain. Its most far-reaching provisions were those which admitted Portuguese wines to the British market at a lower rate of duty than was imposed upon French and German wines, in return for a corresponding preference to English textiles. The demand for “ Port” and “ Madeira” was thus artificially stimulated to such an extent that almost the whole productive energy of Portugal was concentrated upon the wine and cork trades. Other industries, including agriculture, were neglected, and even food-stuffs were imported from Great Britain. The disastrous economic results of the treaty were temporarily concealed by the influx of gold from Brazil, the check upon emigration from the wine-growing northern provinces, and the military advantages of alliance with Great Britain. Nor was the virtual abolition of the Cortes seriously felt at first, owing to the excellent internal administration of Pedro II. and his minister the duke of Cadaval.

Pedro II. had at first wished to remain neutral in the impending struggle between Philip V. and the archduke Charles, rival w onl“, claimants for the throne of Spain. But Queen SDanlsh Marie had died in 1683, and in 1687 Cadaval had 5"”"hm induced the king to marry Maria Sophia de Neuberg, daughter of the elector-palatine. Louis XIV. of France, who had hoped through the influence of Queen Marie to secure Portuguese support for his own grandson Philip V., realized that this second marriage might thwart his policy, and strove to redress the balance by creating a strong party at the court of Lisbon. He so far succeeded that in 1700 Pedro II. recognized Philip V. as king of Spain and in 1701 protected a French fleet in the Tagus against the British. It was this incident that caused the despatch of the Methuen mission and the renewal of the Anglo-Portuguese alliance in 1703. On the 7th of March r704 a British fleet under Sir George Rooke reached Lisbon, conveying the archduke Charles and 10,000 British troops, who were joined by a Portuguese army under D. Joao de Sousa, marquess das Minas, and at once invaded Spain. (For the campaigns of 1704—13, see SPANISH Successron, WAR or THE.) In 1705 Pedro II. was compelled by failing health to appoint a regent, and chose his sister, Catherine of Braganza,queen-dowager of England. On the death of the king (Dec. 9, 1706) Cadaval arranged a marriage between his successor John V. (1706— 1750) and the archduchess Marianna, sister of the archduke Charles, thus binding Portugal more closely to the AngloAustrian cause. The strain of the war was acutely felt in Portugal, especially in 1711, when the French admiral DuguayTrouin sacked Rio de Janeiro and cut off the Brazilian treasureships. At last, on the 6th of February 1715, nearly two years after the treaty of Utrecht, peace between Spain and Portugal was concluded at Madrid.

Never was the Portuguese Crown richer than in the years 1715—17 5 5; rarely had the kingdom prospered less. The The Mom commercial and financial evils rife under the last "ch-Y ""1 kings of the Aviz dynasty were now repeated. a" CMM" More gold had been discovered in Matto Grosso, diamonds in Minas Geraes. As in the 16th century immense quantities of bullion were imported by the treasury. and were lavished upon war, luxury and the Church, while agriculture and manufactures continued to decline, and the countryside was depopulated by emigration to Brazil. John V. was a spendthrift and a bigot. He gave and lent enormous sums to successive

discovered about 1693, brought a vast revenue in'

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popes, and at the bidding of Clement XI. he joined a “ crusade ” against the Turks in which his ships helped to win a naval action ofi Cape Matapan (1717). For these services he received the title of Fidelissimus, “Most Faithful”; “Majesty” had already been adopted by John IV. instead of the medieval “ Highness,” and the new style was intended to place the king of Portugal on an equality with his Most Christian Majesty of France and his Most Catholic Majesty of Spain. John V. was also empowered to create a multitude of new ecclesiastical dignities, and the archbishop of Lisbon was granted the rank and style of Patriarch ex oflicio. To the patriarchate was appended a Sacred College of 24 prelates, who were privileged to ofiiciate in the scarlet robes of cardinals,' while the patriarch wore the vestments of a second pope. Though regiments were disbanded, fleets put out of commission and fortresses dismantled to save the cost of their upkeep, the Crown paid nearly {100,000 yearly for the maintenance of this new hierarchy, and squandered untold wealth on the erection of churches and monasteries. In the church of $50 Roque in Lisbon, the decoration of a single chapel measuring 17 ft. by 12 it. cost {22 5,000; the expenditure on the convent-palace of Mafra (41.11.) exceeded £4,000,000.

