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A BIOGRAPHICAL

HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY.

PART I.

ANCIENT PHILOSOPHY.

THE

BIOGRAPHICAL

HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY,

FROM ITS ORIGIN IN GREECE DOWN TO

THE PRESENT DAY.

BY

GEORGE HENRY LEWES.

** Man is pot born to solve the mystery of Existence; but he must nevertheless attempt it,
in order that he may learn how to keep within the limits of the Knowable.”—GOETHE.

. For I donbt not through the ages one increasing purpose runs,
And the thoughts of men are widened by the process of the suns."

TENNYSOX.

LIBRARY EDITION,

MICH ENLARGED AND TIIOROUGHLY REVISED.

NEW YORK:
D. APPLETON AND COMPANY,

346 & 348 BROADWAY.

MDCCC LVII.

2141

Ba
[ 58

PREFACE.

This new edition may almost be considered as a new work, so many are the additions and so extensive the alterations. Seven new names have been added to the list of philosophers,—ABELARD, ALGAZZALI, GIORDANO Bruno, HARTLEY, DARWIN, CABANIS, and Gall. An Introduction, setting forth the distinguishing characteristics of Philosophy and Science, replaces the original Introduction. Under the heads of SOCRATES, the SOPHISTS, ARISTOTLE, BACON, SPINOZA, HUME, CONDILLAC, Kant, and ECLECTICISM, considerable additions and alterations will be found; and, throughout, the revision has been such that scarcely a paragraph remains unaltered.

The work was written ten years ago, and was addressed to a popular audience. Ten years have not been without their influence on the historian; and moreover, the success of the work has so greatly exceeded any thing that could reasonably have been anticipated—not only in respect to sale, but in the directions of its influence—that on undertaking this Library Edition I felt the necessity of modifying both the aim and scope of the work. A graver audience was to be addressed, a graver tone adopted. Without forgetting the general public, I had now to think also of what students would require. Many polemical passages, many ex

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