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death were paid if these consequences developed within one year from the day of the accident.

In case of temporary disability the full amount of the daily benefit stipulated in the insurance policy is paid from the sixth day throughout the continuance of the disability, but not over 360 days. The original agreement provided for compensation for temporary disability to begin one month after the injury; but by the law of December 23, 1886, the superior council was permitted to reduce this period, with the approval of the Government, and by the decree of July 24, 1887, the payment of compensation beginning with the sixth day was permitted.

The amount of daily benefits could be reduced by 20 per cent to 40 per cent after the first 24 days. If the duration of disability could not be estimated, or was likely to last over three months, the institution could, with the agreement of the injured person, substitute a lump sum for the daily benefits. This amount of benefits paid for temporary disability must be deducted from the amount due for permanent disability or death when such results finally develop. Furthermore, maximum limits of indemnity were established by the regulations, which meant putting a limit to the amount of insurance. For cases of death and total permanent disability the limit was 10,000 lire ($1,930), and for temporary disability 5 lire (97 cents)

per day.

The national insurance institution may also insure the employers against the risk of employers' liability, but the limit of insurance must not exceed 10,000 lire ($1,930). The maximum limit may be made smaller by the executive committee, and must be specified in the policy. In any case the institution insures to the employer the payment of only nine-tenths of the judgment in favor of the employee, and in case of 7 classes of greater risk (out of the 14 classes into which all the establishments were divided) only eight-tenths. Thus the interest of the employer in preventing severe industrial accidents is not entirely eliminated, even if the employer carries insurance against employers' liability.

With the introduction of compulsory compensation for accidents by the law of 1898 and subsequent acts the compensation for accidents under contracts made in compliance with these laws are regu. lated; but there is in addition a considerable amount of voluntary insurance, for which the rates of compensation are arbitrary.

SOURCES OF INCOME.

The National Accident Insurance Institution is a self-supporting institution. Its income, besides the small revenue from interest on the endowment and other investments, is derived from the premiums paid by the persons contracting for insurance. As the law requires the employers to meet this cost in all industries specified, by far the largest share now comes from the employers. The State does not contribute directly to the resources of the insurance institution. A certain amount of individual insurance against accidents is still written by the institution. Employees in industries not covered by the laws of 1898 and 1903 may thus obtain protection for themselves at their own expense. Employers may voluntarily insure workmen at their own expense, and special provisions were also made for collective insurance of the membership of mutual benefit societies.

PREMIUMS,

The study of the premiums and their development is of great importance because it throws some light upon the problem of cost of accident insurance. During the 25 years of its existence the premiums of the National Accident Insurance Institution have undergone many revisions, mainly with a view of their increase.

The general scale of premiums depended upon the forms of insurance, in addition to the variation of the trade risk. Three forms of insurance were recognized at the beginning of the operations-individual insurance, simple collective insurance, and combined collective insurance. Individual insurance is a contract entered into with an individual employee, and guaranteeing him a specified sum in case of injury sustained from an industrial accident. Simple collective insurance may be carried either by an employer for his employees, an employer and his employees jointly for the benefit of the latter, or an association of workmen for the benefit of its members. Finally, combined collective insurance is carried either by the employer individually or jointly with his employees in favor of the latter, and in addition to the regular benefits also insures the employer against judgments arising out of employers' liability. Insurance against employers' liability only was not permitted.

The insurance premiums differed for each of these three forms of insurance and also varied according to the degree of risk. For these purposes all industries and classes of employees were divided into 14 classes on the basis of the imperfect accident statistics obtainable at the time, and a long list of such industries and form of work and employment was prepared, which contained nearly 700 items. In addition separate rates were quoted per person insured and per 1,000 lire ($193) of wages paid, the former for all forms of insurance and the latter only for collective insurance. As insurance may be written either with or without the inclusion of temporary disability benefits, separate premium rates were prepared for both forms.