John V. was succeeded by his son Joseph (1750—1777). Five years afterwards Portugal was overtaken by the tremendous disaster of the Lisbon earthquake (see LISBON), which, as Oliveira Martins justly observes, was “ more than a cataclysm of nature; it was a moral revolution.” It brought the Restoration period to an end (1755). Throughout that period the monarchy had occupied a precarious position, dependent until 1668 for its very existence, and after 1668 for its stability, on foreign support. Its policy had been moulded to suit France or Great Britain, while its internal administration had normally been directed by the Church. The cortes had grown obsolete; the feudal aristocracy were become courtiers. Once more, as in r 580, Portugal was governed by ecclesiastics in the name of an absolute monarch; once more, as in 1580, the chief strength of the ecclesiastical party was the Society of Jesus, which still controlled the conscience and mind of the nation and of its nominal rulers, through the confessional and the schools.

7. The Reform of the Monarchy: I755—r826.—The unity of Portuguese history is hard to perceive in the years which witnessed the rise and fall of the Pombaline régime, the reign of the mad queen Maria, the Peninsular War and the subsequent chaos of revolutionary intrigue. At first sight it seems absurd to characterize this period of despotism ending in war, ruin and anarchy as a period of reform. Nevertheless, it is possible to trace through the apparent chaos an uninterrupted movement from absolutism to representative institutions. Pombal liberated the monarchy from' clerical domination, and thus unwittingly opened the door to those “ French principles," or democratic ideas, which spread rapidly after his downfall in 1777. The destruction of an obsolete political system, begun by Pombal, was completed by the Peninsular War; while French invaders and British governors together quickened among the Portuguese a new consciousness of their nationality, and a new desire for political rights, which rendered inevitable the change to constitutional monarchy.

Two days after the accession of King Joseph, Sebastiao José de Carvalho e Mello, better known as the marquess of Pombal (11.11.), was appointed secretary of state for foreign affairs and war. In a few months he gained an ascendancy over the king’s mind which lasted until the end of the reign, and was strengthened by the courage and wisdom shown by Pombal at the'time of the great earthquake. His policy was to strengthen the monarchy and to use it for the furtherance of a comprehensive scheme of reform. Beginning with finance and commerce, he reversed the bullionist policy of his predecessors and reorganized the entire system of taxation. He sought to undo‘ the worst consequences of the Methuen treaty by the creation of national industries, establishing a gunpowder factory and a sugar refinery in 175i, a silk industry in r7 52, wool, paper and glass factories after 1759. Colonial development was fostered, and the commercial dependence of Portugal upon

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Both his commercial policy and his desire to strengthen the Crown brought Pombal into conflict with the Church and the aristocracy. In 17 51 he had made all sentences passed by the Inquisition subject to revision by the Crown. The liberation of all slaves in Para and Maranhao except negroes (17 55), and the creation of the Para Company, were prejudicial to the interests of the Jesuits, whose administrative authority over the Indians of Brazil was also curtailed. Various charges were brought against the Society by Pombal, and in September r759, after five years of heated controversy (see Jasur'rs), he published a decree of expulsion against all its members in the Portuguese dominions. His power at court had previously been strengthened by the so-called Tavora plot. The marquess and marchioness of Tavora and their two sons, with the duke of Aveiro, the count of Atouguia and other noblemen, were accused of complicity in an attempt upon the life of King Joseph (September 1758). Pombal appointed a special tribunal to judge the case; many of the accused, including those already mentioned, were found guilty and executed; and an attempt was made to implicate the Jesuits. Pombal’s enemies declared that he himself had organized the attack upon the king, in such a manner as to throw suspicion upon his political opponents and to gain credit for himself. This accusation was not proved, but the history of the Tavora plot remains extremely obscure. The expulsion of the Jesuits involved Portugal in a dispute with Pope Clement XML; in June 1760 the papal nuncio was ordered to leave Lisbon, and diplomatic relations with'the Vatican were only resumed after the condemnation of the Jesuits by Clement XIV., in July 1773.

