صور الصفحة
PDF
النشر الإلكتروني

For a quarter century prior to 1824, when a report was issued based on the experience of Scotch friendly societies, provisions by friendly societies for sick benefits were based on a theoretical law of sickness, formulated by a Doctor Price. This law was found to provide far too low a rate for the advanced periods of life, while for the earlier periods the rate was too high, but not enough to offset the other error, even if such a balancing were feasible. The Scotch, or Highland Society's rates were found to be useless for general guidance on account of the peculiar organization of friendly societies in Scotland during the period covered.

The first adequate attempt to present the matter of sickness experience was that by an actuary (Mr. Neison) who was furnished a record covering 1,147,243 years of life, as reported in the government returns of friendly societies for the five years, 1836 to 1840. The Government itself issued a report in 1853–54, based on similar reports for the years 1846 to 1850, but covering a total of only 792,980 years of life, and using an arbitrary definition of sickness that made the tables, "for all the more important purposes of friendly societies, entirely worthless." The fault consisted in not classing disability to work as sickness, but only recoverable, temporary ailments, requiring constant medical treatment. The Manchester Unity of Odd Fellows was responsible for the next tables, covering 1,006,272 years of life, between 1856 and 1860, but defective in the matter of advanced ages.

The following table shows the conclusions reached by means of each of the above investigations, as regards the average number of weeks of sickness experienced during designated age periods, and the estimates under Doctor Price's law:

COMPARATIVE STATEMENT, ACCORDING TO VARIOUS DATA, OF WEEKS OF SICKNESS EXPERIENCED IN PASSING THROUGH DIFFERENT PERIODS OF LIFE.

(Source: Report of Royal Commission on Friendly Societies, 1872.)

[blocks in formation]

The wide range of experiences here shown is suggestive of the difficulties attending the efforts of the societies of that period to provide stable funds for the protection of their members in case of sickness, but that satisfactory results have been at least approximated is indicated by the fact that for five years ending with 1906, in the case of 558 societies, with 121,339 members, the expected cost of sickness, according to the tables in use, was £411,450 ($2,002,321), as against an actual cost of £412,787 ($2,008,828), experience exceeding expectation by but 0.32 per cent. The experience of 503 societies for the five years ending with 1905 showed an excess of 1.94 per cent over expectation, and the experience of 331 societies for the five years ending with 1904 showed an excess of 1.63 per cent, while that of 247 societies for the five years ending with 1903 was 0.26 per cent less than the expectation.

The tables most commonly in use are those based on the experience of registered friendly societies published by the chief registrar in 1880, and those issued by the Ancient Order of Foresters, the tables of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, Manchester Unity, ranking next, but considerably below the first two.

The bases of the tables of the Manchester Unity and of the registered friendly societies, together with the principal results deduced, are shown in the following table, which shows the number of years of life under review at each age period and the actual and relative number of deaths and of weeks of sickness:

COMPARISON OF SICKNESS AND MORTALITY, REGISTERED FRIENDLY SOCIETIES

EXPERIENCE, 1876 TO 1880, AND MANCHESTER UNITY EXPERIENCE, 1893 TO 1897. (Source: An Account of an Investigation of the Sickness and Mortality Experience of the I. 0. O. F.,

Manchester Unity, during the Five Years, 1893 to 1897.)
REGISTERED FRIENDLY SOCIETIES EXPERIENCE, 1876 TO 1880.

[blocks in formation]

Total..

1, 653,085

3,141,320

1,653,085

23,011

COMPARISON OF SICKNESS AND MORTALITY, REGISTERED FRIENDLY SOCIETIES EXPERIENCE, 1876 TO 1880, AND MANCHESTER UNITY EXPERIENCE, 1893 TO 1897 — Concluded.

MANCHESTER UNITY EXPERIENCE, 1893 TO 1897.

[blocks in formation]

The observations of the registered friendly societies, while extensive enough to entitle them to great weight, are practically doubled in extent by those of the Manchester Unity, 1893 to 1897. The striking facts adduced are the greater rate of sickness per member per annum in the later table, and, except at the more advanced ages, a diminished mortality rate. This condition affects the financial operations of bodies insuring against sickness unfavorably in respect of both tendencies. Not only is the sickness per member at each age period heavier than was formerly the case, but a greater proportion of members now survive to old age, and so become liable to the maximum sickness rates, with corresponding burdens on the insuring society. This conclusion is not based on the showing made by these two investigations alone, but is supported by a series of investigations undertaken by different agencies. Thus the Foresters reported 10,007,475 days of sickness among their membership in the United Kingdom in 1907, or an average of 15.69 days per member as against an average of 12.31 days in 1897, or an advance of 3.38 days in the decade. The advance is even more marked in 1908, when 10,385,052 days are reported, or a per capita average of 16.51 days, as against 15.69 days in the previous year, and 12.6 days in 1898, the gain in the decade being 3.91 days.

67725° — VOL 2-11

-11

A brief comparison of the results of the various observations mentioned, arranged chronologically, is shown in the table below. This table shows in weeks and decimals of a week the amount of sickness per member for each year of life at the various periods indicated, and the annual number of deaths per hundred members, according to observations of the Manchester Unity, the Ancient Order of Foresters, and the registered friendly societies.

COMPARATIVE STATEMENT OF RATES OF SICKNESS AND MORTALITY BASED ON VARIOUS OBSERVATIONS, IN CHRONOLOGICAL ARRANGEMENT.

(Source: Manchester Unity Experience, 1893 to 1897.)

Rate of sickness per member per annum in

weeks.

Rate of mortality per 100 members per an

num.

Age.

