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COMPARATIVE MORTALITY OF OCCUPIED AND RETIRED MALES IN ENGLAND AND WALES, 25 TO 65 YEARS OF AGE, IN VARIOUS OCCUPATIONS FROM ALL CAUSES AND FROM ACCIDENT, 1900 TO 1902–Concluded.

Occupation.

Number of deaths

Per cent per unit of 71,005 of deaths males from

from accident

of deaths All Acci- from all causes. dent. causes.

24 55 31

Cabinetmaker, etc..
Sawyer..
Wood turner, cooper, etc...
Coach, carriage, railway-coach, etc., maker.
Cycle and motor manufacture..
Wheelwright..
Shipbuilding.
Chemical manufacture..
Wool and worsted manufacture.
Silk, satin, crepe, etc., manufacture.
Cotton manufacture.
Lace manufacture.
Rope, twine, and cord makers.
Textile dyer, bleacher, printer, finisher, etc.
Carpet, rug, and felt manufacture.
Hosiery manufacture..
Paper inanufacture..
Potter, earthenware manufacture.
Glass manufacture.
Coal miner.
Iron-ore miner.
Tin miner..
Lead miner.
Stone and slate quarriers.
Coal heaver...
Gas works service.
Plate layer, railway laborer, navvy, road laborer.
Brick, plain tile, and terra-cotta makers.
Costerinonger, hawker, etc.
General laborer.
Engine driver, stoker, fireman (other than railway marine or agricultural).
Chimney sweep:
Civil service (officers and clerks).
Civil service messengers, etc.).
India-rubber and gutta-percha workers, waterproof-goods makers,
Brush and broom makers, hair and bristle workers.

956

774
1, 181

824
797
808

817
1,065

984

964 1, 114

950

910 1, 114 1,044

921

730 1, 493 1,260

885

744 2, 131 1, 206

939
1, 221

878
740

653
2,007
2, 235

767 1,343

723

791 1,032 1,216

73 59 24 17 34 31 44 31 36 21 28 33 31 123 118 54 75 100 97 45 92 42 84 119 81 48 19 26 25 35

2.5 7.1 2.6 3.5 1.8 4.8 8.9 5.5 2.4 1.8 3.1 3.3 4.8 2.8 3.4 2.3 3.8 2.2 2.5 13.9 15.9 2.5 6.2 10.6 7.9 5.1 12.4 6.4 4.2 5.3 10.6 3.6 2.6 3.3 2.4 2.9

In studying this table it must be borne in mind that the average number of deaths per 71,005 males of all classes, 25 to 65 years of age, is 1,000 per year, and of deaths from accident 59 per year. The table shows that of the occupations considered, some that are highly dangerous from an accident standpoint are capable of being classed as generally favorable to longevity; as, for instance, that of fisherman, and iron and coal miners. Others having a low accident rate show a high general death rate, on account, presumably, of generally unwholesome working conditions, conducive to the development of trade diseases. An instance of this sort is found in the occupation of tool, scissors, etc., makers, gunsmiths, and furriers and skinners. Some of the most dangerous industries, from the accident basis, failed of inclusion in the provisions of the compensation acts of 1897 and 1900. It need hardly be added that practically the entire list of occupations is covered by the present act.

STATISTICS OF SICKNESS.

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It has been pointed out that in Great Britain the question of occupational or industrial diseases is not considered apart from that of accidents, so far as the matter of compensation under the acts is concerned; and since insurance is written to cover the liabilities of the employer under these laws, it is necessary to take up the data as to sickness in connection with accidents. The expe- • rience of the great workmen's associations is available in this connection, as well as the returns of government officials under the various laws; but as these associations provide benefits for incapacity for self-support, whether caused by accident or by disease, the obvious result is that the data for the two classes of risks are shown together by them, and so appear in subsequent tables.

Occupational diseases are within the provisions of the factory and workshop acts, and the table below presents data for the five years 1903 to 1907. Besides the cases reported under the above-named acts are cases of lead poisoning among house painters and plumbers, amounting to 174 cases in 1907, of which 39 were fatal. The numbers for the other years covered by the table below are, for 1906, 181 cases, including 36 deaths; for 1905, 163 cases with 28 deaths; for 1904, 227 cases, including 39 deaths; and for 1903, 201 cases, 39 of which were fatal. Such cases, equally with those reported below, are within the provisions of the compensation act of 1906.

The following table shows cases of poisoning and anthrax reported in factories and workshops in the United Kingdom for a period of five years. Under the heading "cases," the fatal as well as the nonfatal cases are included.

CASES OF POISONING AND ANTHRAX RESULTING FROM EMPLOYMENT IN FAC.

TORIES AND WORKSHOPS IN THE UNITED KINGDOM, 1903 TO 1907.
(Source: Twelfth Abstract of Labor Statistics of the United Kingdom, 1906–7.)

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CASES OF POISONING AND ANTHRAX RESULTING FROM EMPLOYMENT IN FAC

TORIES AND WORKSHOPS IN THE UNITED KINGDOM, 1903 TO 1907-Concluded.

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eases.