His victory over the Jesuits left Pombal free to develop his plans for reform. He devoted himself especially to education and defence. Aschool of commerce was founded in 1759; in 1760 the censorship of books was transferred from an ecclesi~ astical to a lay tribunal; in 1761 the former Jesuit college in Lisbon was converted into a college for the sons of noblemen; in 1768 a royal printing-press was established; in 1772 Pombal provided for a complete system of primary and secondary education, entailing the foundation of 837 schools. He founded a college of art in Mafra; he became visitor of Coimbra University, recast its statutes and introduced the teaching of natural science. Funds for these reforms were to a great extent provided out of the sequestrated property of the Jesuits; Pombal also effected great economies in internal administration. He abolished the distinction between Old and New Christians, and made all Portuguese subjects eligible to any office in the state. Farreaching reforms were at the same time carried out in the army, navy and mercantile marine. In 1760 Admiral Boscawen had violated Portuguese neutrality by burning four French ships off Lagos; Pombal protested and the British government apologized, but not before the military weakness of Portugal had been demonstrated. Two years later, when the Family Compact involved Portugal in a war with Spain, Pombal called in Count William of Lippe-Btickeburg to reorganize the army, which was reinforced by a British contingent under Brigadier-General John Burgoyne, and was increased from 5000 to 50,000 men. The Spaniards were at first successful, and captured Braganza and Almeida; but they were subsequently defeated at Villa Velha and Valencia de Alcantara, and the Portuguese fully held their

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own up to the signature of peace at F ontainebleau, in February 1763. Towards the close of the reign,‘ a long-standing controversy with Spain as to the frontier between Brazil and the Spanish colonies threatened a renewal of the war; but in this crisis Pombal was’deprived of power by the death of King Joseph (Feb. 20, 1777) and the accession of his daughter Maria I.

The queen was married to her uncle, who became king consort as Pedro III. Pombal's dismissal, brought about by the influence of the queen-mother Mariana Victoria, Mn]. 1,, did not involve an immediate reversal of his policy. Pedm In. The controversy with Spain was amicably settled "do-“"by the treaty of San Ildefonso (1777}; and further industrial and educational reforms were inaugurated, chief among them being the foundation, in 1780, of the Royal Academy of Sciences. Queen Maria, who had previously shown signs of religious mania, became wholly insane after 1788, owing to the deaths'of Pedro III. (May 1786), of the crown prince D. Joseph, and of her confcssor, the inquisitor-general D. Ignacio de San Caetano. Her second son, D. John, assumed the conduct of affairsin 1792, although he did not take the title of regent until 1799. Meanwhile a two-fold reaction ——-on one side clericalist, on the other democratic—had set in against the reforms of Pombal. D. John told William Beckford in 1786 that “ the kingdom belonged to the monks,” and his consort Carlota Joaquina, daughter of Charles IV. of Spain, exercised a powerful influence in favour of the Church. But new ideas had been introduced with the new system of education, and the inevitable revolt against absolutism had resulted in the formation of a Radical party, which sympathized with the Revolution in France and carried on an active propaganda through the numerous masonic lodges which were in fact political clubs. D. John became alarmed, and the intendant of police in Lisbon, D. Diogo Ignacio de Pina Manique, organized an elaborate system of espionage which led to the imprisonment or exile ofv many harmless enthusiasts.

