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INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS IN THE UNITED KINGDOM REPORTED UNDER VARIOUS
ACTS, 1898 TO 1907.
coal mine reg-
under met- under
notice allir- | quar
erous ries Mer- Fish- ways.
a The sum of the items (115,564) does not agree with this total; the figures are given as found in the orig. inal report.
• Total cases under factory and workshop acts; items not separately reported.
As already explained, the value of the above table as a basis of comparison is less than would be the case if the requirements for reporting nonfatal accidents were uniform. The second variation, that caused by changing standards of enforcement, will doubtless be remedied by the passage of years and the settling down to a uniform degree of observance.
Reports to certifying surgeons are required for certain classes of accidents, describing the cause and nature of the injury. The inspectors of factories and workshops have compiled certain data as to the nature of the injuries received which, while they do not at all dispose of the total number of accidents in any employment, are indicative of the nature of risk and the resultant degree of disability in a considerable number of cases. The statute requires the reporting of accidents in factories and workshops causing loss of life and nonfatal accidents due to any machinery moved by mechanical power or to molten metal, hot liquid, explosion, escape of gas or steam, and, since 1906, to electricity. Prior to the act of December 21, 1906, accidents required to be reported under the explosives act, 1875, were not reported to the certifying surgeon, but since that date, the exception
is not made. The following table shows the number of accidents reported as above during the five years, 1904 to 1908, for adults (over 18 years of age), by nature of injury, with totals for the period: ACCIDENTS OCCURRING TO ADULTS EMPLOYED IN FACTORIES AND WORKSHOPS AND REPORTED TO CERTIFYING SURGEONS IN THE UNITED KINGDOM, BY NATURE OF INJURY, 1904 TO 1908.
[Source: Annual reports of inspectors of factories and workshops, 1904 to 1908.)
929 954 1,011 1,071 939
981 51 66 61
49 999 1,100 1, 230 1, 281 1,149 5,759 1, 152 1,017 1,140 1,234
1, 252 1,262 5,905 1,181 93 90 95 108 61 447
89 632 712 827 844 667 3, 682 736 541 584 628 710 628 3,091 618
69 57 57 55 36 274 55 (a)
1,247 1,676 1,744 0 4,667 | 61,556 3, 004 3,583 2, 411
2,831 2, 734 14,563 2,913 2, 431 2, 478 3,200
17,740 3,548 13,093 | 14, 181 16,262 | 19.322
81,517 16,303 22,912 24,988 28,324 34,219 32,651 143,094 28, 619
ó For three years only.
« Not separately reported. This table shows a striking uniformity in accident rate in respect of most classes of injuries named, and comparatively slight departures from the average in the number of fatalities annually occurring. Another striking fact is the correspondence between the number of injuries to the right hand or arm and those to the left hand or arm. The last two classes of injuries, including burns and scalds and injuries not specified, show the greatest fluctuation in rates, but the general effect of the table is to indicate the very strong possibility of determining a sufficiently accurate estimate of accident rates to afford a basis for insurance.
The Board of Trade Labour Gazette for April, 1909, presents a report of fatal industrial accidents for 1908, showing 1,283 to have occurred to employees engaged in shipping; 1,194 underground in mines and 149 on the surface; 92 in quarries; 415 to companies' employees on railways, and 17 to contractors' employees; 767 in factories and workshops; 275 in or about docks, warehouses, buildings, etc.; and 32 under the notice of accidents act, making a total of 4,224.
This report gives 4,195 as the average annual number of deaths by industrial accidents for the five-year period, 1904 to 1908.
The industries within which the accidents presented above occurred give employment to more than six millions of work people, and, while the exact number of employees in the different groups are not available, the board of trade has, as far as possible, reduced the results to a ratio showing the mean annual death rate from accidents per
10,000 persons employed in each industrial group. The table follows:
MEAN ANNUAL DEATH RATE FROM INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS PER 10,000 PERSONS
EMPLOYED IN THE UNITED KINGDOM, 1904 TO 1908.
