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CLASSIFICATION OF ENTERPRISES, INDUSTRIES, AND PROFESSIONS, BY DEGREE

OF RISK; AND PREMIUM FOR EACH RISK CLASS—Continued.

Indus

try number.

Industry.

Risk class.

Annual premium rates in per cent of wages.

464 465 466 467

TRANSPORTATION-concluded.
Transportation in carts, carriages, etc., and telephones-Concluded.

Hand wagons on rails.
Forest roads.
Inclined planes...

Telephones..
Transportation on rivers and lakes:

Sailing vessels on lakes, rivers, and lagoons, including the entire crew.
Steam vessels as above.
Barges and fishing vessels on lakes, rivers, and lagoons.

Ralts, and floats on lakes, rivers, and lagoons..
Deep sea transportation. (a)

CLOTHING.

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468 469 470 471

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472 473 474 475 476 477 478 479 480

7 25 7 25 5 25 9 25

IV

I
VIII

I
VI

481 482 483 484 485 486

Clothing, furs, lingerie, corsets, etc.:

Dealers, with machinery.
Dealers, without machinery.
Lingerie, with machinery.
Lingerie, without machinery.
Corsets, with machinery.
Corsets, without machinery.
Buttons of cloth or thread, with machinery.
Buttons of cloth or thread, without machinery

Mattresses....
Hats:

Felt hats, with machinery.
Felt hats, without machinery
Straw hats, with machinery
Straw hats, without machinery.
Beretta, with machinery.

Beretta, without machinery.
Millinery, plumes, and artificial flowers:

Millinery.
Artificial flowers.

Plumes.
Washing, ironing, and cleaning:

Laundries, with machinery.
Laundries, without inachinery
Cleaning...
Ironing..

IV

II
IV
II
IV
I

friodia లు సరాలు గాలులా రా"

5 3 5 3 5 25

487 488 489

I
II
III

25 3

490 491 492 493

XII

IV
VII
IV

1.4 .5 .8 .5

MISCELLANEOUS. Retail trade: 494 Wine, selling at retail (exclusive of manufacture or transportation).

V

6 495 Drug stores...

VIII 496 Butcher shops...

XII

1.4 497 Retail selling, of classes not otherwise mentioned in the tariff.

II

.3 Guards, guides, and firemen: 498 Forest and field watchmen.

XI

1.2 499 Night watchmen..

XI

1. 2 500 City watchmen..

XIV

1.8 501 Watchmen, in customs service in cities.

IX

1.0 502 Watchmen, in customs service out of town..

XX

4.0 503 Guards of tax officers.

XV

2.0 504 Hunting guards..

XIV

1.8 505 Alpine guards and porters.

XIX

3.5 506 Regular firemen..

XIV

1.8 Personnel of service in general:(0) 507 Hotels, the night service.

XI

1. 2 508 Domestic servants, male.

VI

.7 509 Sea bathing establishments.

XII

1.4 510 Other bath establishments..

VI

.7 511 Hospitals, the entire personnel..

XI

1.2 512 Hospitals for the insane, the night personnel.

XVII

2.6 513 Theaters, the night personnel, including machinists.

XIV

1.8 514 Domestic servants, female, and porters..

VIII

.9 515 Carriers....

VIII

.9 516 Employees in general..

I

. 25 a For deep sea transportation a special tariff applies which has not yet been approved,

o The personnel of service included here must not be occupied at anything but hand work; if persons bandling machinery (elevators, all kinds of motors, steam heating plants, etc.) are included, the premium niust be increased correspondingly.

CLASSIFICATION OF ENTERPRISES, INDUSTRIES, AND PROFESSIONS, BY DEGREE

OF RISK; AND PREMIUM FOR EACH RISK CLASS-Concluded.

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517 518 519 520 521 522 523 524 525 526 527 528

MISCELLANEOUS-concluded.
Various professions not included in the other subgroups:

Lamplighters, including those working on ladders.
Bill posters, including those working on ladders.
Grave diggers..
Shooting galleries, the entire personnel.
Hunters.
Boiler scraping..
Engineers and firemen of stationary or movablesteam engines (a).
Barbers and hairdressers..
Water heating, steam heating, and hot-air heating
Chimney sweepers.
Sterilizing and disinfecting establishments.
Carpet beating...

APPENDIX.(0)
Tariff of premiums for combined collective insurance of seamen (not subject
to the special provisions of the law of January 31, 1904, concerning deep-sea
navigation:
Crew of harbor and short-distance tugs..
Pilots in harbors and for short distances on steamers and sailing vessels.
Crew on barges and ferryboats in harbors and for short distances..