From similar motives, a treaty of alliance with Spain was signed at Aranjuez in March 1793; 5000 Portuguese troops were sent to assist in a Spanish invasion of France; a Rum“. Portuguese squadron joined the British Mediterranean "I," spun. fleet. But in July 1795 Spain concluded a peace anmd with the French republic from which Portugal, as 0"" the ally of Great Britain, was deliberately excluded. frujfé‘” In 1796 Spain declaredwarupon Great Britain,and in ' 1797 a secret convention for the partition of Portugal was signed by the French ambassador in Madrid, General Pérignon, and by the Spanish minister Godoy. D. John appealed for help to Great Britain, which sent him 6000 men, under Sir Charles Stuart, and a subsidy of £200,000. Though Spain, through the influence of D. John’s father-in-law Charles IV., still remained neutral, a state of war between Portugal and France existed until 1799. D. John then reopened negotiations with Napoleon, and Lucien Bonaparte was sent to dictate terms in Madrid. But D. John dared not consent to close the harbours of Portugal against British ships. England was the chief market for Portuguese wine and grain; and the long Portuguese littoral was at the mercy of the British navy. Compelled to choose between fighting on land and fighting at sea, D. John rejected the demands of Lucien Bonaparte, and on the 10th of February 1801 declared war upon Spain. His territories were at once invaded by a F rancoSpanish army, and on the 6th of June 1801 he was forced to conclude the peace of Badajoz, by which he ceded the frontier fortress of Olivenza to Spain, and undertook to pay 20,000,000 francs to Napoleon and to exclude British ships from Portuguese ports. Napoleon was dissatisfied with these terms, and although he ultimately ratified the treaty, he sent General Lannes to Lisbon as his ambassador, instructing him to humiliate the Portuguese and if possible to goad them into a renewal of the war. The same policy was continued by General Junot, who succeeded Lannes in 1804. Junot required D. John to declare war upon Great Britain, but this demand was not immediately pressed owing to the preoccupation of Napoleon with greater affairs, and in October 1805 Junot left Portugal. '

By his Berlin decree of the zrst of November 1806 Napoleon required all continental states to close their ports to British ships. As Portugal again refused to obey, another secret FrancoThe Spanish treaty was signed' at Fontainebleau on the Peninsullr 27th of October 1807, providing for the partition w'“ of Portugal. Entre-Minho-e-Douro was to be given to Louis II. of Etruria in exchange for his Italian kingdom; Algarve and Alemtejo were to form a separate principality for Godoy; the remaining provinces were to be garrisoned by French troops until a general peace should be concluded. To give effect to these terms, General Junot hastened Westward across Spain, at the head of 30,000 French soldiers and a large body of Spanish auxiliaries. So rapid were his movements that there was no time to. organize effective resistance. On the 29th of November D. John, acting on the advice of Sir Sidney Smith, British naval commander in the Tagus, appointed a council of regency and sailed for Brazil, convoyed by Sir Sidney Smith’s squadron. For a detailed account of the subsequent military operations, see PENINSULAR WAR.

Junot, who was everywhere well received by the Portuguese democrats, entered Lisbon at the end of November 1807. He assumed command of the Portuguese army, divided

Invasion by the kingdom into military governments, and, on the

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November rst of February 1808 announced that the Braganza “907‘ dynasty had forfeited its right to the throne. He him#038?“ self hoped to succeed D. John, and sought to conciliate

the Portuguese by reducing the requisition demanded by Napoleon from 40,000,000 francs to 20,000,000. But the action of the French troops in occupying the fortresses of northern Spain provoked in May 1808 a general rising in that country, which soon spread to Portugal. The Spanish garrison in Oporto expelled the French governor and declared for the Braganzas, compelling Junot to march towards the north. He left Lisbon under the control of a regency, headed by the bishop of Oporto, who applied to Great Britain for help, promoted an insurrection against the French, and organized junta: (committees) of government in the larger towns. On the rst of August 1.808

Sir Arthur Wellesley, with 9000 British troops, landed at.

Figueira da Foz. He defeated a French division at Rolica (“ Roleia ”) on the 17th, and on the 21st won a victory over Junot at Vimeiro (“Vimiera”). Fearing an attack by Portuguese auxiliaries and the arrival of British reinforcements under Sir John Moore, Junot signed the convention of Cintra by which, on the 30th of August 1808, he agreed to evacuate Portugal (see WELLINGTON). The regency appointed by D. John was now reconstituted and in October Sir John Moore assumed command of all the allied troops in Portugal. From Lisbon Moore marched north-eastward with about 32,000 men to assist the Spanish armies against Napoleon; his subsequent retreat to join Sir David Baird in Galicia, in January 1809, diverted the pursuing army under Napoleon to the north-west, and temporarily saved Portugal from attack.

