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of the duchy of Lauenburg, finally succeeded in uniting the whole of Pomerania under her rule.

For the history, see I. Bugenhagen, Pomerania, edited by O. Heinemann (Stcttin, 1900); von Bohlen, Die Erwerbung Pommems durch die Hohenzollem Berlin, 1865); H. Berghaus. Landbuch dcs Hcrzogtums Pommem ( erlin, 1865—1876); the Codex Pomeraniae diplomaticus, edited by K. F. W. Hasselbach and j. G. L. Kosc

arten (Greifswald, 1862); the Pommersches Urkundenbuch, edited

y R. Klempin and others (Stettin, 1868—1896); W. von Sommerfeld, Geschirhte der Germamkierung des Herzoglums Pommem (Leipzig. 1896); F. \V. Barthold, Geschichte van Rzigcn and Pommer» (Hamburg, 1839—1845); K. Mass, Pommersche Geschichle (Stettin, 1899); M. Wehrmann, Geschichle von Pommem (Gotha, 1904—1906); and Uecker. Pommem in War! and Bild (Stettin. 1904). See also the publications of the Gesellschafl ftir Pommersche Geschichte and Allertumskunde.

POMEROY. a village and the county-seat of Meigs county, Ohio, U.S.A., on the Ohio river, about 85 m. S.S.E. of Columbus. Pop. (1890) 4726; (1900) 4639, including 453 foreign-born and 280 negroes; (1910) 4023. Pomeroy is served by the Hocking Valley and (across the river) Baltimore & Ohio railways, by inter-urban electric railway, and by passenger and freight boats to the leading river ports. It occupies a strip of ground between the river and a range of steep hills. Bituminous coal and salt abound in the district, and there are deposits of building stone, fireclay and glass sand. The first settlement here was established in 1816, coal mining was begun three years later, and in 1827 a town was laid out and named Nyesville. There was little progress, however, until 1833, when Samuel W. Pomeroy (in whose honour the present name was adopted) formed a company, which began mining coal on a large scale. Pomeroy was incorporated as a village and was made the county-seat in 1841. In 1850 the first of several salt wells, from 1000 to 1200 ft. in depth, was operated.

POMFRET, JOHN (1667-1702), English poet, son of Thomas Pomfret, vicar of Luton, was born in 1667. He was educated at Bedford grammar school and at Queens’ College, Cambridge. He became rector of Maulden, Bedfordshire, in 1695, and of Millbrook in the same county in 1702. Dr Johnson says that the bishop of London refused to sanction preferment for him because in his Choice he declared that he would have no wife, although he expressed a wish for the occasional company of a modest and sprightly young lady. The poet was married in real life all the same, and—while waiting to clear up the misunderstanding with the bishop—he died in November 1702. The Choice or Wish: A Poem written by a Person of Quality (1700) expresses the epicurean desires of a cultivated man of Pomfret’s time. It is smoothly written in the heroic couplet, and was widely popular. His Alisccllany Poems were published in'1702.

POMMEL (through 0. Fr. pomel, from a diminutive pomcllus of Lat. pomum, fruit, apple), any rounded object resembling an apple, c.g. the rounded termination of a saddle-bow; in architecture, any round knob, as a boss, finial, &c.; more particularly the rounded end to the hilt of a sword, dagger or other hand weapon, used to prevent the hand from slipping, and as a balance to the blade. “ Pommel ” is also a term used of a piece of grooved wood used in graining leather. This word may be the same in origin, or more probably fromyFr. paumelle, from paume, the hand, palm.

POMMER, or BOMBARD (Fr. hautbois; Ital. bombardo, bombardonc), the alto, tenor and basses of the shawm or Schalmey family, and the forerunners respectively of the cor-anglais, bassoon or fagotto, and double bassoon or contrafagotto. The main difference to the casual observer between the medieval instruments and those of our orchestra which were evolved from them would be one of size. In the Pommers no attempt had been made to bend the tube, and its length, equal to that of an open organ pipe of the same pitch, was outstretched in all its unwieldiness in an oblique position in front of the performer. The great contrabass Pommer was 9 ft. long without the crook and reed, which, however, were bent downwards. It had five open fingerholcs and five keys working inside a perforated case; in order to bring the holes within reach of the finger, they were out obliquely through the tube. The compass extended


from F below 8 it. C to Eor F in the bass stave, two octaves in all. The other members of the family were the bass Pommer, from 8 it. C to middle C, corresponding to the modern bassoon or fagotto; the tenor or basset Pommer, a. fifth higher in pitch; the alto pommer or m'colo, a fourth or a fifth above the tenor; and the high alto, or Klein Alt Pommer, an octave higher than the tenor, corresponding approximately to the cor-anglais.