The first tariff of premiums was approved by the council of the institution in February, 1884; it was slightly modified and raised in December, 1888. Both tariffs are given for the different forms of insurance in the following table. Tariff A was applicable to individuals insuring themselves against the results of industrial accidents. Tariffs B and D were intended for collective insurance. Tariff B granted the right to the same compensation as tariff A, but it was lower because of the collective nature of the insurance. In tariff D the rates are for compensation to the employee and also the insurance of the employer against liability within the limits specified, namely, up to 10,000 lire ($1,930). For the seven lower-risk groups the insurance covered only nine-tenths and for the seven higher-risk groups only eight-tenths of the judgment in favor of the employee.

For all the three classes of insurance the rates of compensation could be doubled, trebled, etc., by corresponding increases of the premium.

Tariffs B and D can be applied conveniently only to permanent employees and would present many practical difficulties with a shifting body of employees. These rates were therefore open to permanent bodies, such as mutual benefit associations or similar organizations, or to such employers as were able to furnish complete lists of names of employees. In all cases the application of these tariffs required a special permit of the administrative council of the national insurance institution.

The policies for which the premium rates shown in the following table were paid included a death benefit of 1,000 lire ($193), a total permanent disability benefit of 1,000 lire ($193), a partial permanent disability benefit in proportion to the reduction of earning power, a temporary disability benefit of 1 lira (19.3 cents) per day, and an employers' liability insurance up to 10,000 lire ($1,930), but not more than nine-tenths of the judgment for classes 1 to 7 and eight-tenths for classes 8 to 14.

ANNUAL PREMIUM RATES PER PERSON INSURED, AS APPROVED IN 1884 AND IN

1888, BY FORM OF INSURANCE AND CLASS OF RISK. (Source: Bollettino di Notizie sul Credito e sulla Previdenza, 1884. Cassa Nazionale d'Assicurazione per

gl’Infortuni degli Operai sul Lavoro. Regolamento dei premi e delle indennità e tariffe. Milano, 1898.]

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Individual insurance (tariff
A), 1884: (a)
Without temporary dis- Lite. Lire. Lire. Lire. Lire. Lire. Lite. Lire. Lire. Lire. Lire. Lire. Lire. Lire.
ability benefit.

1.00 1.12 1.35 1.57 1.85 1.99 2.24 2.73 3. 29, 4.60 6.13 8.05 10.05 13.00 With temporary disability benefit..

1.50 1.68 2.03 2.35 2.77 2.99 3.36 4.13 4.93 6 90 9.20 12.08 15.02 19.50 Simple collective insurance

(tariff B) (exclusive of employers' liability): Without tempo-1884..

.72 .80 96 1.12 1.28 1.44 1.60 1.99 2.40 3.20 4.80 8.00 12.00 rary disability

1888. benefit..

.96 1.12 1.28 1.44 1.60 1.99 2.40 3.20 4.80 7.20 9.60 12.00 With temporary 1884..

90 1.08 1.20 1.44 1.68 1.92 2.16 2. 40 2.99 3.60 4.80 7.20 12.00 18.00 disability benefit.

(1888.. 1.08 1.20 1.44 1.68 1.92 2.16 2.40 2.99 3.60 4.80 7.20 10.80 14.40 18.00 Combined collective insur

ance (tariff D) (with employers' liability), 1888: (0) Without temporary disability benefit.

1.03 1.41 1.55 1.87 2.17 2. 44 2.95 3.54 4.47 6.37 8.94 12.40'15. 86 19.33 With temporary disability benefit.

1.39 1.81 2.03 2. 43 2.81 3.16 3.75 4.54 5.67 7.97 11.34 16.00 20.66 25.33

. 72

.80

a Not changed in December, 1888.

• No corresponding tariff in 1884.