In February Major-General William Carr Beresford was given command of the Portuguese army. Organized and “was,” by disciplined by British officers, the native troops played Soult, a gallant part in the subsequent campaigns. In MIMI-MU March 1809 the second invasion of Portugal began; '809Soult crossed the Galician frontier and captured Oporto, while an auxiliary force under General Lapisse advanced from Salamanca. On the 22nd of April, however, Wellesley, who had been recalled after the convention of Cintra, landed in Lisbon. On the 12th of May he forced the passage of the Douro, subsequently retaking Oporto and pursuing Soult into Spain. Valuable assistance had been rendered by the Portuguese generals Antonio da Silveira and Manoel de Brito Mousinho—the first a leader, the second an organizer.

After the battle of Wagram (July 6, 1809) the French armies in the Peninsula received large reinforcements, and laws,“ byMarshal Masséna, with 120,000 men, was ordered Masséna, to operate against Portugal. He crossed the frontier JIIM 1810- in June 1810 and besieged Almeida, which capituApflusu' lated on the 27th of August. Wellesley, who had now become Viscount Wellington, opposed his march south

‘retrocession of Olivenza and to oppose the restora

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wards, and won a victory at Bussaco on the 27th of September, but Masséna subsequently turned the position of the allied army on the Serra de Bussaco, and caused Wellington to fall back upon the fortified lines which he had already constructed at Torres Vedras. Here he stood upon the defensive until the invaders should be defeated by starvation. The Portuguese troops cut Masséna’s communications; the peasants, under instructions from Wellington, had already laid waste their own farms, destroyed the roads and bridges by which Masséna might retreat, and burned their boats on the Tagus. On .the 5th of March 1811, after a winter of terrible sufferings, Masséna’s retreat began; he was harassed by the allied troops all theway to Sabugal, where the last rearguard action in Portugal took place on the 3rd of April. The invaders retired with a loss of nearly 30,000 men; Almeida was retaken on the 6th; and the remainder of the war was fought out on Spanish and French soil. The Portuguese troops remained under Wellington's command until 1814, and distinguished themselves in many. actions, notably at Salamanca and on the Nivelle.

At the congress of Vienna (1814—181 5) Portugal was represented by three plenipotentiaries, who were instructed to press for the

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tion of French Guiana, which the Brazilians had the Wm

conquered in 1809. Neither object was attained; and this failure, which was attributed to the lack of British support, hastened the reaction against British influence which had already begun. Since 1808 Portugal had theoretically been governed by the regency representing D. John. But as the regency was corrupt and unable to co-operate withWellington and Beresford, the British government had demanded that Sir Charles Stuart (son of the Sir Charles Stuart mentioned above) should be appointed one of its members. The real control of afiairs soon afterwards passed into the strong hands of Stuart and Beresford; and while the war lasted the Portuguese acquiesced in what was in fact an aut0cracy exercised by foreigners. In 1815, however, they desired to resume their independence. A further cause of dissatisfaction was the mutual jealousy of Portugal and Brazil. The colony claimed as high a political status as the mother-country, and by a decree dated the 16th of January 1815 it was raised to the rank of a separate kingdom. Thenceforward, until 1822, the Portuguese sovereignty was styled the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves. The importance of this change became apparent when Queen Maria I. died (March 1816) and D. John succeeded to the united thrones as John VI. The king refused to leave Brazil, partly owing to the intrigues of Carlota Joaquina, who hoped to become queen of an independent Brazilian kingdom. Thus Portugal, which had been almost ruined by the war, was now humiliated by the failure of her diplomacy at Vienna and by her continued dependence upon Great Britain and Brazil. The resultant discontent found expression in the cry of “ Portugal for the Portuguese ” and in the demand for a constitution. In 1817 a military revolt (provmnciamenlo) in Lisbon was crushed by Beresford, and the leader, General Gomes Freire de Andrade, was executed; but on the 16th of August The CM, 1820, after Beresford had sailed to Brazil to secure numb“! the return of John VI., a second rising took place Movementin Oporto. It soon spread southward. A new "82""826' council of regency was established in Lisbon, the British ofiicers were expelled from the army; Beresford, on his return from Brazil, was not permitted to land; a constituent assembly was summoned. This body suppressed the Inquisition and drew up a highly democratic constitution, by which all citizens were declared equal before the law and eligible to any office; all class privileges were abolished, the liberty of the Press was guaranteed, and the government of the country was vested in a single

chamber, subject only to the suspensive veto of the Crowvn.

