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Cand E cover insurance for all the possible consequences of industrial accidents. If it was desired to exclude temporary disability the premium rates according to tariff C were reduced by one-third. As Tariff E included a charge for employers' liability insurance, it could be adjusted for the exclusion of temporary disability by deducting from the quotation of tariff E, which is to be used, one-third of the corresponding quotation from tariff C.

The premiums shown in the next table were for benefits, as follows:

(1) In case of death or total permanent disability, an amount equal to the specified number of times the daily earnings.

(2) In case of partial permanent disability, a proportionate part of the sum above mentioned, according to the reduction of earning power.

(3) In case of temporary disability, a daily benefit equal to onethousandth of that amount.

(4) Under the combined collective insurance policy, a guarantee of employers' liability up to 10,000 lire ($1,930), not exceeding ninetenths of the judgment for classes 1 to 7 and eight-tenths for classes 8 to 14.

ANNUAL PREMIUM RATES PER 1,000 LIRE ($193) OF WAGES PAID, ACCORDING TO THE

TARIFF OF 1888, BY FORM AND AMOUNT OF INSURANCE AND CLASS OF RISK. (source: Cassa Nazionale d'Assicurazione per gl'Infortuni degli Operai sul Lavoro. Regolamento dei premi

e delle indennità tariffe. Milano, 1898.)

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Simple collective insurance (tariff C): Amount of policy- Lire. Lire. Lire. Lire. Lire. Lire. Lire. Lire. Lire. Lire. Lire. Lire. Lire. Lire. 300 days' wages.

1.08 1.201 1.44 1.681 1.92 2. 16 2.40 2.99 3.60 4.80 7.20 10.80 14.40 18.00 400 days' wages.

1.47 1.60 1.91 2.24 2. 56 2.88 3. 231 4.01 4. 85 6.50 9. 69 15. 46 19. 21 23.97 500 days wages.

1.88 2.01 2. 38 2.80 3.20 3.62 4.06 5.03 6. 10 8. 2012. 19 18. 12 24. 02/29.95 600 days' wages. 2. 29 2. 43 2.87 3.36 3.84 4.34 4.88 6.04 7.35 9. 89 14. 69 21. 77 28. 84 35.91 700 days' wages.

2.60 2.81 3.32 3.88 4. 42 5.03 5. 66 7.00 8.51 11. 46 17.00 25. 1933. 37 41. 56 800 days' wages.

2.91 3. 19 3. 78 4. 41 5.00 5.71 6. 447.971 9.67 13.03 19.32 28. 61 37.91 47.21 900 days' wages.

3.24 3.58 4. 24 4.94 5. 66 6. 39 7. 23 8.92 10.83 14. 59 21. 64 32. 04 42. 44 52. 84 1,000 days' wages.. 3. 56 3.93 4.64 5. 44 6.24 7.02 7. 94 9.80 11. 90 16.03 23. 77 35. 22 46. 67/58. 10 Combined collective insur. ance (tariff E): Amount of policy300 days' wages.

1.39 1.81 2.03 2. 43 2.81 3.16 3.75 4.54 5.67 7.97 11.34 16.00 20.6625. 33 400 days' wages.

1.75 2. 14 2. 43 2.90 3.34 3.76 4. 411 5.37 6.66 9. 28 13. 32 19. 02 24. 69|30. 39 500 days' wages

2.12 2. 47) 2.83 3. 37) 3.87| 4.37) 5.07 6. 207.65 10.58 15. 30 22. 02 28. 72 35. 45 600 days' wages.

2. 49 2.81 3.24 3.83 4.40 4.97 5.72 7.02 8.64 11. 88/17. 28 25. 02 32.76 40.50 700 days' wages..

2.76 3.11 3. 62 4. 26. 4. 87) 5. 53 6.33 7.79 9.54 13.05 19.08 27.79 36. 51 45. 23 800 days' wages.

3.03 3. 41| 4.00 4. 69 5. 34 6.09 6. 94 8. 56 10. 44 14. 22 20. 88 30.56 40. 26 49. 96 900 days' wages.