[Source: Board of Trade Labour Gazette, April, 1909.)
Annual reports on various branches of industry present data covering their various fields, from which the tables presented below are taken.
The following tables show the number of employees of railway companies killed and injured by train accidents for each of the twenty years, 1888 to 1907, inclusive, and the number and class of employees killed and injured by train accidents in 1907:
NUMBER AND AVERAGE PER MILLION TRAIN MILES OF RAILROAD EMPLOYEES KILLED AND INJURED BY TRAIN ACCIDENTS FOR EACH YEAR, 1888 TO 1907.
(Source: General Report to the Board of Trade upon Accidents on Railways, 1907.)
380.3 396.2 402. 1 398.9 399.8 394.0 397.0 400.9 414.2 428. 3
1888.. 1889. 1890. 1891 1892 1893. 1894. 1895 1896 1897..
1898.. 1899.. 1900.. 1901.. 1902. 1903., 1904. 1905. 1906.. 1907.
. 495 . 448 .391 . 275 . 371 .287 .279 .338 .551
6 13 13
NUMBER AND PROPORTION OF RAILROAD EMPLOYEES KILLED AND INJURED BY
TRAIN ACCIDENTS IN 1907.
Besides the employees accounted for in the last table above, 2 were killed and 18 injured in train accidents who were not employed in the running of trains.
Employees killed and injured in accidents connected with the movement of trains, but in which there was no accident to the train itself, are reported separately from those affected by train accidents. Totals have been reported since 1877, but only for a few of these years is it possible to present the proportion of accidents to the number of employees.
The next table shows the number of killed and injured of those classes of employees who are exposed to danger from the movement of trains, in cases in which the injury or death resulted from other causes than train accidents, for those years in which correct figures are available to show the proportion of killed and injured to the total number employed.
NUMBER AND PROPORTION OF RAILROAD EMPLOYEES EXPOSED TO DANGER FROM THE MOVEMENT OF TRAINS, ETC., WHO WERE KILLED AND INJURED IN CERTAIN YEARS IN ACCIDENTS CONNECTED WITH THE MOVEMENT OF TRAINS (TRAIN ACCIDENTS EXCEPTED).
[Source: General Report to the Board of Trade upon Accidents on Railways, 1907.)
Eight classes of employees contributed 330 of the 433 who were killed by the movement of trains in 1907, and 4,665 of the 5,560 injured. These casualties do not include those caused by train accidents. As to accidents affecting these 8 classes of employees, it is possible to report the period of incapacity of the injured employees and the proportion of those killed and injured to the total number of employees in the class. This presentation follows:
NUMBER KILLED AND INJURED AND PERIOD OF DISABILITY IN CERTAIN OCCUPA. TIONS ON RAILWAYS IN THE UNITED KINGDOM AFFECTED BY THE MOVEMENT OF TRAINS IN 1907 (TRAIN ACCIDENTS EXCEPTED).
(Source: General Report to the Board of Trade upon Accidents on Railways, 1907.)
a Based on the items shown, this number should be 665; the figures are given as found in the original report.
The showing of former tables as to the proportion of nonfatal accidents of a duration of two weeks or less is borne out by the above table, this class constituting more than one-half the total. A striking departure from this rule is shown by a single class of employees, permanent-way men having but 1 injury of this nature to every 1,292 employees, while there was 1 injury of longer duration to every 546 employees. A further exception to the rule applying to other classes of employees is presented by this group in that the number of fatal accidents is proportionately larger than the number of accidents causing disability of a duration of fourteen days or less. Switchmen have the highest accident rate, both fatal and nonfatal, goods guards (freight conductors) and brakemen ranking next. Firemen have the lowest rate of fatal accidents, laborers and engine drivers standing next in order, though the men employed on engines have a much higher rate of nonfatal accidents than do the laborers.
It is possible to present in less detail than in the foregoing table a record of the number of fatal and nonfatal accidents in proportion to the number of employees by classes for certain years. These