So extreme a change was disliked by most of the powers and by many Portuguese, especially those of the clerical party. Great Britain insisted on the return of John VI., who entrusted the government of Brazil to his elder son D. Pedro and landed in Portugal on the 3rd‘of' July 1821. In 1822, on the advice of D. Pedro, he swore to obey the constitution (thenceforward known as the “ constitution of 1822 ”). But his younger son, D. Miguel, and the queen, Carlota Joaquina, refused to take the oath; and in December 1822 sentence of banishment was pronounced against them, though not enforced. They had many supporters at home and abroad. French troops had invaded Spain in the interests of Ferdinand VII. (1823), and the French government was prepared to countenance the absolutist party in Portugal in order to check British influence there. Another military revolt broke out in Traz-os-Montes on the 3rd of February 1823, its leader being the count of Amarante, who was opposed to the constitution. D. Miguel appealed to the army to “ restore liberty to their king,” and the army, incensed by the loss of Brazil (1822), gave him almost unanimous support. At this juncture John VI., vainly seeking for a compromise, abrogated the constitution of 1822, but appointed as his minister D. Pedro de Sousa Holstein, count (afterwards duke) of Palmella -and leader of the “ English ” or constitutional party. These half-measures did not satisfy D. Miguel, whose soldiers seized the royal palace in Lisbon on the 30th of April 1824. Palmella was arrested, and John VI. forced to take refuge on the British flagship in the Tagus. But the united action of the foreign ministers restored the king and reinstated Palmella; the insurrection was crushed; D. Miguel submitted and went into exile (June 1824).

In Brazil also a revolution had taken place. The Brazilians demanded complete independence, and D. Pedro sided with them. The Portuguese garrison of Rio de Janeiro was overpowered; on the 7th of September 1822 D. Pedro declared the country independent, and on the 12th of October he was proclaimed constitutional emperor. He took no notice of the constituent assembly in Lisbon, which on the 19th of September had ordered him to return to Portugal on pain of forfeiting his right to inherit the Portuguese Crown. By the end of 1823 all Portuguese resistance to the new régime in Brazil had been overcome.

John VI. died on the 10th of March 1826, leaving (by will) his daughter D. Isabel Maria as regent for Pedro I. of Brazil, who now became Pedro IV. of Portugal. A crisis was evidently imminent, for Portugal would not tolerate an absentee sovereign who was far more Brazilian than Portuguese. The unsatisfied ambition of Carlota Joaquina and the hostility between absolutists and constitutionalists might at any moment precipitate a civil war. To conciliate the Portuguese, Pedro IV. drew up a charter (known as the “ charter of 1826 ”) which provided for moderate parliamentary government on the British model. To conciliate the Brazilians, he undertook (by decree dated May 2nd 1826) to surrender the Portuguese Crown to his daughter D. Maria da Gloria (then aged seven); but this abdication was made contingent upon her marriage with her uncle D. Miguel, who was first required to swear fidelity to the charter. '

8. Constitutional Government—The charter of 1826 forms the basis of the present Portuguese constitution and the startingpoint of modern Portuguese history. That history comprises four periods: (a) From 1826 to 1834 the clerical and absolutist parties led by D. Miguel united every reactionary element throughout the kingdom in a last unsuccessful stand against constitutional government; (b) From 1834 to 1853 the main problem for Portuguese statesmen was whether the constitution, now accepted as inevitable, should embody the radical ideas of 1822 or the moderate ideas of 1826; (c) From 1853 to 1889 there was a period of transition marked by the rise of three new parties—Progressive, Regenerator, Republican; (d) From 1889 to 1008 the Progressives and Regenerators monopolized the control of public affairs, but the strength of Republicanism was not to be gauged by its representation in the cortes. At the beginning of the 20th century the question whether the monarchy should be replaced by a republic had become a living political issue, which was decided by the revolution of October 5, 1910.