The normal tariffs used were those based upon the amount of the wage expenses, and quoted per 1,000 lire ($193) of wages paid, rather than those based on the number of persons employed. According to the first tariff of 1884, the amount of compensation agreed upon in case of death or total permanent disability could be either one, two, three, or four years' salary; partial permanent disability was compensated proportionately, and for temporary disability, the daily allowance was equal to one-thousandth of the insurance in case of death,

The tariff C as quoted covered insurance for all the possible consequences of industrial accidents-death, permanent disability, and temporary disability-but if it was desired to exclude all provision for temporary disability the premium rates were reduced one-third. This form of insurance included employers' liability. It was evidently expected in the beginning that the payments connected with this form of insurance would be heavy. Thus two tariffs were prepared, C and C', the former insuring only nine-tenths of the employers' liability and Cinsuring the entire liability; and the difference between these two tariffs was considerable, as may be seen from the following table. Moreover, such unlimited insurance of employers' liability was permitted only for the classes of lower risks, I to X, so that for the classes XI to XIV the rates are equal in both tariffs C and C.

67725°— VOL 2-11-17

The premiums for various amounts of insurance were not proportionate to the amount of compensation, which is partly explained by the inclusion of the fixed charge for employers' liability.

The premiums shown in the next table were for the following benefits:

(1) In case of death or total permanent disability, an amount equal to the specified number of times the annual wages.

(2) In case of partial permanent disability, a proportionate part of the sum above mentioned, according to the reduction of earning power.

(3) In case of temporary disability, a daily benefit equal to onethousandth part of that amount, but not over the daily wages and not over 5 lire (96.5 cents), beginning with the thirty-first day of disa bility and up to three hundred and sixty days.

(4) A guarantee of employers' liability, unlimited (tariff C') or up to nine-tenths (tariff C).

ANNUAL PREMIUM RATES PER 1,000 LIRE ($193) OF WAGES PAID ACCORDING TO THE TARIFF OF 1884, BY FORM AND AMOUNT OF INSURANCE AND CLASS OF RISK.

(Source: Bollettino di Notizie sul Credito e sulla Previdenza, 1884.)

Premium rate per 1,000 lire ($193) in risk class

Form and amount of

insurance.

II

II 111 IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI XII XII XIV

Combined collective insur

ance, with insurance of emplovers' liability limited to nine-tenths (taritf C). Amount of policy: Lire. Lire. Lire. Lire. Lire. Lire. Lire. Lire. Lire. Lire. Lire. Lire. Lire. Lire.

1 year's wages. 1.30 1.39 1.81 2.03 2. 43 2.81 3.16 3.75 4.54 5.67 7.97 11.34 16.88 25. 33 2 years' wages. 2.05 2. 49 2. 81 3.24 3.83 4.40 4.97 5.72 7.02 8.64 11. 88 17.28 27.00 40.50 3 years' wages. 2.75 3.32 3.73 4.37 5.13) 5.89 6.64 7.56 9.32 11.34 15.39 22.68 36. 45 54.68 4 years' wages.

3.40 4.10 4.56 5. 401 6.35 7.29 8.18 9. 1811.39 13.77 18.50 27.54 45.23 67.68 Combined collective insur

ance, with unlimited in-
surance of employers' lia-
bility (tariff Cl).
Amount of policy:

1 year's wages. 1.44 1.54 2.01 2.25 2.70 3. 12 3.51 4.14 5.04 6.30
2 years' wages. 2.28 2.76 3. 12 3.60 4.26 4.89 5.52 6.36 7.80 9.60 (a) (a) (a)
3 years' wages. 3.06 3.69 4.14 4.86 5.70 6.54 7.38 8.40 10.35 12.60 (a) (a) (a) (a)
4 years' wages.

3.78 4.56 5.07 6.00 7.05 8.10 9.09 10.20 12.66 15.30 a) a la lla)

a Unlimited insurance of employers' liability not permitted for this class.

These tariffs per 1,000 lire ($193) of wages paid, as the most frequently used, were most modified in 1888. Tariff C+ was altogether abolished, it being considered undesirable to grant unlimited insurance of employers' liability. Tariff C, for combined collective insurance with limited employers' liability, became tariff E, and a new tariff for simple collective insurance, per 1,000 lire ($193) of wages paid, was prepared.

The determination of the compensation in multiples of the annual earnings was thought too rigid, and a more flexible system of multiples of daily wages was substituted, eight classes being recognized instead of the previous four classes. As in the preceding tariff of 1884, tariffs

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