For the history of the Pommer family see OBOE and Basslgon.

POMONA, an old Italian goddess of fruit and gardens. Ovid (Met. xiv. 623) tells the story of her courtship by the silvan deities and how Vertumnus, god of the turning year, wooed and won her. Corresponding to Pomona there seems to have been a male Italian deity, called Pomunus, who was perhaps identical with Vertumnus. Although chiefly worshipped in the country, Pomona had a special priest at Rome, the flamen Pomonalis, and a sacred grove near Ostia, called the Pomonal. She was represented as a beautiful maiden, with fruits in her bosom and a pruning-knife in her hand.

POMONA, a city of Los Angeles county, in southern California, U.S.A., about 33 m. E. of the city of Los Angeles. Pop. (1890) 3634; (1900) 5526 (567 foreign-born); (1910) 10,207. It is served by the Southern Pacific, the San Pedro, Los Angeles & Salt Lake, and the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe railways, and by an inter-urban electric line. The city is about 850 ft. above sea-level, and has a. Carnegie library and several parks, including Ganesha park (4 5 acres), which commands a fine view. At Claremont, about 3 111. north, is Pomona College (1888, coeducational), which in 1908 had 34 instructors and 488 students. Pomona is in the midst of a prosperous fruit region, devoted especially to the growing of oranges. Orchards of oranges, lemons, apricots, peaches and prunes surround the city for miles, and some olives are grown; alfalfa and sugar-beets are raised in large quantities in the immediate neighbourhood. Pomona was settled by a colony of fruit-growers in 1875, and was chartered as a city in 1888. ‘

POMONA, or MAINLAND, the 'central and: largest island of the Orkneys, Scotland. Pop. (1901), 16,235. It is 25 m. long from N.W. to SE. and 15 m. broad from E. to W.; area, 190 sq. m. ; but where the coast is cut into, on the N. by Kirkwall Bay and on the S. by Scapa Flow, the land is less than 2 1n. acres. Consequently, the portion of the island to the west of the waist of Pomona is sometimes described as the,West Island, and the portion to the. East as the East Island. The west coast is almost unbroken, the bays of Birsay and Skaill being the only bays of any importance. The east and south shores, on the other hand, are extensively carved out. Thus on the east side are. found Eynhallow Sound, Wood Wick, the bays of Isbister, Firth, Kirkwall, and Inganess and Dee Sound, and on the south Holm Sound, Scapa Bay, Swanbister Bay and Bay of Ireland. The highest points of the watershed from Costa. Head to the Scapa shore are Milldoe (734 ft.) to the north-east of Isbister and Wideford Hill (740 ft.) to the west of Kirkwall. There are also a few eminences towards the south-west, Ward Hill (880 ft.) in the parish of Orphir being the highest peak in the island. There are numerous lakes, some of considerable size and most of them abounding with trout. Loch Harray is 4} m. long by from i m. to about 2 m. wide, and Loch Stenness 3} m. long by from k to 2% m. wide. Lochs Swannay, Boardhouse and Hundland are situated in the extreme north, while Loch Kirbister lies near the south coast and Loch Tankerness adjoins Deer Sound. 06 the east coast lie the islands of Rousay, Egilshay, Viera, Eynhallow, Gairsay and Shapinshay, and 08 the south Copinshay and Lamb Holm. The hilly country is mostly moorland, and peat-mosses are met with in some of the low-lying land, but many of the valleys contain fertile soil, and there are productive tracts on the eastern and northern seaboart‘L Kirkwall, the capital of the Orkneys, and Stromness are the only towns.

InHarray, the only parish in the Orkneys not trenched at some point by the sea, Norse customs have survived longer than elsewhere in the group save in North ,Ronaldshay. In Deerness the most easterly parish in Pomona, were buried zoo Covenanters, taken prisoners at the battle of Bothwell Brig. They were carried to Barbados, to be sold as slaves for the plantations, when the ship foundered in Deer Sound, and all were drowned. In Sandside Bay, in the same parish, the fleet of Malcolm Canmore was defeated by that of Jarl Thorfinn; and at Summersdale, towards the northern base of the hills of Orphir, Sir James Sinclair, governor of Kirkwall, vanquished Lord Sinclair and 500 Caithness men in 1529. .