3.32 3.73 4.37 5. 131 5. 89 6.64 7.56 9.32 11. 34 15. 39 22. 68 33. 34 44.00 54. 68 1,000 days' wages.. 3.60 4.00 4.72 5. 541 6.36 7.15 8. 10 10.00 12.15 16. 43 24.30 35.87 47. 44 59. 02

The new conditions imposed by the accident insurance law upon the National Accident Insurance Institution necessitated the immediate preparation of a new premium tariff to conform with the cost of insurance under the new law. As the law of 1898 did not cover all industrial establishments and did not altogether destroy the opportunities for voluntary insurance, the old tariffs remained in force and a new tariff of rates (tariff F) was added for insurance in compliance with the requirements of the law. Tariff F, shown in the table following, includes rates for insurance with employers' liability (combined collective insurance) and without such liability (simple collective insurance). Somewhat higher rates are also quoted in case the employer desires to grant for temporary disability a somewhat higher daily allowance than one-half of the daily wages as provided for by the law.

The tariff was approved by the executive council of the insurance institution on September 10, 1898, and by royal decree of October 30, 1898. It was preliminary in its character, not being based upon any very exact data. The old classification of industries and occupations was preserved with only a few changes, which were all, however, in the nature of transfers from a lower to the next higher risk group.

The tariffs are seen to be higher than the highest rates quoted in the highest tariff of 1888—that providing compensation of 1,000 times the daily wages for death. But, nevertheless, the premium securing all the forms of compensation guaranteed by the law of 1898 amounts to less than 1 per cent of the wage expense for the first seven risk groups. It is less than 2 per cent in Groups VIII, IX, and X, and only in the Groups XI to XIV does it rise to a very high level.

ANNUAL PREMIUM RATES PER 1,000 LIRE ($193) OF WAGES PAID, FOR INSURANCE ACCORDING TO THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE LAW OF MARCH 17, 1898, AND ALSO FOR AN INCREASE OF AMOUNT OF COMPENSATION FOR TEMPORARY DISABILITY (TARIFF F). (Source: Maurice Bellom, Les Lols d'Assurance Ouvrière à l'Etranger. II. Assurance contre les Accl

dents, 4 ème partie. For benefits covered by the premiums below, see p. 1753.]

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Simple collective insurance,

with temporary disability benefits amounting to- Lire. Lire. Lire. Lire. Lire. Lire. Lire. Lire. Lire. Lire. Lire. Lire. Lire. Lire.

50 per cent of daily wages. 4.19 4.60 5.43 6.37 7.31 8. 23 9. 29 11. 48 13.93 18. 76 27. 83 41.26 54. 68/68. 08 60 per cent of daily wages. 4.32 4.74 5.60 6. 56 7. 52 & 47 9.57 11. 81 14. 35 19. 33 28. 67 42. 48 56. 28 70.07 70 per cent of daily wages. 4. 43 4.87 5.75 6. 73 7.71 8.70 9.83 12. 13 14. 74 19. 85 29. 44 43. 62 57. 79 71. 95

80 per cent of daily wages. 4. 53 4. 99 5.90 6.91 7.91 & 92 10. 09 12. 46 15. 12 20. 37 30.21 44. 76 59. 31 73. 84 Combined collective insur

ance, with temporary disability benefits amounting to 50 per cent of daily wages. 4.31 4.82 5. 66 6.66 7.65 8. 61 9. 79'12. 07 14. 70 19.96 29. 40 43. 21 57. 01 70. 84 60 per cent of daily wages. 4. 434.94 5.80 6.82 7. 83 & 81 10.01 12. 34 15.03 20.39 30. 06 44. 21 58. 36 72. 52 70 per cent of daily wages. 4. 52 5.04 5.93 6.96 7.98 8. 99 10. 21 12. 60 15. 33 20.78 30. 66 45. 13 59. 61 74.10 80 per cent of daily wages. 4.61 5.14 6.05 7.10 8. 149. 18 10. 41 12. 85 15. 63 21. 17 31. 26 46. 75. 67

.

