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classes are the same as those presented above, and since the classes of accidents are the same the data for 1907 are comparable with those given in the table below.

The table follows:

NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES IN CERTAIN OCCUPATIONS TO EACH EMPLOYEE KILLED OR INJURED BY THE MOVEMENT OF TRAINS (TRAIN ACCIDENTS EXCEPTED) IN THE UNITED KINGDOM IN CERTAIN YEARS, 1889 TO 1904.

(Source: General Report of the Board of Trade upon Accidents on Railways, 1906.)

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Killed. Injured. Killed. Injured. Killed. Injured. Killed. Injured. Killed. Injured.

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The above table shows the ratio of fatal to nonfatal accidents to be a very variable one for the different classes of employees and that it fluctuates considerably from year to year. Thus passenger guards in 1898 experienced twenty-six times as many nonfatal as fatal accidents, while permanent-way men in 1889 had but 1.1 persons injured to each 1 killed. This large proportion of killed as compared with the number injured is conspicuous in this class of employees throughout each year shown. The general tendency is toward a reduction of the accident rate, though this tendency is not uniform, passenger guards, for instance, showing a threefold greater fatal accident rate in 1904 than in 1895.

Statistics of accidents to employees in mines are available for every year since 1851, but the statutory basis for reporting has been changed since that date, the last time being by the coal mines regulation act of 1872, the change taking effect in 1873, since which date reports have been comparable. The table following shows for each year from 1873 to 1908 the death rate from accident per 1,000 employees and per 1,000,000 tons of output for mines under the coal mines regulation acts, and the same data, with the exception of the rate per 1,000,000 tons of output, for mines under the metalliferous mines regulation acts:

ANNUAL DEATH RATE FROM ACCIDENTS IN AND ABOUT MINES CLASSED UNDER THE COAL MINES REGULATION ACTS, PER 1,000 PERSONS EMPLOYED AND PER 1,000,000 TONS OF OUTPUT, AND IN AND ABOUT MINES CLASSED UNDER THE METALLIF. EROUS MINES REGULATION ACTS, PER 1,000 PERSONS EMPLOYED, FOR EACH YEAR, 1873 TO 1908.

(Source: Mines and Quarries: General Report and Statistics for 1908, Part I.)

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The coal mines regulation act, as enacted in 1872, and as subsequently amended and reenacted, includes within its provisions mines of coal, mines of stratified ironstone (iron ore), mines of shale, and mines of fire clay, and embraces a body of employees averaging over a half million annually. Thus for the three 10-year averages shown in the above table, the average number of employees was 503,428, 571,719, and 732,391, respectively, of whom 403,281 in the first decade, 461,024 in the second, and 588,446 in the third were employed below ground. During the last six years the average number of employees was 893,128, of whom 718,889 were employed below ground.

The metalliferous mines act applies to all classes of mines not within the scope of the coal mines regulation acts. The average number of employees in such mines was 55,388 in the first decade, 42,481 in the second, and 33,669 in the third, while for the six remaining years the average was further reduced to 30,040.

It may be noted in passing that with a single exception the average death rate for each decade is lower than for the preceding one.

Statistics for employees in quarries, similar to those given above for metalliferous mines, are available for the period 1895 to 1908, and are given below:

ANNUAL DEATH RATE FROM ACCIDENTS IN AND ABOUT QUARRIES, CLASSED UNDER THE QUARRIES ACT, PER 1,000 PERSONS EMPLOYED FOR EACH YEAR, 1895 TO 1908.

(Source: Mines and Quarries: General Report and Statistics for 1908, Part I.)

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A more general view than is afforded by any of the tables given above is presented by a statement prepared by the labor department of the board of trade and published in 1904 by the departmental committee on workmen's compensation. The table shows the mean annual death rate from accident per 10,000 persons employed in principal trades for the period 1898 to 1902. The table follows:

MEAN ANNUAL DEATH RATE FROM INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS PER 10,000 EMPLOYEES

IN PRINCIPAL TRADES, 1898 to 1902.
[Source: Report of Departmental Committee on Workmen's Compensation, 1904.)

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The registrar-general of births, deaths, and marriages in England and Wales has furnished data showing the comparative mortality of males from 25 to 64 years of age in different occupations. These reports are based on returns for the three years 1900, 1901, and 1902, and show that of the general male population within the age limits designated there were 1,000 deaths annually among 71,005 males, of which 59 were caused by accident. If the rate, 71,005 males, be divided proportionately to the numbers enumerated at the census of 1901, it is found that 26,259 were from 25 to 34 years of age, 20,407 were 35 to 44, 14,748 were 45 to 54, and 9,591 were 55 to 64.