The antiquities of Pomona are of great interest. The examples ‘of Pictish remains include breaks or round towers, chambered mounds, or buildings of stone covered in with earth, and weems, or underground dwellings afterwards roofed in. At Saverock, on the west wing of Kirkwall Bay, a good specimen of an earth~ house will be found, and at Quanterness, r m. to the west of it, a chambered mound, containing seven rooms with beehive roofs. Farther west and 5 m. by road north-east of Stromness, and within a mile of the stone circles of Stenness, stands the great barrow or chambered mound of Maeshowe. The tumulus has the form of a blunted cone, is 36 ft. high, 300 ft. in circumference and 92 ft. in diameter, and at a distance of go it. from its base is encircled by a moat 40 ft. wide and from 4 ft. to 8 ft. deep. The ground-plan shows that it was entered from the west by a passage, 54 ft. long, from 2 ft. to 3 ft. wide and from 2% ft. to 4§ ft. high, which led to a central apartment about 1.5 ft. square, the walls of which ended in a beehive roof, the spring of which began at a height of 13 ft. from the floor. This room and the passage are built of undressed blocks and slabs of sandstone. About the middle of each side of the chamber, at a height of 3 ft. from the floor, there is an entrance to a small

-.cell, 3 ft. high, 4% ft.'wide and from 5% ft. to 7 ft. long. Mr James Farrer explored the mound in 1861, and discovered on the walls and certain stones rude drawings of crosses, a winged dragon, and a serpent curled round a pole, besides a variety of Runic inscriptions. One of these inscriptions stated that the tumulus had been rifled by Norse pilgrims (possibly crusaders) on their way to Jerusalem under Jarl Rognvald in the 12th century. There can be little doubt but that it was a. sepulchral chamber. Joseph Anderson ascribes it to the Stone Age (that is, to the Picts), and James .Fergusson to Norsemen of the roth century.

The most interesting of all those links with a remote past are the stone circles forming the Ring of Brogar and the Ring of Stenness, often inaccurately described as the Stones of Stenness. The Ring of Brogar is situated to the north-west and the Ring of Stenness to the south-east of the Bridge of Brogar, as the narrow causeway of stone slabs is called which separates Loch Harray from Loch Stenness. The district lies some 4} in. north-east of Stromness. The Ring of Brogar, once known as the Temple of the Sun, stands on a raised circular platform of turf, 34.0 ft. in diameter, surrounded by a moat about 6 it. deep, which in turn is invested by a grassy rampart. The ring originally comprised 60 stones, set up at intervals of 17 ft. Only 13 are now erect.' Ten, still entire, lie prostrate, while the stumps of 13 others can yet be recognized. The height of the stones varies from 9 ft. to 14 ft. The Ring of Stenness—the Temple of the Moon of local tradition—Lia of similar construction to the larger'circle, except that its round platform is only 104 ft. in diameter. The stones are believed. 1 to have numbered 12, varying in height from 15 ft. to 17 ft. but only two remain upright. In the middle of the ring may be seen the relic of what was probably the sacrificial altar. The Stone of Odin, the great monolith, pierced by a hole at a height of 5 ft. from the ground, which figures so prominently in Scott’s Pirate, stood 150 yds. to the north of the Ring of Stenness. The stones of both rings are of the native Old Red Sandstone.

POMPADOUR, JEANNE ANTOINETTE POISSON LE NORMANT D’E'I‘IOLES, MARQUISE DE (1721-1764), mistress of Louis XV., was born in Paris on the 29th of December 1721, and baptized as the legitimate daughter -of Francois Poisson, an oflicer in the household of the duke of Orleans, and his wife, Madeleine de la Motte, in the church of St Eustache; but she

office with Janelle, the director of the post office.


