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of accidental death. All societies of this class provide for the relief or niaintenance of widows and children of members, and some also for the care of parents or other dependents. Relief for disabled superannuated members (above 50 years of age in some societies and above 60 in others) is provided for by a few societies.

The oldest society of this class is the Northumberland and Durham Miners' Permanent Relief Fund, founded in 1862. A series of mine disasters involving the loss of many lives gave an impetus to the formation of societies of this class, and others followed the general lines laid down by this oldest member of the group until each principal mining district had its own fund.

An illustration of both the cause and method of the formation of societies of this class is to be found in the case of the North Staffordshire Coal and Ironstone Workers' Permanent Relief Society, which was founded in 1870 with the assistance of £3,000 ($14,600) received from the trustees of a fund subscribed to aid the sufferers of a severe explosion which had occurred a few years before. As stated in the rules of the society, its object is to raise funds by subscriptions from members and donations from others in order to make provision for members killed or injured in accidents. In case of fatal accidents, relief is administered in one or more of three forms, i. e., the payment of a sum at the death of a member, of a weekly allowance to the widows and orphan children of married members, or of a weekly allowance to parents over 50 years of age of unmarried members. In cases of nonfatal accidents the relief takes the form of a weekly allowance.

The society is composed of two classes of members—honorary members, who pay dues and have a vote in the management of the society but receive no benefits, and ordinary members, who pay the usual weekly dues and are entitled to the benefits named below. A committee of management, composed of honorary and of ordinary members, conducts the affairs of the society. All the society's property, money, etc., is vested in three trustees, for the use and benefit of the society. To avoid litigation five arbitrators are elected each year who decide all disputes arising within the society. The members at each colliery are organized into local lodges, each having its complement of officers and its representative to the annual general meeting which elects the committee of management. The local officers collect dues, visit members receiving benefits, and see that the rules of the society are properly carried out. The committee of management is required to have a valuation of the assets and liabilities of the society made at least once in every five years, as specified in the Friendly Societies Act of 1875.

The expenses of management are defrayed by the subscriptions of honorary members and by one-half penny (1 cent) per week out of

each full member's contribution. All funds for the administration of the society are kept in a separate account.

The following table shows the dues and benefits of some of the more important miners' permanent relief societies:

CONTRIBUTIONS AND BENEFITS OF CERTAIN MINERS' PERMANENT RELIEF

SOCIETIES.

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a In addition to the benefits named this society has a superannuation benefit of $1.22 per week. b For first 26 weeks.

Not paid when weekly benefits are paid to dependent survivors. d Payable also to dependent brother, sister, son, or daughter. e After first 26 weeks.

1 Seven cents if an employer contributes not less than 20 per cent of the amount contributed by his employees.

g For first 2 weeks. h For first 5 years. í For first child; 37 cents for each additional child, the total extra allowance not to exceed $1.22 per week.

For 50 weeks following first 2 weeks. k For second five-year period. 1 Alter 52 weeks. m For surface men. n For underground men.

o After first 2 weeks; $1.22 after 60 years of age and after having received disablement benefit continuously for 5 years.

p Il weekly benefits are paid to dependent parents, $24.33. 9 For 6 weeks.

For 3 years following first 6 weeks; may be commuted to a lump-sum payment of not more than $97.33. s To widowed mother only: t And an additional cash allowance of $12.17 if a widow survives.

Most of the societies provide for a class of “half members,” who pay half the regular dues and are entitled to half the benefits. As a rule this class is restricted to young persons and females and forms an unimportant part of the total membership.

The financial status of seven of these societies is shown by the accompanying table, compiled for six societies from the reports for the years ending December 31, 1903 and 1908, and for one from the reports for the years ending December 31, 1903 and 1907.

NUMBER OF MEMBERS, TOTAL RECEIPTS, PRINCIPAL EXPENDITURES, AND ACCU.

MULATED FUNDS OF MINERS' PERMANENT RELIEF SOCIETIES.

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1903 152, 691 $732, 162 $9, 485 $186,663 $109, 872 $245, 602 $1,532,014
1907 175, 740 906, 380 13,156 250, 149 119, 664 312, 256
1903
6,512

2,082, 378
27, 321 657 12, 294 7, 705
1908 5,039

128, 026 22, 510

192

12, 649 6, 111 1903

129, 420 46, 780 249, 787 2,920 123, 392 56, 513 1908 55, 448

498, 177 300, 044 6,393 154, 833 49,629 1903 27,950

641, 410 113, 583 | 1,956 68, 454 16,959 128 268, 232 1908 35, 613 155, 627 3,810 | 113, 707 23,950 63

315, 145 1903 18, 982 202, 909 2,500 75, 571 87,345 18,123 1,031, 207 1908 777 54,248

19,552 58, 437 1903 31,827

11, 239

701, 912 44,939 2,093

20, 260 1908 39,578

259, 699 54,872 2, 125

24,873

319, 702 1903

3, 749 26,931 526 7, 347 1,325 2,032 1908

131,243 4,319 33, 383

718
11,881
2,621
2,625

187,671

116

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Some of the societies publish summary tables showing their status for each year of their existence. The figures given in the tables following are reproduced from the report of the West Riding of Yorkshire society for 1908, and show its growth since 1882.