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529 530 531

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a This rate should be used when the tariff does not determine the conditions of work of the motors or if it is impossible to tell in advance the kind of machine at which the insured will be employed.

From Bollettino di Notizie sul Credito e sulla Previdenza, 1905.

ADMINISTRATION.

The institution is autonomous, although subject to government control. The central office of the institution is located in the Milan savings bank, the largest of the ten banking institutions which have entered into the agreement. The executive committee of the Milan bank acts also as the executive committee of the national insurance institution. It must meet weekly, and oftener if necessary, and administers all the current business of the insurance institution, supervising the work of the executive force. It studies the necessary premium changes, prepares the annual statements and every five years the technical statements, conducts the agitation among the employers and workmen for insurance of workmen, studies methods of accident prevention, etc. All the other banks which have signed the agreements act as local agents of the insurance institution, and these local officers are under the control of the executive committee, while the work of this committee and the general policy of the national insurance institution is supervised by a superior council constituted as follows: The president, vice-president, and five members of the executive committee, and one representative from each of the other nine banks. This council must meet semiannually, and oftener if necessary. It approves the premium and indemnity rates, approves the annual budget and the statement, controls and revises the action of executive offices, may order audits, etc.

The law of December 23, 1886, provided a method for introducing changes in the conditions of the agreement. According to the law the superior council may recommend to the Government such changes in the conditions as experience shall prove desirable, and these recommendations may be approved by royal decrees (administrative acts).

STATISTICS OF OPERATIONS. A record of the operation of the National Accident Insurance Institution for the entire period is quoted in the following table, showing the total number of policies issued and the number of persons insured each year from the beginning of the organization of the institution. This table shows the growth of the transactions, though not altogether accurately. The number of policies issued and the number of persons insured is excessive for the years 1898 and 1904. During 1898 the first compensation act went into effect, and during 1904 the amendments of 1903, and in both years many policies were written twice, first for a short time under the old conditions, and then again to comply with the new requirements, which explains the very large number of policies issued during these two years.

NUMBER AND KIND OF POLICIES ISSUED AND NUMBER OF PERSONS INSURED

EACH YEAR BY THE NATIONAL ACCIDENT INSURANCE INSTITUTION, 1884 TO 1907. (Source: Bollettino di Notizie sul Credito e sulla Previdenza, 1902 to 1908. Atti della Cassa Nazionale

d'Assicurazione per gl' Infortuni degli Operai sul Lavoro, 1908 and 1909.)

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1884.
1885.
1886.
1887.
1888.
1889.
1890.
1891.
1892.
1893.
1894.
1895.
1896.
1897.
1898 (a).
1899.
1900.
1901
1902.
1903.
1904 (a).
1905.
1906.
1907.

42 304

532 1,058 1,192 1, 292 2,056 1,904 1,947 1, 922 2, 105 2, 472 2,540 2,777 2,710 2,274 2, 452 2, 669 3,029 3,082 3,379 3, 409 3, 460 3,811

306
2,382
6,687
4, 103
4,018
4, 191
4,977
5,516
6,047
11,762
11, 358
12, 282
16, 803
15, 318
20, 287
6,665
8, 169
9,917
10, 305
10, 718
(6)
(1)

51.0 85.1 88. O 66. 2 53.6 51. 1 44.0 54. 6 60.5 112.0 80.6 65.7 88.4 61. 3 60.2 33. 2 27.6 22.4 27.3 23. 2

2 53 228 259 359 538 749 905

997 1, 142 1, 247 1, 464 1,670 1,843 3,976 3,823 5, 493 8,880 14, 607

95 10,521 25, 487 34,370 48, 202 78, 304 93, 797 106, 503 111, 122 117,052 121,536 138, 879 148, 569 154, 774 272, 825 107, 325 207, 464 298, 383 392, 027

47.5 198.5 111.8 132. 7 134. 3 145. 6 125.2 117.7 111.5 102.5 97.5 94.9 89.0 84.0 68.6 28. 1 37.8 33. 6 26.8 24. 8 c24. 6 c 19.8 c 20.1 c 19.5

50
385

836
1,379
1, 626
1,912
2,918
2,910
3,044
3, 169
3, 493
4,123
4, 400
4,870
7,023
6, 298
8, 241
11,992
18,014
21, 472
42,884
30, 545
35, 487
36, 962

443 13, 207 32, 706 39, 531 53, 412 83,787 100, 830 113,923 119, 116 130, 736 134, 999 153, 633 167,912 172, 869 295, 822 116, 264 218, 085 310,969 406, 361 458, 539 976, 247 540, 850 645, 614 648, 681

141 187 190 250 337 201 296 443 378 463

17,927 c 39, 505 c 27, 136 c32,027 c33, 151

444, 739 c972, 868 c537, 411 € 642, 154 C644,870

(b)

a The large number of policies issued in this year is explained by the fact that policies were issued twice during the year, first before the new regulations went into effect, and then for the rest of the year.