The rates quoted above were preliminary, and the administration of the National Accident Insurance Institution was ordered to prepare a new schedule of premium rates within two years. On November 1, 1900, this time was extended to October 20, 1902, and on September 6, 1902, again extended to December 31, 1903, in view of the preparation for the amendment of the law.(a) The new tar

a Bollettino di Notizie sul Credito e sulla Previdenza, 1902.

iffs were finally approved by the superior council of the institution on November 28, 1903, and by royal decree on December 3, 1903. Accompanying these new premiums is a new set of regulations concerning premiums and compensation.

According to these new regulations, the following six forms of insurance are written by the institution, which are essentially the same as in the past.

A. Combined collective insurance according to the law as amended and inclusive of employers' liability.

B. Simple collective insurance according to the law, but exclusive of employers' liability.

C. Combined collective insurance for a stipulated rate of compensation and including employers' liability (for industries not covered by the law).

D. Simple collective insurance for a stipulated rate of compensation, but exclusive of employers' liability (for industries not covered by the law).

E. Individual insurance according to the law and exclusive of employers' liability.

F. Individual insurance for a stipulated rate of compensation.

As a rule, to which specific exceptions may be made by the institution, the collective forms of insurance embrace all workmen employed by the establishment who come under the provisions of the laws of March 17, 1898, and June 29, 1903. But simple collective insurance may also be taken by a workmen's mutual benefit society. All collective insurance must comply with the general conditions of the policy as approved by the minister of agriculture, industry, and commerce. The conditions of the individual policy are prepared by the superior council of the institution, conforming as far as possible to those of the collective policy.

The premium rates were radically changed by the new tariff. A general increase was found necessary because of the gradual rise in the number of accidents compensated. Besides, the twenty years' experience of the institution permitted a more careful classification of industries and occupations according to their accident risks. Instead of 14 groups, the new tariff presents 32 groups.

In the table following are presented the two basic tariffs, A and D, for the corresponding classes of insurance. Tariff A is quoted per 1,000 lire ($193) of wages paid and includes the legal insurance as well as employers' liability. Tariff D is quoted per employee, and covers under the corresponding class of insurance the following amounts of compensation: In case of death or total permanent disability 1,000 lire ($193), a proportionate amount in case of partial permanent disability, and 1 lira (19.3 cents) per day in case of temporary disability. Tariff A is practically of the greatest importance.

The premium under tariff B (that is, exclusive of employers' liability) is obtained by reducing the corresponding premium under tariff A by 3 per cent.

Insurance under tariffs C and D is intended for industries not covered by the law. Premiums for this form must be quoted per person per annum. If the compensations stipulated are identical with those required by the law, then the premiums under tariffs A and B may be applied to the annual earnings of each employee. Tariff D is applicable when the stipulated compensation is as given above. If it is desired to include the insurance of employers' liability, 10 per cent must be added to these rates. If other amounts of compensation are stipulated, the institution may quote different rates. For individual insurance the same rates are applied.

The law defines the daily allowance for temporary disability as half of the daily earnings. If it is desired to increase this to 80 per cent of the earnings, the rate of the second higher risk groups is applicable for the first six groups, and the next higher group for the remaining groups. Eight-tenths is the normal maximum of the daily earnings insurable, though in exceptional cases nine-tenths may be stipulated; the daily allowance must not exceed 5 lire (96.5 cents), unless one-half of the wages exceeds this limit. The other maximums established are: For death, 10,000 lire ($1,930), and for total permanent disability, 12,000 lire ($2,316).

ANNUAL PREMIUM RATES APPROVED DECEMBER, 1903, BY CLASS OF RISK. (Source: Bollettino di Notizie sul Credito e sulla Previdenza, 1904. For beneits covered by the premiums

below see p. 1755.)

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VI.
VII
VIII
IX.
X..
XI.
XII.
XIII.
XIV
XV.
XVI.

Lire.