was suspected, as well as her brother, afterwards marquis of Marigny, to be the child of a very wealthy financier and farmergeneral of the revenues, Le Normant de Tournehem. He at any rate took upon himself the charge of her education; and, as from the beauty and wit she showed from childhood she seemed to be born for some uncommon destiny, he declared her “ un morceau de roi,” and specially educated her to be a king’s mistress. This idea was confirmed in her childish mind by the prophecy of an old woman, whom in after days she pensioned for the correctness of her prediction. In 1741 she was married to a nephew of her protector and guardian, Le Normant d’Etioles, who was passionately in love with her, and she soon became a queen of fashion. Yet the world of the financiers at Paris was far apart from the court world, where she wished to reign; she could get no introduction at court, and could only try to catch the king’s eye when he went out hunting. But Louis XV. was then under the influence of Mme de Mailly, who carefully prevented any further intimacy with “la petite Etioles,” and it was not until after her death that the king met the fair queen of the financial world of Paris at a ball given by the city to the dauphin in 1744, and he was immediately subjugated. She at once gave up her husband, and in 1745 was established at Versailles as “ maitresse en titre.” Louis XV. bought her the estate of Pompadour, from which she took her title of marquise (raised in 1752 to that of duchess). She was hardly established firmly in power before she showed that ambition rather than love had guided her, and began to mix in politics. Knowing that the French people of that time were ruled by the literary kings of the time, she paid court to them, and tried to play the part of a Maecenas. Voltaire was her poet in chief, and the founder of the physiocrats,Quesnay, was her physician. In the arts she was even more successful; she was herself no mean etcher and engraver, and she encouraged and protected Vanloo, Boucher, Vien, Greuzc, and the engraver Jacques Guay. Yet this policy did not prevent her from being lampooned, and the famous poissardes against her contributed to the ruin of many wits suspected of being among the authors, and notably of the Comte de Maurepas. The command of the political situation passed entirely into her hands; she it was who brought Belle-Isle into office with his vigorous policy; she corresponded regularly with the generals of the armies in the field, as her letters to the Comte de Clermont prove; and she introduced the Abbé de Bernis into the ministry in order to effect a very great alteration of French politics in 17 56. The continuous policy of France since the days of Richelieu had been to weaken the house of Austria by alliances

‘ in Germany; but Mme de Pompadour changed this hereditary 'policy because Frederick the Great wrote scandalous verses on

her; and because Maria Theresa wrote her a friendly letter she entered into an alliance with Austria. This alliance brought on the Seven Years’ War, with all its disasters, the battle of Rosbach and the loss of Canada; but Mme de Ppmpadour persisted in her policy, and, when Bernis failed her,‘ brought Choiseul into office and supported him in all his great plans, the Pacte 'de‘ Famine, the suppression of the Jesuits, and the peace of Versailles. But it was to internal politics that this remarkable woman paid most attention; no one obtained office except through her; in imitation of Mme de Maintenon, she prepared 1 all business for the king's eye with the ministers, and contrived that they should meet in her room; and she daily examined the letters sent through the post By this continuous labour she made herself indispensable to Louis. Yet, when after a year or two she had lost the heart of her lover, she had a difficult task before her; to maintain her influence she had not only to save the king as much trouble as possible, but to find him fresh pleasures. When he first began to weary of her she remembered her talent for acting and her private theatricals at Etioles, and established the “ théAtrc des petits cabinets,” in which she acted with the greatest lords about the court for the king’s pleasure in tragedies and comedies, operas and ballets. By this means and the “ concerts spirituels ” she kept in favour for a time; but at last she founda surer way, by encouraging the king in his debaucheries, and Louis wept over her kindness to his various mistresses. Only once, when the king was wounded by Damiens in 1757, did she receive a serious shock, and momentarily left the court; but on his recovery she returned more powerful than ever. She even ingratiated herself with the queen, after the example of Mme de Maintenon, and was made a lady-in-waiting; but the end was soon to come. “Ma vie est un combat," she said, and so it was, with business and pleasure she gradually grew weaker and weaker, and when told that death was at hand she dressed herself in full court costume, and met it bravely on the 15th of April 1764, at the age of forty-two.

