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THE

ENCYCLOPZEDIA BRITANNICA

A

DICTIONARY

OF

ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE AND GENERAL INFORMATION

_ ELEVENTH EDITION

VOLUME XXII
POLL to REEVES

New York

Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc.
342 MadiSOn Avenue

Copyright. in the United States of America, 1911. bv The Encyclopedia Britannica Company.

INITIALS USED IN VOLUME XXII. TO IDENTIFY INDIVIDUAL

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CONTRIBUTORS,1 WITH THE HEADINGS OF THE
ARTICLES IN THIS VOLUME SO SIGNED.

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REv. ALFRED off'liigili-ZSTCfiIARVIEHM.A., D.D.M T
_Principal ew o ege, ampstead. ember of the Board of heology and
theJBoardszof Philosophy, London University. Author of Studies in the Inner Life mumuon'
o esus; c.

A. E. HoucIIToN.
Formerly Correspondent of the Standard in Spain. Author of Restoration of the Quesada y Mathens.
Bourbons in Spain.

ARTHUR EVERETT SHIPLEY, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S.
Master of Christ's College, Cambridge. Reader in Zoology, Cambridge University. Priapuloidea.
Joint-editor of the Cambridge Natural History.

MAJOR ARTIIUR GEORGE FREDERICK GRIFFITHS (d. I 08).
H.M. lns tor of Prisons, 1878—1896. Author 0 The Chronicles of Newgate; Prison.
Secrets of 1 Prison House; &c.

ADOLF HARNACK, PHI).

See the biographical article: HARNACK, Anon. {Prophfl (in Pa")

REv. ALEXANDER JAMES GRIEVE, M.A., B.D. Pr hi _
Professor of New Testament and Church History, Yorkshire United lndependent ang
College, Bradford. Sometime Registrar of Madras University, and Member of Pflmltlve manual-“It Church:
Mysore Educational Service. Priscillian.

Poltergeist; Prometheus;
Psychical Research.

ANDREW LANG.
See the biographical article: LANG, ANDREW.

ALEXANDER McAULAY, M.A.
Professor of Mathematics and Physics, University of Tasmania. Authorof Utility Quaternlons (in part).
of Quaternions in Physics; &c.

AGNES MURIEL CLAY (Mrs Edward Wilde).
Formerly Resident Tutor of Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford. Joint-author of Sources Pabucilll-
of Roman History, 133—70 n.c. .

Pratincoie; Quail; Queui;
Rail (in part);
Raven; Razorbili;
Redshank; Bedsiart;

\ Redwing.

' A complete list, showing all individual contributors, appears in the final volume.

V

ALFRED NEWTON, F.R.S.
See the biographical article: NEWTON, ALFRED.

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CHARLES FRANCIS ATKINSON.

. ('4! Assistant Professor of History in Columbia University, New York City. Member { Purgatory.

ARTHUR SHADWELL, M.A., M.D., LL.D.
Member of Council of Epidemiological Society. Author of The London Water- PrOSllmtlon-
Supply; Industrial Eflicicncy; Drink, Temperance and Legislation.

ANDREW SETH PRINGLE-PATTISON, M.A., LL.D., D.C.L.
Professor of Logic and Metaphysics in the University of Edinbur h. Gifford -
Lecturer in the University of Aberdeen, 1911. Fellow of the Britis Academy. Hanson’s (m part)“
Author of Man's Place in the Cosmos; The Philosophical Radicals; &c.

ARTHUR San WOODWARD, LL.D., F.R.S.
Keeper of Geology, Natural History Museum, South Kensington. Secretary of Plemdaclyles-
the Geological Society of London.

ARTHUR TWINING HADLEY, LL.D. mu . E .
See the biographical article: HADLEY, ARTHUR TWiNlNo. ' way“ “mom:-

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ALFRED WILLIAM POLLARD, M.A. '
Assistant Keeper of Printed Books, British Museum. Fellow of King's College,
London. .Hon. SeUetary,"Bibliographical Society. Editor of Books about Books Polyglott.
and Bibliographica. Joint-editor of the Library. Chief Editor of the “ Globe"

Chaucer.

ALEXANDER Woon RENTON, M.A., LLB.
Puisne Judge of the Supreme Court of Ceylon. Editor of EncycloPoedia of the Proclamation. -‘_ d 1*.
Law; canons ~ .

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C. E. WEBBER, C.B., M.INST.C.E., M.I.E.E. (I838-IQOS). "
Major-General, R0 Engineers. Served in Indian Mutiny, 1857-1860; Egyptian { Railways; Light Railways (in

{ Railways: Accident Statistics.

{ Quicherat.

Expedition, 1882; ' . Founder (with late Sir Francis Bolton) and Past President Part)
of the Institute of Electrical Engineers. '

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Formerly Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Captain, Ist City of London (Royal 3 _
F usiliers): ‘Author of T he Wilderness and Cold Harbour. Ravum‘ Bank of '512

A '14! \
CHARLES GEORGE CRUMP,1M.A. '
Balliol College, Oxford. Clerk in HM. Public Record Office, London. Editor of Reconh
Landor‘s Works; &c. - ' ‘ p

CHARLES Hum.
Author of Picture Posters; &c.

{ Poster.
CARLTON HUNTLEY HAYES, A.M., Pn.D.
of the American Historical Association.

CRAWFORD HOWELL TOY, A.M., LL.D.
See the biographical article: TOY, CRAWFORD HOWELL.

CHARLES RAYMOND BEAZLEY, M.A., D.L1T'r., F.R.G.S., F.R.HIST.S.
Professor of Modern History in the University of Birmingham. Formerly Fellow

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'Polo, Marco (in part);

of Merton College, Oxford, and University Lecturer in the History of Geography. Ptolemy (in Part); "‘ I Lothian Prizeman, ' Oxford, I889. Lowell Lecturer, Boston, 1908. Author of Pytheas (in flan) Henry the Navigator; The Dawn of Modern Geography; &c. ' , g t p _ -- .CnARLEs T. JAcoar. ‘ i u I Managing Partner of the Chiswick Press, London. Author of Printing; &c. Prlmlng- I . I _ r a '

DUNcAN BLACK MACDONALD, M.A., D.D. '
Professor of Semitic Languages, Hartford Theolo ical Seminary, Hartford, Conn.
Author of Development of Muslim Theolong, urisprudence and Constitutional Rama-lam
Theory; Selections from Ibn Khaldun; Religious Attitude and Life in Islam; 8:0. "

DEMETRIUS CHARLES BOULoER.
Author of England and Russia in Central Asia; History of China; Life of Gordon;
India in the 191k Century; History of Belgium; &c.

Rail. DANIEL DULANY‘ADDISON, D.D. '
Rector of All Saints’ Church, Brookline, Mass. Examinin Chaplain to Bishop of
Massachusetts. Secretary, Cathedral Chapter of Diocese of l 'lassachusetts. Author
of The EpiscoPalions; &c.

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Rattles, Sir Thomas.

Protestant Episcopal Church. ' !

Author of Essays in Musical Analysis: comprising The Classical Concerto, T he "08781111110 maile

, \ .Goldborg Variations, and analyses of many other classical works.

DAVID GEORGE HOOARTn, M.A. '
' Keeper of the Ashmolcan Museum, Oxford. Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Pflgug;
A Fellow of the British Academy. Excavated at Paphos, 1888; Naucratis, 1899 and Maria
1903: Ephesus, 1904~1905; Assiut, 1906—1907. Director, British School at '
Athens, 1897—1900. Director, Cretan Exploration Fund, i899.

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