2.50 3. 00 4.00 5.00 6.00 7.00 8. 00 9.00 10.00 11.00 12.00 14.00 16.00 18.00 20.00 23.00

Lire.
1.00
1. 25
1.50
1.75
2.00
2. 30
2. 60
3.00
3.30
3.60
4.00
4.60
5. 30
6.00
6.60
7.50

. 34 .39 .44 .50 .58 .64 .69 .77 .89 1.02 1. 16 1.27 1. 45

Lire.
1.00
1.10
1. 20
1.30
1. 40
1.60
1.80
2.00
2. 20
2. 40
2. 60
3.00
3. 50
4.00
4. 50
5.00

. 27 .31 . 35 . 39 42 46 50 58 68

Lire.
XVII. 26.00
XVIII.. 30.00
XIX 35.00
XX

40.00
XXI. 45.00
XXII. 50.00
XXIII 55.00
XXIV. 65.00
XXV. 75.00
XXVI.. 90.00
XXVII. 105.00
XXVIII 125.00
XXIX.. 150.00
XXX. 200.00
XXXI. 250.00
XXXII. 300.00

Lire.
8. 40
9.50
10.60
11.80
13.00
14. 20
15. 40
16.60
18.00
20.00
25.00
31.00
38.00
48.00
60.00
75.00

$1.62 1.83 2.05 2. 28 2. 51 2. 74 2. 97 3. 20 3. 47 3. 86 4.83 5. 98 7. 33 9. 26 11.58 14. 48

Lire.

5.50 6.00 6. 70 7.50 8. 50 10.00 11.50 13.00 14. 50 16. 50 19.00 22.00 25.00 30.00 40.00 55.CO

$1.06 1.16 1. 29 1. 45 1.64 1. 93 2. 22 2.51 2. 80 3. 18 3. 67 4. 25 4.83 5. 79 7. 72 10.62

.77

.87 . 97

NOTE.–Tariff B may be derived from tariff A by a reduction of 3 per cent. Tariff C may be derived from tariff D by an increase of 10 per cent. In insurance forms E and F tarills B and D, respectively, may be used.

The list of industries and occupations with the risk class under which each has been placed is given on pages 1758 to 1769. As is indicated in the many notes, it is not absolute. Many conditions may be taken into consideration for the purpose of increasing the premium, by placing the industry or occupation in a higher risk group. In addition to these specific qualifications, a general rule permits the increase or decrease of the premium under the following circumstances: Increase of premium in case of use of mechanical or circular saws, use of motors or dangerous machinery, extensive use of means of transportation, work on scaffolds or stagings or in any other position in which falls are possible, work in place when collapse of materials is likely, use of explosives, corrosive substances, compressed gases, inflammable liquids, or other dangerous substances.

Decrease of premium in case of use of electric motors, especially for the purpose of driving machinery; use of special and efficient safety appliances, or other conditions evidently reducing the risk of the industry.

Whenever several distinct processes differing as to their degree of risk are combined in one establishment, the premium may be computed in the following way: The wage expense in each department is multiplied by the corresponding premium rate, and the sum of the products is divided by the total wage expense. Where such computation is impossible, a similar computation, based upon the number of employees in the various departments, may be made.

Furthermore, the executive committee of the national insurance institution is permitted to add new industries to those in the list, and even transfer industries from one risk group to another, upon the basis of experience acquired.

The institution is to write insurance asked for by any industry to which the law of obligatory insurance applies, but may decline the insurance in case of industries not subject to the law if the risk appears unfavorable, because of the character of the persons to be insured, their age, or their condition of health, if they object to a sufficient increase of the premium. In addition to the premium as per tariff

, a special charge of two lire (38.6 cents) is levied upon the policy, when the premium does not exceed 50 lire ($9.65); of 5 lire (96.5 cents) when the premium is more than 50 lire ($9.65) but not more than 200 lire ($38.60); and of 10 lire ($1.93) for all policies contracting for a premium of over 200 lire ($38.60). No special charge is levied upon individual policies.

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