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NUMBER AND MEMBERSHIP OF REGISTERED AND UNREGISTERED TRADE UNIONS

IN GREAT BRITAIN, BY GROUPS OF TRADES, 1907.
[Source: Board of Trade Report on Trade Unions, 1905–1907.)

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Building:

Laborers.

Others.
Mining and quarrying:

Coal mining..

Other mining and quarrying.. Metal, engineering, etc.:

Iron and steel; engineering and ship

building

Miscellaneous Textile:

Cotton..

Other
Clothing:

Boot and shoe.
Tailoring...

Other....
Transportation:

Railway servants.

Others..
Agricultural laborers and fishermen.
Printing, paper, and allied trades.
Woodworking and furnishing.
Chemical, glass, pottery, etc..
Food and tobacco..
Workers in fiber, cane, etc.
Leather...
Enginemen.
Miscellaneous trades..
General labor..
Employees of public authorities:

National employees.
Employees of local authorities.

Total

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NUMBER AND MEMBERSHIP OF REGISTERED AND UNREGISTERED TRADE UNIONS

IN GREAT BRITAIN, CLASSIFIED BY SIZE OF UNIONS, 1907.

(Source: Board of Trade Report on Trade Unions, 1905–1907.)

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From these tables it appears that while registered unions comprise but 44.6 per cent of the total, they have 77.8 per cent of the members; also that 167 such unions have 1,000 or more members as compared with 98 unregistered unions with 1,000 members or over.

The progress of registered trade unions through three decades in the matter of membership and funds is shown in the following table:

NUMBER, MEMBERSHIP, AND FINANCIAL SUMMARY OF REGISTERED TRADE UNIONS

IN THE UNITED KINGDOM, 1877 to 1907.
(Source: Reports of the Chief Registrar of Friendly Societies for 1907.)

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The average per capita income of the above societies in 1907 was £1 9s. 9d. ($7.24), the average expenditure £1 4s. 1}d. ($5.87), and the amount of funds £3 5s. 1d. ($15.84).

BENEFIT PAYMENTS.

The path to the present position of the unions on the subject of benefits has been beset with many difficulties, and sharp differences of opinion have been developed on the question of the advisability of the payment of benefits. On the one side it was charged that the accumulation of large funds under the guise of provision for benefits was for the ulterior purpose of acquiring defense funds, and on the other that the combination of strike and other benefits was for the purpose of binding the membership by their contributions for the latter objects to the will of the leaders of the unions, as no one would dare to thwart such will if it would involve the loss of the accumulated savings of a lifetime. As against the practice of paying benefits it was objected that when the unionist became disabled through old age or sickness his care should devolve on the whole body of society rather than on the limited body of unionists. The feature of benefits has grown in public favor, however, since the predicted evils have failed of realization; it is claimed, furthermore, that the accumulation of invested funds has had a tendency toward encouraging a feeling of conservatism among the members of the unions. The unions themselves claimed, in favor of the combination of benefit features with the other objects of the trade union, that it is more economical to combine all benefits within the activities of a single society than to seek them partly in one organization and partly in another.

Statistics are not available covering the financial operations of trade unions in an entirety, but they can be presented for the 100 principal societies shown in the previous table. The next table shows for ten years the amount of the various expenditures, and the percentage that each such expenditure is of the total for each year. EXPENDITURES FOR VARIOUS PURPOSES OF 100 PRINCIPAL TRADE UNIONS IN These 100 unions expended in the three years 1905 to 1907 more than £6,000,000 ($29,199,000), 8.2 per cent of which was paid out in support of labor disputes, 23.3 per cent for the relief of members out of work for other reasons, and an almost equal amount (22.5 per cent) for working and miscellaneous expenses. The remainder, amounting to 46 per cent of the total, was paid out for various other benefits than those already named, principally sick and accident, superannuation, and funeral benefits.

GREAT BRITAIN, 1898 TO 1907.
(Source: Board of Trade Report on Trade Unions, 1905-1907.)

Dispute benefit.

Unemployed benefit.

Other benefits.(a)

Working and miscel

laneous expenses.

Year.

Amount.

Per cent of total expendi

ture.

Amount.

Per cent of total expendi

ture.

Amount.

Per cent of total expendi

ture,

Amount.

Per cent of total expendi

ture.

