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The tables follow:

CONTRIBUTIONS (PAYABLE EVERY 4 WEEKS) AND BENEFITS OF FEMALE MEMBERS

OF THE INDEPENDENT ORDER OF ODD FELLOWS, MANCHESTER UNITY. STAND. ARD TABLES. [Source: Rules of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, Manchester Unity, Friendly Society, Annual

Movable Conference, 1908.)

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a Benefits, $0.97 per week during first 52 weeks' sickness; $0.49 thereafter; $19.47 at death. 6 Benefits, $0.97 per week during first 26 weeks' sickness; $0.49 thereafter; $19.47 at death.

c Benefits, $0.97 per week during first 52 weeks' sickness; $0.49 thereafter; $7.30 at each confinement of a married member, and $19.47 at death.

& Benefits, $0.97 per week during first 26 weeks' sickness; $0.49 thereafter; $7.30 at each confinement of a married member, and $19.47 at death.

CONTRIBUTIONS (PAYABLE EVERY FOUR WEEKS UNTIL 65 YEARS OF AGE) NECESSARY TO SECURE ANNUITIES, PAYABLE AT 65 YEARS OF AGE, TO FEMALE MEM. BERS OF THE INDEPENDENT ORDER OF ODD FELLOWS, MANCHESTER UNITY. STANDARD TABLES.

Source: Rules of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, Manchester Unity, Friendly Society, Annual

Movable Conference, 1908.)

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a These contributions are returnable in the event of death at any time before the age of 65.

The first steps toward the organization of female branches were taken in 1893, though it was five years later that the subject was finally and definitely acted on, so that such branches were admitted to the regular status of lodges of the unity. The cost of insurance and other benefits for women is usually regarded as greater than for men, and the requirement is strictly enjoined by the rules of the unity that female members shall be admitted only at the special rates provided. Females are admitted into the Independent Order of Rechabites, Salford Unity, on equal terms with men. Differences in details of arrangement of expenses of management, frequency of payment, etc., make it for the most part not feasible to undertake any comparison of the rates charged.

In the case of superannuation benefits, however, an instance is available of identical benefits, times of payment, and cost conditions. Two and one-half per cent interest is paid on the contributions returned by the Rechabites. No statement as to interest is made by the rules of the Manchester Unity. In this case a benefit of 61 cents per week may be secured by the payment of a sum every four weeks from age of entry until the age 65 is reached, the contributions not providing for the costs of management. Two forms are offered, one in which no contributions are returnable, the other offering a return of contributions in event of death prior to age 65.

The table follows:

COST OF A SUPERANNUATION BENEFIT OF 28. 6D. (80.61) WEEKLY, BEGINNING AT
AGE 65, IN THE INDEPENDENT ORDER OF ODD FELLOWS, MANCHESTER UNITY,
AND THE INDEPENDENT ORDER OF RECHABITES, SALFORD UNITY. CONTRI.
BUTIONS PAYABLE EVERY FOUR WEEKS.

(Sources: Rules of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, Manchester Unity, Annual Movable Confer.

ence, 1908; General Rules of the Independent Order of Rechabites, High Movable Conference, 1907.)

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The subject of female membership has received considerable attention in recent years, increasing with the increasing importance of female labor and self-support. Besides the orders named, the two principal orders admitting both men and women are the Ancient Order of Foresters and the Loyal Order of Ancient Shepherds, Ashton Unity. Seven orders are apparently composed of women only, while some of the oldest ordinary friendly societies are exclusively female in membership, many others admitting them together with men. At the close of the year 1905 approximately 40,000 females were found in the registered orders, and there were 48,381 members of friendly societies comprised exclusively of females, with an annual income of above £38,000 ($184,927) and accumulated funds amounting to nearly £195,000 ($948,968). General friendly societies report some 514,000 female members, giving a total membership of more than 600,000 women who are in some degree making provision against loss from current sickness or disability as well as for their own future needs.

A table on page 1595 shows the general data for 312 societies composed of female members exclusively, in connection with the other societies reporting for 1905. As compared with the membership of societies admitting males only, this table shows a disproportionately

large number of members of dividing societies. Among male societies, dividing societies have but 11 per cent of the total membership, while in female societies nearly 32 per cent of the members belong to societies of this class, indicating a purpose to provide for the near future rather than for more remote contingencies.

TRADE UNIONS.

HISTORY

The relation of trade unions to the question of workmen's insurance is in some degree parallel to the relation thereto of friendly societies. Many phases of trade-union activity obviously have no place in a review of insurance provisions, while on the other hand their benefit features are devised to cover not only unemployment in case of strikes, but other out-of-work cases, sickness and accident relief, superannuation, and funeral benefits.

These forms of relief are a matter of progressive development, though their beginnings are said to be found as far back as the early years of the eighteenth century. Beginning with the local union of small membership and narrow scope, the tendency toward enlargement has been practically continuous, until at the present time many trades have national organizations, while there are others of smaller but still broad scope. Besides these large unions federations of unions have come into existence, uniting either a number of societies connected with the same industry or a number of societies covering several industries more or less closely related. Another form of federated activity is represented by so-called trades councils and congresses.

The history of trade unions involves the account of a long struggle for recognition in the face of laws against conspiracy and combination, drawn to restrain or prevent organizations of workmen that should concern themselves with the rates of wages and other conditions of employment, and the cloak of the friendly society was used for a time to cover operations that were forbidden by the law of the land, this subterfuge even surviving the state of law that gave rise to it. Laws were enacted in 1824 and 1825 legalizing trade unions, following which action there was a large and rapid increase in the growth of unionism, accompanied by a similar movement as regards benefit provisions. Without going so far back as the fourth decade of the last century, when this first impetus was received, it will be possible to estimate the importance and present growth of this form of organization from a table beginning with the year 1898.

The use of this date as a starting point will also make it possible to observe the effect, if any, of the passage of the workmen's compensation act of 1897 on this form of voluntary provision for benefits.

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STATISTICS OF OPERATIONS,

The following table shows the number and membership of all trade unions for a period of 10 years, 1898 to 1907, and the membership and principal financial facts for 100 principal unions for the same period. Only those societies are included which reported for each of the 10 years covered. It is said that the societies failing of enumeration on account of the lack of continuous reports are few and generally unimportant. The unions for which a financial statement is shown include more than 60 per cent of the total membership of all the societies.

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NUMBER AND MEMBERSHIP OF ALL TRADE UNIONS, AND MEMBERSHIP, INCOME,
EXPENDITURE, AND ACCUMULATED FUNDS OF 100 PRINCIPAL UNIONS IN GREAT
BRITAIN, 1898 TO 1907.

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Registry is offered to trade unions as well as to friendly societies, though under a distinct act. As in the case of friendly societies registry for trade unions involves certain privileges, as the control and safeguarding of property, and likewise certain duties as to the making of reports as to membership and receipts and expenditures. The comparison continues in the fact that only about one-half of the trade unions are registered. The tables following show the number of registered and unregistered unions at the end of 1907, classified as to trades represented and as to membership.

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