The above list of diseases was based on the recommendations of commissions appointed to consider the subject of industrial dis

The fact remains that in a large number of other cases sickness and death are no less directly the result of employment, though the disease itself is of a more common type and less characteristic of the industry. An illustration of this fact appears in a study of the Health of Cornish miners,” published by the home department of Great Britain in 1904. The report relates practically exclusively to the employees in the tin mines of Cornwall during the three years 1900 to 1902 in the Redruth district, which is by far the most important district in Cornwall. The number of miners in this district in 1901 was 4,102.

The following table summarizes the data relating to deaths occurring in this district, by causes, during the three-year period 1900 to 1902, and the annual death rate of employed males in England and Wales for the same period:

ANNUAL DEATH RATE PER 1,000 MINERS AND MINE LABORERS IN REDRUTH DISTRICT, CORNWALL, AND PER 1,000 EMPLOYED MALES IN ENGLAND AND WALES,

1900 TO 1902. [Sources: Health of Cornish Miners, Home Department, 1904, and Supplement to the Sixty-fifth Annual

Report of the Registrar-General of Births, Deaths, and Marriages in England and Wales, 1908.)

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An examination of the above table shows the excessive death rate among the Cornish miners and the large preponderance of lung diseases as a cause. The following table shows the number of deaths of miners in the Redruth district, 1900 to 1902, those miners who had at any time worked machine drills and those who had not being separately classified:

DEATHS OF MINERS WHO HAD WORKED MACHINE DRILLS, AND OF OTHER UNDERGROUND MINERS, IN REDRUTH DISTRICT, CORNWALL, 1900 TO 1902.

(Source: Health of Cornish Miners, Home Department, 1904.)

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The number of men engaged in operating machine drills being comparatively small, it is evident from these figures that the mortality due to lung diseases among “miners who had worked machine drills” is enormously greater than among the “other miners.”

Phthisis, or "miners' disease," was the certified cause of death of 120 of the machine-drill men, other diseases of the respiratory organs being responsible for the death of 13. The average age of the 142 machine-drill men at death was 37.2 years. Besides the 171 miners other than rock drillers whose deaths are tabulated above, 7 are reported as dying at more advanced ages. Of the total of 178 deaths, 68 were ascribed to phthisis and 48 to bronchitis and other diseases of the respiratory organs, the average age of all at death being 53 years.

Such data show conclusively the importance of district and occupational tables, as distinguished from general mortality tables for the country, in the establishment of benefit and insurance funds or the organization of friendly societies or branches in different industrial areas. The method ,and extent of such separate studies will be disclosed to some extent in the account given below of the investigation of the sickness and mortality experience of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, Manchester Unity, Friendly Society.

The measure of compensation varies under different systems, the workmen's compensation acts requiring payments proportioned to the wages earned, which introduces another factor into the problem of the determination of cost; while in the friendly societies the amount of the benefits is a fixed rate for death and a fixed weekly payment for incapacity. All cases of incapacity present the question of term as well as of rate, however, so that it is only by an extensive study of sickness and disability experience that any adequate foundation can be laid for determining cost.

Before taking up the more extensive data of friendly societies a brief presentation of the sickness experience of a group of trade unions may be noticed. The following table shows for eight of the larger trade unions the average monthly percentage of members in receipt of the sick benefits during each year of the period from 1870 to 1894. This proportion is fairly uniform, with, however, a tendency to increase, resulting probably from the increasing age of the members: AVERAGE PER CENT OF MEMBERS PER MONTH RECEIVING SICK BENEFITS EACH

YEAR IN EIGHT SELECTED UNIONS, 1870 TO 1894. [The figures in this table are from the Annual Reports of the Labor Department on Trade Unions. Since

1894 the number of members receiving sick benefits is not separately shown in these reports.)

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1870. 1871. 1872. 1873. 1874. 1875. 1876. 1877 1878. 1879 1880. 1881. 1882 1883 1884 1885. 1886 1887 1888 1889 1890. 1891 1892 1893. 1894.

1.10 1.10 . 70 .75 .97 1.10 1.10 1. 20 1.30 1. 60 1.60 1.50 1. 30 1. 40 1.50 1. 50 1.70 1.70 1.61 1. 47 1.61

2.0 2.6 2.2 2.4 2.5 2.4 2.9 2.7 2.5 2.8 2.1 2.3 2.6 3.2 3.04 2.85 3. 00

2.0 1.7

2.1 1.8

2.2 2. 2

2.4 2.2

2.2 2.4

2.2 2.1

2.2 2.0

2.2 2.0

2.3
2.2

2.4
2.5
2.3

2.5
2.4 2.5
2.1

2.2 2.1 2.2 2.2

2.5 2.18 2.44 1.98

2. 45 2.02 2.38

2.8 2.8 3.4 4.2 3. 2 2.7 2.1 2.4 3.0 3.1 3.3 3.3 3.1 2.6 2.7 2.77 2. 78 3.17 3.00

1.3 1.6 1.4 1.6 1.3 1.5 1.4 1.0 1.4 1.7 1.88 1.55

1.62 (6)

1.60 1.28

a Not reported.

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