An

AnMan- Man- Man- cient Friend-Man- Man- Man- Man- cient Friend- Manchester chester chester Order ly soci- chester chester chester chester Orderly soci- chester Unity, Unity, Unity, of For- eties, Unity, Unity, Unity, Unity, of For- eties, Unity, 1816- 1856 1866- esters, 1876 1893- 1846- 1856

1866- esters, 1876- 18931848. 1860. 1870. 1871- 1880. 1897. 1848. 1860.

1870. 1871- 1860. 1897. 1875.

1875.

[blocks in formation]

Sickness relief is usually afforded on a certain scale for a fixed period (generally six months), at a reduced rate for a subsequent period, commonly of the same length as the first, and at further reduced rates for subsequent sickness. This practice makes it necessary to discover the distribution of the amounts of sickness among the periods fixed for the different rates of relief. The next table below presents the result of the observations of the registered friendly societies, 1876 to 1880, showing for each year of life from 18 to 89, inclusive, the average number of weeks of sickness per member falling within the first six months' period, the average falling within the second six months' period, and the average falling within subsequent periods. The amounts are shown in weeks and decimals of a week, and the total both in decimal form and to the nearest actual day.

AVERAGE WEEKS OF SICKNESS FALLING WITHIN EACH PERIOD, FOR MEMBERS
OF EACH AGE, ACCORDING TO REGISTERED FRIENDLY SOCIETIES' TABLES, 1876
TO 1880.

(Source: Actuary's Report, Irish National Foresters, 1908.)

[ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small]
[blocks in formation]

18... 19.

6
6

20.

6 6

0.772
.782
.775
.769
.766

745
.730
.736
732
.736

54..
55.
56.
57
58.
59

21 22. 23 24. 25. 26 27.

0.032
. 036
.015
.044
.033
.010
.049
.039
.045
.049

0.243

232 .277 . 296 .327 .362 . 402 493

60.

567

6 6 6 6 6

.747

. 053

5 13

.760
.779

. 957

. 793

29 30. 31 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37 38

61 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67 68. 69. 70. 71 72. 73.

8 9 11 12 13

0.057 0. 861
.062

.880
.067

.887
.071

.884
.074 .873
.073 858
.073 .852
.074 .849
.097 .854
.084 .869
091 .894
. 108 .924
. 123
.138 .992
.151

1.026
. 165

1.063 .181 1. 104 .197

1. 146 .216 1. 191 . 237

1. 240 . 256

1. 285 .271 1. 326 . 285 1.368 .301

1. 416 .320

1. 472 .345

1.539 .378

1.618

1.707
. 460 1.799
.502

1.894
1.987
2. 081

2. 178
.666

2. 283 .720

2. 402 .790 2.540

1 1 2

1. 580 1.670 1.713 1.795 1.883 1.989 2. 116 2. 214 2. 345 2. 576 2. 640 2. 808 2.899 3. 045 3. 200 3. 368 3. 441 3. 667 3. 637 3.750 3. 787 3. 753 3.841 3.838 3. 656 3. 700 3.387 3.046 3. 037 2. 684 3.593 2. 999 2. 286 2.322

.056
.055
. 061
.052
.056
.071
..073
.075
.079
.086
080
086
.096
.090
. 108
.117
.116
.121
.147
.149
. 148
. 160
. 191
. 214
. 208

74.

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

39.

0.879

.986 1.114 1. 262 1. 426 1. 605 1.803 2. 036 2.315 2. 659 3. 077 3. 585 4. 186 4. 883 5. 680 6.580 7.576 8. 638 9.752 10. 882 12. 003 13. 109 14. 244 15. 481 16.833 18. 210 19.955 21.880 24. 010 26. 300 28.700 31.116 33. 635 36. 085 41.585 43. 935

.823

842 .852 .876 .900 .924 .943 .975 .997 1. 019 1.062 1.086 1.123 1.173 1.218 1.245 1.296 1.351 1.396 1. 426 1. 468 1.542

2. 702 2.888 3. 104 3. 353 3. 636 3. 956 4.321 4. 743 5. 227 5. 785 6. 421 7.145 7.960 8. 874 9. 895 11.022 12. 238 13. 504 14. 792 16.062 17.266 18. 420 19. 604 20.899 22. 258 23. 541 25. 072 26.710 28. 600 30. 620 32.750 34.946 37.145 39. 325 41.585 43. 935

.530 . 704 .752 .875 .946 1.015 1.074 1. 221 1.199 1. 403 1. 430 1.476 1.558 1.519 1.580 1.769 1.631 1.730 1.814 1.553 1.636 . 457 .781 1. 224 .918

16 17 18 19 20

40. 41. 42.

3
3
3

43.

75.
76.
77
78.
79.
80..
81.
82.
83.

44. 45. 46.

.418

5 6 6

84.

43 49.

.542 . 582 .622

[blocks in formation]

39
41

52 53.

2

The two tables last given disclose a tendency to which attention recurs in the discussion of the various forms of relief, i. e.,

..the tendency for what is classed as ordinary sick benefits to merge into superannuation benefits. During early and middle life ailments terminating within the first six months' period constitute the bulk of the amount of sickness, while at the age of 59 they form but onehalf of the total, the ratio falling rapidly during the following years. From the age of 74 to that of 81 the total of sickness advances from one-third of the year to above one-half, while at the age of 89 recipients of sick pay would be in receipt of relief during ten months of

the year.

Cases falling within the second six months of sickness, which may be characterized as chronic but recoverable, constitute an element of increasing importance with the advance of years, the amount of sickness of this description growing much more rapidly proportionately than in the case of temporary ailments. Thus, at the age of 18, the

[ocr errors]
« السابقةمتابعة »