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the King, the Irish princes, for the first time, tasted heron's flesh, and where they were astonished at the elegant abundance of an English feast, and the order and obsequiousness of the attendants.

The priory was not without benefit from this neighbourhood of royalty; it was at this time, that, in the presence of Archbishop Lawrence, of the original patron Bishop Edan, of Strongbow, Hugh de Lacy, Robert Poer, and others, that Henry II. confirmed the grants of Baldoyle and of several other lands, made by Dermod, of which the original charters are not recorded. This preservation of their property seems to have been a special favour to this house. It might have been expected that, to conciliate the Irish ecclesiastics, King Henry and his immediate successors would have preserved at least the landed property of the Irish Church, united by the Council of

Cashel,

1

Landed property.---The property of the invasion. St. Bernard (Vita Malachiæ, cap. ancient Irish Church consisted of other v.) says that from the destruction of the things besides lands and tithes. Jocelin Abbey of Benchor (Bangor) by the Danes, tells us, in words shewing the trade and to the time of Malachy, its property fell into business of Dublin: “Statuerunt ergo the hands of persons who where appointed [cives Dubliniæ] reditum S. Patricio suo by election, and who were called abbots, Patrono; videlicet de singulis navibus “servantes nomine, etsi non re, quod olim mercimoniabilibus cappam competentem extiterat.” This passage must have been Ardmachano Primati, aut cadum mellis seu overlooked by Dr. Lanigan, when he alvini, aut ferri falcem, seu mensuram salis, lowed (vol. iv. p. 25) that Gille, Bishop of de singulis vero tabernis, medonis seu cer Limerick in 1110, and Apostolic Legate, visie metretas singulas, de omnibus etiam had been Abbot of Benchor. The names officinis et virgultis(?) excenia donumque of some of the abbots thus described by St. conveniens in sotularibus, chyrothecis, Bernard, are given in Archdall, from good cultellis, pectinibus et aliis hujusmodi re authorities, without any distinctive marks. bus.”_ Vit. S. Patricii, cap. 71.

It would appear from the following Although the buildings were destroyed passage in the Tripartite Life of St. Paand the religious dispersed, the property trick, that at the time it was written, of the Irish Church was preserved during which has not been thought to be later all the troubles consequent on the Danish than the tenth century, the custom of

Cashel, in ritualm as well as doctrine and discipline, with the Church of England, but although that council freed all church lands from lay exactions, from which Dermod's charter had exempted the lands of Baldoyle, yet the mystical dream of Giraldus" when he saw King John marking out on the green sward, the plan of a church with a large aisle for the laymen, and a chancel “ enormiter arctum,” for the Irish clergy, his direct assertion of the English robbery of the lands of the Irish Church, by which the clergy were reduced to beggary, and of the mutilation of their old dignities and privileges, and complaints, like that of Albino, Bishop of Ferns, against the Earl Marshall, and of Archbishop Comyn against Hamo de Valoniis, shew that the love of church lands commonly prevailed over policy and piety. Nay, to the lands of Baldoyle, granted by Dermod and confirmed by Henry II. to the priory, it would appear, from our Registry', that for several generations the Lords of Howth maintained a

claim, family succession to churches prevailed et schismatici illi ordines, quibus Hiberin Ireland, and that it was then attributed nia

pene

tota delusa est, uni Catholico et to St. Patrick. Fiachus and Enda op Romano cedant officio.” The last decree posed the building of a church at Usneach, of the Synod of Cashel was, “ Itaque om

quos vir Dei primo benigne allocutus nia divina ad instar sacrosanctæ Ecclesiæ promittebat, si permitterent ecclesiam in juxta quod Anglicana observat Ecclesia in Dei honorem in eo amano loco excitari, omnibus partibus ecclesiæ (Hiberniæ) a ejusdem Ecclesiæ moderatores et rectores modo tractentur.”Hib. Expug. I. xxxiv. [Erenachs(?) and Rectors] ex ipsorum Dowling, in his Annals, states that the progenie fore desumendos,” lib. ii. c. 17. Use of Sarum was then universally intro--Trias Thaum. p. 131.

duced into Ireland. It is probable that For the light in which such family suc Malachy, after his visit to Bishop Malchus, cession was looked on in the twelfth cen had adopted the Liturgy then used at tury see Jocelini Vita S. Patricii, cap. 52.

Winchester. Trias Thaum. p. 76.

a Giraldus.-Hib. Expug. II. 35. m Ritual.The purpose of Bishop Gille • Albin.Matt. Paris, p. 601, Ed. Wats. bert in his Epistle De Usu Ecclesiastico P Comyn.—Hoveden, Fol. 439. (Usserii Sylloge, xxx.) was, “ut diversi Registry.Nos. 5, 6, 7.

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claim, founded probably upon the grant of Howth by King John, and that the canons were obliged to purchase these lands twice over, from Sir Almaric and his wife with spiritual benefits, and from Sir Nicholas with forty marks.

In 1182 Bishop Edan' renounced, in favour of John Comyn, the first English Archbishop of Dublin, all claim to the Church of All Saints, reserving possession, however, under the Archbishop and the Church of the Holy Trinity, for his own life; and the patronage of this priory was confirmed to Archbishop Henry de Loundres in 1216, in the Bulls of Innocent III. and Honorius III., reciting the several possessions of the see of Dublin.