67725°-VOL 2-11-16

SUMMARY OF THE OPERATIONS OF THE WEST RIDING OF YORKSHIRE MINERS'

PERMANENT RELIEF FUND FRIENDLY SOCIETY, 1882 TO 1908. [Source: Thirty-second Annual Report of the West Riding of Yorkshire Miners' Permanent Relief Fund

Friendly Society.)

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1, 277 | 13,896
1, 429 16,138
1, 249

15, 346
1, 357 15,374
1, 702 18,318
1,819 20, 610
1,870 19, 993
1, 189 11, 799
1, 370 13,832
1,528 15, 125
1, 394 15, 461
1,318 15, 288
1,536 16, 627
1,553 17,164
1,596 18,585
1,576 19, 545
1, 435 20, 100
1, 481 20,854
1,415 22,542
1, 463 24, 487
1, 586 26, 264
1,746 27,950
1,749 | 28, 917
1,860 29, 798
2,032 32, 360
1,931 35, 108
1,675 35, 613

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16 23 27 30 32 34 26 24 32 28 39 48 35 65 55 59

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118 165 206 208 212 290 310 313 315 314 315 295 274 235 224 216 207 198 196 192 182 206 2:29 236 255 311 332

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27

Perinanently disabled members.

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INCOME AND EXPENDITURES OF THE WEST RIDING OF YORKSHIRE MINERS'

PERMANENT RELIEF FUND FRIENDLY SOCIETY, 1882 TO 1908. (Source: Thirty-second Annual Report of the West Riding of Yorkshire Miners' Permanent Relief Fund

Friendly Society.]

INCOME.

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$1,188 $5,170 $12, 605 $4,077
3,056 7, 225 14,807 6,580
1,805 10, 426 16, 222 8, 973
1,459 11,113 14,047 10, 997
2,896 11, 994 18,323 | 12,847
2, 541

14, 775 22,700 | 16, 624
2, 425 16, 663 22, 419 17,518
2,647 18,575 20, 180 17,898
1, 402

19, 322 11,825 | 16,060 1,776 19, 134 12,851 | 13,991 1,723 19,797

13, 661 13, 945 774 19, 243 10,988 13, 680 1,386 18, 486 15, 191 13, 535 1,669 17,800 16,977 14,386 1,304 | 17,417 20, 226 16, 422 1,859 17,591 22,989 18, 674 1,83917, 606 22, 754 22,905 1, 187

17,364 22, 108 24, 126 1,090 17,281 24, 108 26, 789 1,810 17,063 26, 487 30, 245 2,010 16,329 29, 973 33, 823 1,956 | 16,959

33,897 34,557 2,360 18, 696 38,803 | 36, 340 1,796 19, 205

$719 1, 908 2,794 2,995 3,006 2,827 2, 306 2,198 1,954 1, 750 1.438 1, 230 1,140 899

787 · 661 608 460 289 192 190 128

$753 $2,536 $3,065
781 2,9%8 2,985
541

3, 191 3,728
291 2,909 2,929
335 3,358 3, 424
370 3,762 3, 276
373 3,853 3,885
351 3,813 4, 108
385 3,200 3,793
419 3, 451 3, 747
273 3,619 3,877
188 2,873 4,234
239 3,814 3, 616
206 3,944 3, 460
230 4,219 3, 591
249
4, 460

4, 145
280 4,724 4, 453
255 4,842 3,942
281 5,088 4,074
272 5, 494 5, 120
261 5,662 5,371
290 6, 191 5, 274
264

6,806 5,324 259 6, 926 5, 152 203 7. 485 5, 223 263 8,053 6, 103 319

$59 $17,391

83 14, 149
16315, 079
14
76 2,759
483
581

5,184
455
149 1, 926
956 6,531
99

10, 409
89
82 13,855
448 14,519
368 15, 190
71 14, 246
64 11,389
57 13, 607
52 14, 456
221 12,832

9, 026

14,331 493 14. 644 1,183 14,343

$47, 563 54,522 62,922 47, 463 59, 018 67, 418 75,237 70, 225 60.016 64, 046 68.841 53, 299 71,344 74, 308 79, 754 84,945 86, 622 87, 948 93, 488 99,736 102, 645 113,583 123.858 125, 270 134, 189 146, 888 156, 301

128

41,458 34, 822 3,567 20, 190 46,666 38, 214 3,124 22, 579

56,531 $3,582 3,811 23,950

66,272 47, 434

8,707 5, 482

243 12, 259 248

6,342 263

126
79
63
63

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