Included in combined collective insurance. c Including simple collective insurance.

The actual increase in the number of wage-workers insured is shown in the second column of the following table, giving the average number of persons insured throughout the year. The difference between the number of persons insured during the year, as shown on page 1770, and the average number insured throughout the year indicates that a considerable number of persons were insured for only a short time. The highest number was reached in 1903, after which the formation of the Sulphur Mine Employees Obligatory Insurance Association caused a considerable reduction in the average number of persons insured throughout the year in the National Accident Insurance Institution.

This table shows the increase in the number of accidents. The column giving the annual number of accidents per 1,000 persons insured shows a very rapid increase in the frequency of accidents, which has caused a very strong outcry against the fraudulent practice and malingering, discussed more fully in a subsequent section.

The rapid increase of the accident rate from 28.48 per thousand in 1886 to 41.22 in 1887 and 61.41 in 1888 is explained by the inclusion (by the decree of July 27, 1887) of all accidents causing disability of over five days, while previously benefits were paid only for injuries causing disability of over 30 days' duration; and, as is well established by the accident statistics of all countries, a very large proportion of accidents caused disability of less than one month.

The accident rate seems to have remained fairly uniform for about eight years (1888 to 1895), since which it has grown rapidly with the exception of 1899. The increase was especially great in 1904 as compared with the preceding year, the rate rising from 107.41 to 143.08, or fully one-third. The increase since 1895 is seen to have taken place mainly in the accidents which did not result in death, for the death ratio has not increased, but rather declined. A comparison of the totals for the three periods, the one before the enactment of the law (1888 to 1898), the period of the first law of 1898 (1899 to 1903), and of the amended law (1904 to 1906), brings out more forcibly the rapid increase in the accident rate.

NUMBER AND PER CENT OF ACCIDENTS TO PERSONS INSURED IN THE NATIONAL ACCIDENT INSURANCE INSTITUTION AND ACCIDENT RATES, BY RESULT OF INJURY, 1884 TO 1906.

(Source: Atti della Cassa Nazionale d'Assicurazione per gl' Infortuni degli Operai sul Lavoro. Verbale della

Seduta del 22 dicembre 1908. On September 30, 1908, there remained unsettled 3 cases of 1900; 1 of 1901; 7 of 1902; 56 of 1903; 127 of 1904; 90 of 1905, and 738 of 1906. These numbers are not included in the figures reported for the respective years.]

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.81

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.81 .66 .82

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0.31 2. 90 7.47 10. 68
3. 72

2. 74 22.02 28. 48
1.27 2.81 37. 14

41. 22 1.07 1. 86 58. 48 61.41

.83 1.71 60. 29 62. 83 1.07 1. 62 55.54 58. 23 .81 1.97 54. 59 57.37 1.93

52. 36 55. 10
2.09 59. 06 61.96
2.39 60. 82 63.87

2. 43 60.34 63. 59
.67 2. 49 66. 84 70.00
1.10 2.72 75.84 79. 66
. 90 2. 42 74.76 78. 08
.88 2.28 61. 13 64. 29
.78 3. 19 73. 73 77. 70
1.21
3. 90

87.25 92.36
1.00 4.57 92. 75 98. 32
.94 5. 63 100. 84 107. 41
.95 5.50 136.63 143.08
.82 5.37 138.97 145. 16

7.00 152. 80 160. 62

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.82

.51

1888 to 1898...1,290.023 1899 to 1903...1,387, 914 1904 to 1906... 1,149, 951

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2.23 63. 13 66.22
4.28 87. 40 92. 65
5.99 143. 10 149.95

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.86

In addition to the increase of accidents there was also an increase in the average amount of compensation. In the following table the figures do not refer to the amount of compensation paid during any one year, but the amount paid in compensation for accidents occurring during the year. Such a method of presentation is much more accurate and valuable, though it causes considerable delay, as the figures for the last five or six years are always subject to correction because some claims remain unsettled for several years. The marked increase of the average amount of compensation per case from $9.92 in 1898 to $17.93 in 1899 shows the effects of the act of 1898, which regulated the amounts of compensation and increased it for both the fatal cases and those leading to permanent disability. Under the voluntary system the average amount paid for a fatal accident fluctuated between $140.17 and $243.74; under the law of 1898 it immediately increased to $548.02, and in 1905 was $570.69. In cases of permanent disability the average amount of compensation under the voluntary sytem was under 500 lire ($96.50), and immediately after the passing of the law of 1898 increased to nearly 1,000 lire ($193).

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