The three successive Bulls of Urban II. in 1186, of Gregory IX. in 1234, and of Innocent V. in 1276, contain, not only the confirmation of a gradual increase of lands and churches, but an increasing succession of Papal privileges and immunities. Urban exempts from tithes their tillage lands, cultivated with their own hands, or at their own cost, and their cattle. He allows them to receive into their Order clerics and laics, provided they were free and absolved, and to retain them without contradiction; the professed brotherhood were prohibited from migrating to any other house, without license from the prior, saving for the sake of entering some stricter Order".

During

r Edan. - - Appendix, No. xiv. Bishop passage it would seem that it was an Edan died in 1182; Archbishop Comyn offence to leave a religious house without was consecrated in 1181.-Harris's Ware's the abbot's permission, even for the purBishops.

pose of seeking a desert in the ocean: “Alio s Tithes.—In the Bull of Innocent V. quoque in tempore de Cormaco nepote is the reservation “Salva in predictis de Lethani viro utique Sancto, qui tribus non cimis moderatione concilii generalis.” minus vicibus Eremum in oceano laboriose

*Free.—That is, not Serfs or Nativi: the quæsivit, nec tamen invenit, S. Columba Neoyffs of the Statute of Kilkenny, c. xiv. ita prophetizans ait ‘Hodie iterum Cor

u Stricter Order.-From the following mac desertum reperire cupiens, enavigare

During a general interdict, the canons might celebrate Mass, in a low voice, with closed doors, without ringing bells, having excluded the excommunicated and interdicted. Without manifest cause no one was to presume to pronounce against them sentence of interdict or excommunication. All customs and ancient liberties and immunities were permanently sanctioned. The enclosures of their houses and granges were protected by apostolical authority from theft and arson, and had the privilege of freedom from arrest. The election of the prior was secured to the brotherhood. And, finally, the cemetery was declared free, so that none should oppose the interment therein of any person, except he were excommunicated; the due rights of the churches to which the bodies belonged being observed.

Such were the principal privileges secured to the priory by the Bull of Urban II., given at Verona by the hands of Albert, Priest Cardinal and Chancellor S. R. E. on the 6th Nones of July, in the fourth

year of the Indiction, in the first year of the Pope, and in the year of the Incarnation MCLXXXVI.

In 1234 Gregory IX. added clauses enjoyning the members of the priory to receive the Chrism, the Holy Oil, and the consecrations of their altars and churches, and Holy Orders, from their diocesan'

bishop incipit ab illa regione quæ ultra Modum dependence of the see of Dublin in the fluvium sita, Eirros Domnonn dicitur, nec time of Bishop Edan. St. Bernard gave tamen etiam hac vice, quod quærit, in three reasons for wishing to be Pope veniet, et non ob aliam ejus culpam, nisi for three years. First, that he might quod alicujus religiosi Abbatis monachum, abolish episcopal and abbatial exempipso non permittente discessarem secum tions; secondly, that he might abolish non recte comitari navigio susceperit.'"- pluralities; thirdly, that he might recall Vita S. Columbæ, 1. i. c. 6. Trias Thaum. monks and canons from cells and

granges, p. 340.

and confine them to their houses.—Anglia Diocesan.—They probably were claim- Sacra, p. 528. Of the jealousy with which ing total exemption from episcopal juris- exempt monks guarded against the exerdiction, on the plea of their original in cise of any episcopal function by their

bishop, provided he were in the grace and communion of the Holy Roman See, and at the same time, the erection of new chapels and oratories within their parish, without their consent, and that of their diocesan, was prohibited

To these privileges in 1276 Innocent V. added a protection against new and undue exactions by archbishops, bishops, archdeacons, or deans, and all other persons, ecclesiastical and secular, and this Pope specially noted, that the Church of All Saints had no abbot, but was under the government of a prior. These are nearly the usual clauses and privileges contained in Bulls of this period, and they are here mentioned, not for any peculiarity in their contents, but as specimens of the exemptions and immunities sought for by religious houses in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. The other Bulls here printed are short, and expressed in general terms.

The superiority over the Priory of St. Saviour of Glendalough, one of the earliest of the acquisitions of All-Hallows, was one of the most interesting; however great was the old sanctity of Glendalough, it was now desert and desolate, a den of thieves and robbers”; and the Archbishop of Tuam* bore testimony that, in the forty years previous to 1214, more homicides were committed in that valley than in any

other place in Ireland. In the Synod of Mellifont in 1152, which was attended by Gilda na Naomh, then Bishop of Glendalough, Cardinal Paparo had divided this see, and had assigned part of it to the metropolitan see of Dublin, which, till that time, was confined within the walls of the city, intending, as the Archbishop of Tuam

believed, bishop within their monasteries, and of crilege perpetrated at Glendalough during the readiness with which they availed the abbacy of Archbishop Laurence, see themselves for such purposes of the aid of Vita S. Laurentii, cc. 7, 8, apud Mesany foreign bishop, see many instances singham. in Matt. Paris. Vitæ Abb. S. Albani. * Tuam.--Alan's Registry, p. 222.

w Robbers._For the robberies and sa

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