The number 71,005 is adopted as the “standard population,” which, subject to the rates of mortality obtaining in the several age groups among males generally, produced 1,000 deaths annually. If the four constituent numbers above shown be multiplied by the death rates recorded at the corresponding age groups in each occupation, the sum of the products will give the number of deaths that would occur in the standard population, supposing it to have experienced the death rates which prevailed in that occupation. This figure is called the "comparative mortality figure” for the occupation. Using this method, it is found that among 71,005 occupied (employed) and retired males the comparative mortality figure was 1,004 deaths per year, of which 58 were caused by accident, while among the unoccupied (unemployed) male population there were deaths at the rate of 2,884 per 71,005 males, or more than double the rate for all males, 115 of these being caused by accident.

The following table reproduces the comparative mortality for the various occupations covered and also the percentage that deaths from accident are of all deaths. The order of arrangement is that followed by the British census in the report on occupations:

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COMPARATIVE MORTALITY OF OCCUPIED AND RETIRED MALES IN ENGLAND AND

WALES, 25 TO 65 YEARS OF AGE, IN VARIOUS OCCUPATIONS, FROM ALL CAUSES

AND FROM ACCIDENT, 1900 TO 1902. (Source: Supplement to the Sixty-ffth Annual Report of the Registrar-General of Births, Deaths, and

Marriages, in England and Wales, 1908.)

Occupation.

Number of deaths Per cent

per unit of 71,005 of deaths males from

from accident

of deaths ANI Acci- from all causes. dent. causes.

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9 30 23 59 21 14 35 32 29 21 68 114 30 68 37 121 234

1.7 4.0 2. 4 6.2 3.2 1.7 2.8 3.5 2.9 2.3 11.1 14.0 3.9 5.9

3.7

257

All males.
Occupied and retired males.
Unoccupied males..
Clergyman, priest, minister..
Barrister, solicitor.
Law clerk.
Physician, surgeon, general practitioner.
Schoolmaster, teacher...
Artist, engraver, sculptor, architect.
Musician, music master.
Domestic indoor servant.
Commercial traveler...
Commercial clerk, insurance service.
Railway engine driver, stoker.
Railway guard, porter, switchman, etc.
Railway official, clerk.
Coach, cab, and omnibus service, groom, etc.
Tramway service..
Carman, carrier, etc.
Bargeman, lighterman, waterman.
Seaman, etc., merchant service..
Dock and wharf laborers.
Messenger, porter, etc. (other than railway or government).
Farmer, grazier, farmer's son..
Farm laborer, farm servant.
Gardener, nurseryman, seedsman.
Fisherman..
Maltster..
Brewer..
Innkeeper, publican, spirit, wine, and beer dealer
Servant, inn or hotel..
Stationery manufacture, stationer, publisher, news agent.
Chemist, druggist..
Tobacconist, etc.
Milk seller, cheesemonger, etc.
Fishmonger, poulterer.
Fruiterer, green grocer.
Grocer, etc..
Draper, linen draper, mercer..
Coal merchant, coke burner, etc.
Ironmonger
General shopkeeper (merchant).
Bookbinder
Printer.
Lithographer, copper and steel plate printer.
Watch, clock, scientific instrument, etc., maker, jeweler, etc.
Saddler, harness maker..
Butcher..
Miller, cereal-food manufacturer.
Baker, confectioner.
Hatter.
Tailor.
Shoemaker.
Hairdresser.
Tallow, soap, glue, manure, etc., manufacture.
Tanner.
Furrier, skinner.
Currier, etc.
Engine, machine, and boiler makers and fitters, millwright.
Tool, scissors, file, saw, and needle makers..
Gunsmith..
Lock, key, and gas-fittings makers, gas fitter.
Blacksmith, striker.
Nail, anchor, chain, and other fron and steel manufactures.
Copper, tin, zinc, lead, brass, etc., manufacturers and workers.
Bricklayer, mason, builder.
Carpenter, joiner..
Slater, tiler.
Paper hanger, plasterer, whitewasher
Plumber, painter, glazier.

524 750 970 952 005

823 1.261

927 988 911 610 813

776
1, 157
1,013
1. 153
1,333
1, 646
1, 481
1, 449

596
(21
563
967

773
1,393
1,781
1,883

931 999 902

832
1,013

942
729
845
731

741
1,508

934 994 964 872

945 1, 148

890

922 1. 137 1,027

984 1, 196

764

774 1,332 1,015

913 1,315 1,181

957

937 1. 187 1.043

906

106 61 36 53 22 130 41 55 50 59 22 35 21 31 23 32 19 19 39 20 64 13 21 27 33 25 40

10.5 17.5 15.6 7.2 4.2 6.0 8.5 3.9 13.4 5.3 3.9 2.8 3.1 2. 4 3.5 2.2 3.7 2.3 3. 4 2.6 2.2 5.3 2.7 4.2 1.4 2.1 2.8 3.8 2.6 3.5 5.5 3.0 3.0 2.5 2.2 2.8 4.5 3. 2 1.7 3.3 4.7 2.2 1.4 4.5 3.9 4.9 3.2 5.7 4.9 9.1 5. 2 4.5

26 22 34 34 25 23 33 43 29 17 43

820 1. 115 1,018 1,114

40 102 53 50

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