See Capefigue, Madame la marquise de Pompadour (1858); E. and J. de Concourt. Les Mattresses de Louis XV., vol. ii. (1860);

and Campardon, Madame de Pomptzdour et la eour de Louis X V. Far more valuable are

014 milieu du dix-huitiieme Siécle (X867). Malassis's two volumes of correspondence, Correxgondanee de Madame de PontPallour avec son pm M. Poisson, et son fr re M. de Vandtéres, &c. (1878), and Bonhomme, Madame de Pompadour, général d'armée (1880), containing her letters to the Comte de Clermont. For her artistic and theatrical tastes see particularly 1. F. Leturcq. Notice sur Jacques Guay, graveur sur pierres fines du roi Louis XV.: Documents inédits emammt de Guay et notes sur les czuvres de gravure en taille douce et en Pierre: durs de la marquise de Pompadour (1873); and Adolphe jullien, Ilistoire du thédtre de bladame de PomPadour, dit Thédtre der Petit: Cabinets ([874). See also P. de Nolhac, La Marquise de Pompadour (1903).

POMPEII,‘ an ancient town of Campania, Italy, situated near the river Sarnus, nearly 2 m. from the shore of the Bay of Naples, almost at the foot of Mt Vesuvius. Of its history before 79 B.C. comparatively little is recorded; but it appears that it had a population of a very mixed character, and passed successively into the hands of several different peoples, each of which contributed an element to its composition. Its foundation was ascribed by Greek tradition to Heracles, in common with the neighbouring city of Herculaneum, but it is certain that it was not a Greek colony, in the proper sense of the term, as we know to have been the case with the more important cities of Cumae and Neapolis. Strabo (v. 4, 8), in whose time it was a populous and flourishing place, tells us that it was first occupied by the Oscans2 (to whom we must attribute the Doric temple in the Foro Triangolare), afterwards by the Tyrrhenians (Le. Etruscans) and Pelasgians, and lastly, by the Samnites. The conquest of C ampania by the last-mentioned people is an undoubted historical fact, and there can be no doubt that Pompeii shared the fate of the neighbouring cities on this occasion, and afterwards passed in common with them under the yoke of Rome. But its name is only once mentioned during the wars of the Romans with the Samnites and Campanians in this region of Italy, and then only incidentally (Liv. ix. 38), when a Roman fleet landed near Pompeii in 309 B.c. and made an unsuccessful marauding expedition up the river valley as far as Nuceria.a At a later period, however, it took a prominent part in the outbreak of the nations of central Italy, known as the Social War (91-89 B.C.), when it withstood a long siege by Sulla, and was one of the last cities of Campania that were reduced by the Roman arms. The inhabitants were admitted to the Roman franchise, but a military colony was settled in their territory in 80 13.0. by Sulla (Colonia Cornelia Vencria Pompeianorum), and the whole population was rapidly Romanized. The municipal administration here, as elsewhere, was in the hands of two duoviri iure dicundo and two aediles, the supreme body being the city council (decuriones). Before the close of the republic it became a resort of the Roman nobles, many of whom acquired villas in the neighbourhood. Among them was Cicero, whose letters abound with allusions to his Pompeian villa. The same fashion continued under the empire, and there can be no doubt that, during the first century of the Christian era, Pompeii had become a flourishing place

xThe etymology of the name is uncertain; the ancients derived it from pomPa or trimrw (Gr. send), in allusion to the journey of Heracles with the oxen of Geryon, but modern authorities refer it to the Osean Pompa (five).

1 For the Oscan incri tions found in Porn ii see below ad fin.

' Pompeii was attac ed as a member 0 the Nucerine League. See Conway, Italic Dialects, p. 51; ]. Beloch, Campanien, 2nd ed., P- 239- '


with a considerable population. Two events only are recorded of its history during this period. In A.D. 59 a tumult took place in the amphitheatre betWeen the citizens and visitors from the neighbouring colony of Nuceria. Many were killed and wounded on both sides. The Pompeians were punished for this violent outbreak by the prohibition of all theatrical exhibitions for ten years (Tacitus, Ann. xiv. :7). A characteristic, though rude, painting, found on the walls of one of the houses gives a representation of this event.