1898 1899 1900 1901 1902 1903 1904. 1905 1906. 1907

$1,588,562

583, 878

747,086 1,021, 970 1,064, 260

836, 853

604,833
1,025, 654

739, 966
649, 011

22.1 $1, 136, 878

9.6 898, 181
10.6 1,271,592
12.8 1,582,897
12.1 2,090, 279
9.0 2,512, 370
6.1 3, 187,523
10. 2 2,545,019
7.8 2,063,542
6.5 2,266, 173

15.9 $2,958, 053
14.8 3,019, 702
17.9

3, 307,059
19.8 3,504, 459
23.9

3,644, 279 26.9 3,850, 209 31.9

4, 132, 807 25.4 4,392,070 21.6 4,491, 804 22.7 4,746,283

41.1
49.5
46. 6
43.9
41.6
41.3
41.3
43.7
47.1
47.4

$1,501, 101
1,591, 151
1,763, 371
1,876, 994
1,962, 022
2, 130, 160
2,070, 671
2,084, 317
2, 236,585
2,335,088

20.9 26.1 24.9 23.5 22.4 22.8 20.7 20.7 23.5 23.4

Average..

886, 207

10.3

1,955, 445

22.8

3,804,673

44. 2

1,955, 146

22.7

&A small proportion of this expenditure (equal to about 3 per cent of the total expenditure for all purposes) consisted of payments to federations, grants and fees to other societies, etc.

The annual percentages for the different forms of benefits reflect pretty closely the industrial condition of the country, which improved during the first half of the period under review, while during the latter part employment declined.

Eight principal groups of industries and a group of miscellaneous trades are embraced in the 100 principal unions considered. The next table shows income and objects and amount of expenditure for each of these groups for the year 1907, with the amount of capital at the beginning and end of the year.

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NUMBER OF MEMBERS AND INCOME AND EXPENDITURES OF 100 PRINCIPAL TRADE

UNIONS OF THE UNITED KINGDOM, BY GROUPS OF TRADES, 1907.

(Source: Board of Trade Report on Trade Unions, 1909.)

Item.

Building trades (13 unions).

Mining and quarrying (16 unions).

Metal trades, engineering, and shipbuild

ing (15 unions).

Textile trades (20 unions).

Clothing

trades (4 unions).

170, 228

352,754

279, 436

186,595

49, 490

$1,785, 709 $6, 159, 923 $8,164, 659 $4, 251, 423
10.35
21.07
30. 48

26. 06

$528, 901

12.15

1,891, 462

11.11

1,972, 602

5.59

4,477,579

16.02

1, 196, 108

6.41

297,513

6.01

Membership at end of 1907.
Funds:

At end of 1906:

Per capita... Income:

In 1907.

Per capita.
Expenditures in 1907:

Uneinployed, travel, etc., benefits
Dispute benefits.
Sick and accident benefits.
Superannuation benefits.
Funeral benefits...
Other benefits and grants (a)
Working and other expenses.

Total.
Amount per capita of total expenditures...

564, 275

32, 090 529, 149 356, 622 104,946

47,200 383, 933

69, 411 163, 446 318, 259

8,074 73, 479 83,918 335, 633

970, 482
227, 718
822,593
985, 267
187,093
154, 682
619, 403

241,349
87, 120
44,003
28, 360
28, 693
126, 329
183,774

30, 936 33,510 89, 952

5,353 20, 055 15,982 65,007

2,018, 215

11. 86

1,052, 221

2.98

4,027, 238

14.41

739,898

3. 96

250, 795

5. 07

Funds:

At end of 1907...
Per capita..

1,658, 956

9. 74

7,080.305

20.07

8, 615,000

30.83

4,707, 633

25. 23

575, 619

11. 63

o This item includes grants to members, grants from one union to another, payments to federations, trades councils, congresses, etc.

NUMBER OF MEMBERS AND INCOME AND EXPENDITURES OF 100 PRINCIPAL TRADE

UNIONS OF THE UNITED KINGDOM, BY GROUPS OF TRADES, 1907–Concluded.

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« This item includes grants to members, grants from one union to another, payments to federations, trades councils, congresses, etc.

Contributions and levies afford practically 90 per cent of the income of these societies, the remaining 10 per cent coming from fines, entrance fees, subscriptions, interest, rents, etc.

The per capita income in the various groups of unions varies considerably, ranging from $3.48 in the miscellaneous trades and $4.96 in transportation to $16.02 in the metal trades. The highest rate was that received by an organization of glass-bottle makers of Yorkshire, whose average income per capita was above 85s. ($20.68).

The report from which the above data are taken presents for the 100 unions a résumé of their expenditures for various objects for the ten years 1898 to 1907, expressed in the form of percentages. The table is reproduced on the page following.

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