The charter was brought to Lisbon by Sir Charles Stuart in July 1826. The absolutists had hoped that D. Pedro would abdicate unconditionally in favour of D. Miguel, and the council

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of regency at first refused to publish the charter. They were forced to do so (July 12) by a Pronunciamento issued by D. Joao Carlos de Saldanha -de Oliveira e Daun, count 11,.

of Saldanha and commander of the army in Oporto. MM Saldanha, a prominent constitutionalist, threatened mum“ to march on Lisbon if the regency did not .swear obedience to the charter by the 3rst of July. Amid wild enthusiasm the charter was proclaimed on that day, and on the 3rd of August Saldanha became head of a Liberal ministry. An absolutist counter-revolution at once broke out in the north. It was organized by the marquess of Chaves, and supported openly by the Church and the Miguelite majority of the army; secret assistance was also given by Spain. As civil war appeared imminent, Canning despatched 5000 British troops under Sir William Clinton to restore order, and to disband the troops under Chaves. By March 1827 Clinton and Saldanha had secured the acceptance of the‘charter throughout Portugal.

In October 1826 D. Miguel also swore to obey the charter and was betrothed to his niece D. Maria da Gloria (Maria 11.). Pedro IV. appointed him regent in July 1827 and in February 1828 he landed in Lisbon, where he was received with cries of “ Viva D. Miguel I., rei absolutol ” In March be dissolved the parliament which had met in accordance with the charter. In April the Tory ministry under Wellington withdrew Clinton’s division, which was the mainstay of the charter. In May D. Miguel summoned a cortes .of the ancient type, which offered him the Crown; and on the 7th of July 1828 he took the oath as king. Saldanha, Palmella, the count of Villa Flor (afterwards duke of Terceira), and the other constitutionalist leaders were driven into exile, while scores of their adherents were executed and thousands imprisoned. Austria and Spain supp )rted D. Miguel, who was able to dispose of the vast wealth of Carlota Joaquina; Great Britain and France remained neutral. Only the emperor D. Pedro and a handful of exiles upheld the cause of Maria II., who returned to Brazil in 1829.

The Azores, although the _majority of their inhabitants favoured absolutism, now became a centre of resistance to D. Miguel. In 1828 the garrison of Angra declared 11,, for Maria II., endured a siege lasting four months, Mltllfll“ and finally took refuge in the island of Terceira, “'8” where it was reinforced by volunteers from Brazil and constitutionalist refugees from England and France. In March 1829 Palmella established a regency on the island, on behalf of Maria 11.; and D. Miguel’s fleet was defeated in Praia Bay on the 12th of August. Fortune played into the hands of Palmella, Saldanha, Villa Flor and their followers in Terceira. In 1830 a Whig ministry came into oflice in Great Britain; the “ July revolution ” placed Louis Philippe on the throne of France; Carlota Joaquina, the power behind D. Miguel’s throne, died on the 7th of January. The fanaticism of the‘clerical and abso— lutist parties in Portugal (collectively termed apostolicos) was enhanced by recrudescence of Sebastianism. Men saw in the brutal boor D. Miguel (q.v.) a personification of the hero-king Sebastian, whose second advent had been expected for two and a half centuries. In the orgy of persecution, outrages were committed on British and French subjects; and a French squadron retaliated by seizing D. Miguel’s fleet in the Tagus (July 1831). In Brazil, D. Pedro abdicated (April 1831); be determined to return to Europe and conduct in person a campaign for the restoration of Maria II. He was received with enthusiasm by Louis Philippe. In Great Britain Palmella raised a loan of £2,000,000 and purchased a small fleet, of which Captain Sartorius, a retired British naval officer, was appointed admiral. In February 1832 the “ Liberators,” as they were styled, sailed from Belleisle to the Azores, with D. Pedro aboard the flagship. In July they reached Portugal and occupied Oporto, but the expected constitutionalist rising did not take place. The country was almost unanimous in its loyalty to D. Miguel, who had 80,000 troops against the 6500 (including 500 French and 300 British) of D. Pedro. But the Miguelites had no navy, and no competent general. They besieged D. Pedro in Oporto from July 1832 to July 1833, when the duke of Terceira and

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