Four years afterwards (AJ). 63) an earthquake, which aflected all the neighbouring towns, vented its force especially upon Pompeii, a large part of which, including most of the public buildings, was either destroyed or so seriously damaged as to require to be rebuilt (Tac. Ann. xv. 22; Seneca, Q.N. vi. 1). From the existing remains it is clear that the inhabitants were still actively engaged in repairing and restoring the ruined edifices when the whole city was overwhelmed by the great eruption of AD. 79. Vesuvius (q.v.), the volcanic forces of which had been slumbering for unknown ages, suddenly burst into violent eruption, which, while it carried devastation all around the beautiful gulf, buried the two cities of Herculaneum and Pompeii under dense beds of cinders and ashes. It is singular that, while we possess a detailed description of this famous eruption in two letters of the younger Pliny (Epist. vi. 16, 20), he does not even notice the destruction of Pompeii or Herculaneum, though his uncle perished in the immediate neighbourhood of the former city. But their fate is noticed by Dio Cassius, and its circumstances may be gathered with certainty from the condition in which the city has been found. These were such as to conduce to its preservation and interest as a relic of antiquity. Pompeii was merely covered with a bed of lighter substances, cinders, small stones and ashes, which fell in a dry state, while at Herculaneum the same substances, being drenched with water, hardened into a sort of tufa, which in places is 65 ft. deep. The whole of this superincumbent mass, attaining to an average thickness of from 18 to 20 ft., was the product of one eruption, though the materials may be divided generally into two distinct strata, the one consisting principally of cinders and small volcanic stones (called in Italian 1091711), and the other and uppermost layer of fine white ash, often consolidated by the action of water from above so as to take the moulds of objects contained in it (such as dead bodies, woodwork, &c.), like clay or plaster of Paris. It was found impossible to rebuild the town, and its territory was joined to that of Nola. But the survivors returned to the spot, and by digging down and tunnelling were able to remove all the objects of value, even the marble facing slabs of the large buildings.

In the middle ages, however, the very site was forgotten. Two inscriptions were found in making an underground aqueduct across the site in 1594—1600, but it was not until r748 that a more careful inspection of this channel revealed the fact that beneath the vineyards and mulberry grounds which covered the site there lay entombed‘ruins far more accessible, if not more interesting, than those of Herculaneum. It was not till 1763 that systematic excavations were begun; and, though they were carried on during the rest of the 18th century, it was only in the beginning of the 19th that they assumed a regular character; the work, which had received a vigorous stimulus during the period of the French government (1806—r8r4), was prosecuted, though in a less methodical manner, under the rule of the Bourbon kings (18r 5—1861). Since 1861 it has been carried on under the Italian government in a more scientific manner, on a system devised by G. Fiorelli (d. 1896), according to which the town is for convenience divided into nine regions—though this rests on a misconception, for there is really no street between the Capua and the Nocera gates—and the results have been of the highest interest, though the rate of progress has been very slow.

The town was situated on rising ground less than a mile from the foot of Vesuvius. This eminence is itself due to an outflow of lava from that mountain, during some previous eruption in prehistoric times, for we know from Strabo that Vesuvius had been quiescent ever since the first records of the Greek settlements in this part of Italy. Pompeii in ancient times was a prosperous seaport town situated close to the seashore, from which it is now nearly 2 in. distant, and adjoining the mouth of the river Sarnus or Sarno, which now enters the sea. nearly 2 m. from its site. The present course of this stream is due in part to modern alteration of its channel, as well as to the effects of the great eruption. The prosperity of Pompeii was due partly to its commerce, as the port of the neighbouring towns, partly to the fertility of its territory, which produced strong wine, olive oil (a comparatively small quantity), and vegetables; fish sauces were made here. Millstones and pumice were also exported, but for the former the more gritty lava of Rocca Monfina was later on preferred.

The area occupied by the ancient city was of an irregular oval form, and about 2 m. in circumference. It was surrounded by a wall, which is still preserved for more than two-thirds of its extent, but no traces of this are found on the side towards the sea, and there is no doubt that on this side it had been already demolished in ancient times, so as to give room for the free extension of houses and other buildings in that direction.1 These walls are strengthened at intervals by numerous towers, occupying the full width of the wall, which occur in some parts at a distance of only about 100 yds., but in general much less frequently. They are, however, of a different style of construction from the walls, and appear to have been added at a later period, probably that of the Social War. Similar evidences of the addition of subsequent defences are to be traced also in the case of the gates, of which no less than eight are found in the existing circuit of the walls. Some of these present a very elaborate system of defence, but it is evident from the decayed condition of others, as well as of parts of the walls and towers, that tlfey had ceased to be maintained for the purposes of fortification long before the destruction of the city. The names by which the gates and streets are known are entirely of modern origin.

