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AND

POETRY

STUDIES ON THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE; THE POETRY OF THE BIBLE ;
THE DIES IRÆ, THE STABAT MATER; THE HYMNS OF ST. BERNARD;

THE UNIVERSITY, ANCIENT AND MODERN ;
DANTE ALIGHIERI ; THE DIVINA COMMEDIA

BY

PHILIP SCHAFF D.D. LL.D

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PROFESSOR OF CHURCH HISTORY IN THE UNION THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY,

NEW YORK

NEW YORK
CHARLES SCRIBNER’S SONS

COPYRIGHT, 1890, BY

CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS.

44250

WM. F. FELL & Co.,

PRINTERS,
PHILADELPHIA.

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CONTENTS.

PAGE

I. THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE: HETEROGENEOUS IN FORMATION, Homo-

GENEOUS IN CHARACTER, UNIVERSAL IN DESTINATION FOR

THE SPREAD OF CIVILIZATION,

Language and Reason, 1.--Origin of Language, 2.—Diversity of

Language, 3-4.-The English LanguagemGrimm's Judgment,

5.-The Composite Character of the English Race and Language,

6.-The Proportion of Saxon, Latin, and other Elements in Eng.

lish, 7-8.—The Anglo-Saxon Stock, 9-14.- The Saxon Element

in the English Bible, 14.—Illustrations from Shakespeare, 15.-

The Latin Element, 16.-Original Latinisms, 16–19.– French

Latinisms, 19–21.--The Gradual Mingling of the Saxon and Nor-

man, 21-23.-The Relation of the Norman and Saxon Elements,

23-25.—Illustrations from Milton, 26.-Illustrations from Daniel

Webster, 26–29.—The Other Elements of the English Language,

29.—The Celtic Element, 29.–The Danish, or Norse Element,

30.—Hebrew Words, 31.-Greek Words, 31.—Dutch Words,

32.-Italian Words, 33.-Spanish Words, 33. Arabic Words,

33.-Persian Words, 33.-Turkish Words, 34.-Slavonic Words,

34.-Indian Words and Names, 34.—Americanisms, 34.-Hybrid

Words, 35.-The Organic Union of these Elements, 36.-Results

of this Mixture. Spelling, 37,-New Middle Sounds, 38.-Musical

English–Illustrations from Byron, Tennyson, and Poe, 37–38.-

Simplicity of the Grammar, 40-41.-Brevity, 42-45.-Monosylla-

bic Character, 45.—Illustrations from Shakespeare, Wordsworth,

Byron, Tennyson, 46-50.—Large Number of Synonyms, 51-54.-

Perfectibility, 54-55.-Cosmopolitan Destination, 55.-Spread of

the English Language, 56-59.—Providential Design, 59-60.-The

English Language and the Bible, 60-62.-Conclusion, 62.

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