The general plan of the town is very regular, the streets being generally straight, and crossing one another at right angles or nearly so. But exceptions are found on the west in the street leading from the Porta Ercolanese (gate of Herculaneum) to the forum, which, though it must have been one of the principal thoroughfares in the city, was crooked and irregular, as well as very narrow, in some parts not exceeding 12 to 14 ft. in width, including the raised footpaths on each side, which occupy a considerable part of the space, so that the carriage-way could only have admitted of the passage of one vehicle at a time. The explanation is that it follows the line of the demolished city wall. Another exception is to be found in the Strada Stabiana (Stabian Street) or Cardo, which, owing to the existence of a natural depression which affects also the line of the street just east of it, is not parallel to the other north and south streets. The other main streets are in some cases broader, but rarely exceed 20 ft. in width, and the broadest yet found is about 32, while the back streets running parallel to the main lines are only about 14 ft. (It is to be remembered, however, that the standard width of a Roman highroad in the neighbourhood of Rome itself is about 14 ft.) They are uniformly paved with large polygonal blocks of hard basaltic lava, fitted very closely together, though now in many cases marked with deep ruts from the passage of vehicles in ancient times. They are also in all cases bordered by raised footways on both sides, paved in a similar manner; and for the convenience of foot-passengers, which was evidently a more important consideration than the obstacle which the arrangement presented to the passage of vehicles, which indeed were probably only allowed for goods traffic, these are connected from place to place by stepping-stones raised above the level of the carriage-way. In other respects they must have resembled those of Oriental cities—the living apartments all opening towards the interior, and showing only blank walls towards

1 It consisted of two parallel stone walls with buttresses, about

15 ft. apart and 28 in. thick. the intervening space being filled with earth, and there being an embankment on the inner side.


the street; while the windows were generally to be found only in the upper storey, and were in all cases small and insignificant, without any attempt at architectural effect. In some instances indeed the monotony of their external appearance was broken by small shops, occupying the front of the principal houses, and let off separately; these were in some cases numerous enough to form a continuous facade to the street. This is seen especially in the case of the street from the Porta Ercolanese to the forum and theStrada Stabiana (or Cardo), both of which were among the most frequented thoroughfares. The streets were also diversified by fountains, small water-towers and reservoirs (of which an especially interesting example was found in 1902 close to the Porta del Vesuvio) and street shrines. The source of the water-supply is unknown.

The first-mentioned of the two principal streets was crossed, a little before it reached the forum, by the street which led directly to the gate of Nola (Strada delle Terme, della F ortuna, and di Nola). Parallel to this last to the south is a street which runs from the Porta Marina through the forum, and then, with a slight turn, to the Sarno gate, thus traversing the whole area of the city from east to west (Via Marina, Strada dell’ Abbondanza, Strada dei Diadumeni). These two east and west streets are the two decumam'.

The population of Pompeii at the time of its destruction cannot be fixed with certainty, but it may very likely have exceeded 20,000. It was of a mixed character; both Oscan and Greek inscriptions are still found up to the last, and, though there is no trace whatever of Christianity, evidences of the presence of Jews are not lacking—such are a wall-painting, probably representing the Judgment of Solomon, and a scratched inscription on a wall, “ Sodoma, Gomora.” It has been estimated, from the number of skeletons discovered, that about 2000 persons perished in the city itself in the eruption of AD. 79.

Almost the whole portion of the city which lies to the west of the Strada Stabiana, towards the forum and the sea, has been more or less completely excavated. It is over one-half of the whole extent, and that the most important portion, inasmuch as it includes the forum, with the temples and public buildings adjacent to it, the thermae, theatres, amphitheatre, &c. The greater part of that on the other side of the Strada Stabiana remains still unexplored, with the exception of the amphitheatre, and a small space in its immediate neighbourhood.

The forum at Pompeii was, as at Rome itself and in all other Italian cities, the focus and centre of all the life and movement of the city. Hence it was surrounded on all sides by public buildings or edifices of a commanding character. It was not, however, of large size, as compared to the open spaces in modern towns, being only 467 ft. in length by r26 in breadth (excluding the colonnades). Nor was it accessible to any description of wheeled carriages, and the nature of its pavement, composed of broad flags of travertine, shows that it was only intended for foot-passengers. It was adorned with numerous statues, some of the imperial family, others of distinguished citizens. Some of theinscribed pedestals of the latter have been found. It was surrounded on three sides by a series of porticos supported on columns; and these porticos were originally surmounted by a gallery or upper storey, traces of the staircases leading to which still remain, though the gallery itself has altogether disappeared. It is, howsver, certain from' the existing remains that both this portico and the adjacent buildings had suffered severely from the earthquake of 63, and that they were undergoing a process of restoration, involving material changes in the original arrangements, which was still incomplete at the time of their final destruction. The north end of the forum, where alone the portico is wanting, is occupied in great part by the imposing temple of Jupiter, Juno and Minerva being also worshipped here. It was raised on a podium 10 ft. high, and had a portico with six Corinthian columns in front. This magnificent edifice had, h0wever, been evidently overthrown by the earthquake of 63, and is in its present condition a mere ruin, the rebuilding of which had not been begun at the time of the eruption, so that the cult of the three Capitoline divinities was then carried on in the socalled temple of Zeus Milichius. On each side of it were two arches, affording an entrance into the forum, but capable of being closed by gates. On the east side of the forum were four edifices; all of them are of a public character, but their names and attribution have been the subject of much controversy. The first (proceeding from the north), once known as the Pantheon, is generally regarded as a marellum or meat-market, consisting of a rectangular court surrounded by a. colonnade, with a twelvesided roofed building (lholus) in the centre. On the south side

and Q. Catulus (78 B.C.), and therefore belongs to the Oscar period of the city, before the introduction of the Roman colony. It was an oblong edifice divided by columns into a central hall and a corridor running round all the four sides with a tribunal opposite the main entrance; and, unlike the usual basilicae, it had, instead of a clerestory, openings in the walls of the corridor through which light was admitted, it being almost as lofty as the nave. The temple was an extensive edifice, havinga comparatively small cella, raised upon a podium, and standing in the midst. of a wide space surrounded by a portico of columns,

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iRednwn by permission from Baedeker’s Southern Italy)

were shops, and in the centre of the east side a chapel for the worship of the imperial house: Next to this comes the sanctuary of the Lares of the city, a square room with a large apse; and beyond this, as Mau proves, the small temple of Vespasian. Beyond this again, bounded on the south by the street known as the Strada dcll’ Abbondanza, is a large and spacious edifice, which, as we learn from an extant inscription, was erected by a priestess named Eumachia. Its purpose is uncertain—possibly a cloth-exchange, as the fullers set up a statue to Eumachia here. It is an open court, oblong, surrounded on all four sides by a colonnade; in front is a portico facing the forum, and on_ the other three sides there is a corridor behind the colonnade with windows opening on it. On the south side of the Strada dell’ Abbondanza wasabuilding which Mau conjectures to have been the Comitium. At the south end of the forum are three halls side by side, similar in plan with a common facade—the central one, the curia or council chamber, the others the offices respec» tively of the duumvirs and aediles, the principal officials of the city; while the greater part of the west side is occupied by two large buildings—a basilica, which is the largest edifice in Pompeii, and the temple of Apollo, which presents its side to the forum, and hence fills up a large portion of the surrounding space. The former, as we learn from an inscription scratched

‘ its walls, was anterior in date to the consulship of M. Lepidus

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outside which again is a wall, bounding the sacred enclosure. Between this temple and the basilica the Via Marina leads ofl direct to the Porta Marina.

Besides the temples which surrounded the forum, the remains of five others have been discovered; three of which are situated in the immediate neighbourhood of the theatres. Of these by far the most interesting, though the least perfect, is one which is commonly known as the temple of Hercules (an appellation wholly without foundation), and which is not only by far the most ancient edifice in Pompeii, but presents us with all the characters of a true Greek temple, resembling in its proportions that of the earliest temple of Selinus, and probably of as remote antiquity (6th century B.c.). Unfortunatelyonly the foundation and a few Doric capitals and other architectural fragments remain; they were coated with stucco which was brightly painted. In front of the temple is a monument which seems to have been the tomb of the founder or founders of the city; so that for a time this must have‘ been the most important temple. The period of its destruction is unknown, for it appears certain that it cannot be ascribed wholly to the earthquake of 63. On the other hand the reverence attached to it in the later periods of the city is evidenced by its being left standing in the midst of a triangular space adjoining the great theatre, which is surrounded by a portico, so as to constitute a kind of forum (the so-called For:

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