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TOTAL AND AVERAGE AMOUNT OF COMPENSATION PAID BY THE NATIONAL

ACCIDENT INSURANCE INSTITUTION FOR ACCIDENTS OCCURRING IN EACH

YEAR, BY RESULT OF INJURY, 1885 TO 1906. (Source: Atti della Cassa Nazionale d' Assicurazione per gl' Infortuni degli Operal sul Lavoro. Verbale

della Seduta del 22 dicembre 1908. Milano, 1909.)

Compensation paid out for accidents resulting in

Average compensation pald

in case of

Year.

Permanent dis-
Death.

Temporary Total
ability. disability for all

accidents.

Death.
Per
Per

Per
Amount. cent of Amount. cent of Amount. cent of
total.
total.

total.

Perma

Temnent

po- ANI disa

rary acci.

disa- dents. bility.

bility.

1885

$280 17.73 $1,173 74.20 $128 1886 15,556 68.68 4,715

20.82 2, 379 1887

9,937 41.18 8,003 33. 17 6,190 1888.

11, 233 30.78 9,684 26.54 15,577 1889.

11, 201 25.00 11,400 25. 45 22, 203 1890.

19,019 30.10 16, 204 | 25.64 27,971 1891.

17,606 27.01 18,814 28. 86 28, 769 1892

17,123 24.75 22, 260 32.17 29,808 1893.

19,983 26. 67 21,081 28.13 33, 865 1894

19, 391 22.69 28, 375 33. 20 37, 699 1895

27.542 29. 25 29, 458 31. 29 37, 159 1896. 21, 809 22. 19 33,015

33.60 43, 437 1897

38, 967 29.85 37,590 28.79 53,988 1898.

32, 317 25.95 36,593 29. 44 55, 549 1899 86,587 42.09 76,553

37.21 42,572 1900.

91, 261 33. 76 120, 201 44. 47 58, 831 1901

177,573 40.23 176,052 39. 89 87,763 1902.

211,176 32.74 297, 286 46.09 136,543 1903.

255, 952 28.67 455, 587 51.04 181.096 1904.

209.878 22. 66 487, 155 52. 60 229,073 1905

175, 201 21. 29 430, 690 52.34 216,981 1906 186, 026 18.77 553,959

55. 88 251,321 1888 to 1898.. 236, 192 26. 64 264, 474 29.83 386,025 1899 to 1903. 822, 126 33. 49 1,126, 100 45. 87 506, 806 1904 to 1906.. 571,105 20.84 1,471, 804 53. 71 697,375

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Small as the amounts of compensation are, especially when judged by American standards, they are nevertheless considerable when compared with the Italian wages.

The total amount of compensation as stated in the last table does not include the payments under contract for insurance of employers' liability. The following table gives the total amount of employers' liability payments and the proportion these payments constituted of the entire compensation payments. The fluctuations from year to year are naturally very great, but the very marked decrease in such payments since 1898, when the compulsory accident insurance law was passed, is very significant. As appears from the table on page 1770, the vast majority of policies issued are of the combined collective class—that is, they include the insurance of employers' liability—but according to the law such liability arises under conditions of criminal fault only, and is evidently not very frequently resorted to.

PROPORTION BETWEEN EMPLOYERS' LIABILITY PAYMENTS AND TOTAL AMOUNT

OF INDEMNITY PAID, 1884 TO 1906. (Source: Atti della Cassa Nazionale d' Assicurazione per gl' Infortuni degli Operai sul Lavoro. Verbale

della Seduta del 22 dicembre 1908 del Consiglio Superiore e Bilancio Consuntivo del 1907. Milano, 1909.)

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The general results of the operation of this institution in the separate industrial groups to which the insured belong are shown in the following three tables for a period of four years, 1899 to 1902. By thus combining the data for a number of years larger numbers are obtained and the averages and proportions are more trustworthy than for a single year. The data for individual insurance are not included in these tables.

One of the most interesting things brought out by the following table is the proportion between the premiums and the wage expense in the various industrial branches. The lowest relative cost is found in the textile industry, only 0.47 of 1 per cent of the wage expense being paid as premiums. The highest, nearly 3 per cent, is quite unexpectedly found in agriculture. This is easily explained, however, by the fact that only persons tending agricultural machinery are subject by the law to compulsory insurance. With this exception, mining shows the highest percentage, followed by construction. Among the industries showing a low relative cost are found clothing, paper and printing, brick, earthen and glass ware, and even transportation (which does not include many railroad employees, as these are protected mainly by the railroad mutual funds).

The proportion between indemnity paid and premiums collected shows very interesting fluctuations. It demonstrates that the actual cost of accidents often varies considerably from the expected cost. Thus in the brick and china manufacturing industry and in mining the actual cost was very much higher than the expected cost as represented by the premium charged, while in the paper and printing industry it was only about two-fifths of what was expected; in clothing and in textiles it was about seven-tenths.

COMPARISON OF WAGES, INDEMNITY, AND PREMIUMS UNDER THE COLLECTIVE ACCIDENT INSURANCE OF THE NATIONAL ACCIDENT INSURANCE INSTITUTION, BY INDUSTRIES, 1899 TO 1902.

(Source: Bollettino di Notizie sul Credito e sulla Previdenza, May, 1907.)

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1.97
1.23

Agriculture...
Brick, earthen and glass

ware
Building and construc-

tion.
Chemicals, etc.
Clothing
Electricity..
Food, oil, and tobacco..
Machinery.
Metal working
Mining..
Paper, printing, etc..
Textiles..
Transportation.
Woodworking.
Other industries.

Total.

28, 123, 573 140, 561, 472
7,139, 843 35, 688, 165

206, 600 1,032, 999
1,346, 248 6,731, 239
3,301, 663 16, 483, 644
7,021,850 | 35, 084, 587
5, 281, 854 26. 327,880
15, 252, 900 76, 223, 010
2, 552, 776 12, 750, 410
8,004, 213 40017, 484
17, 089,850 84, 198, 270
1,877, 770 9, 380, 782
2, 493, 625 5, 494, 412

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1.35
1.14
1.35
1.11
2. 35
.61
. 47
.97
1.43
.531

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103, 236, 290 507, 126, 669 52, 409,817 1,520, 795

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In the next table the results of the accidents occurring under the collective accident insurance of the National Accident Insurance Institution during the four-year period, 1899 to 1902, are shown by industries.

RESULTS OF ACCIDENTS OCCURRING UNDER THE COLLECTIVE ACCIDENT INSURANCE OF THE NATIONAL ACCIDENT INSURANCE INSTITUTION, BY INDUSTRIES, 1899 TO 1902.

(Source: Bollettino di Notizie sul Credito e sulla Previdenza, May, 1907.)

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The following table shows, by industries and results of accidents, the indemnity paid during the four-year period, 1899 to 1902, to persons insured under the collective accident insurance of the National Accident Insurance Institution:

TOTAL AND AVERAGE PER CASE OF INDEMNITY PAID UNDER THE COLLECTIVE ACCIDENT INSURANCE OF THE NATIONAL ACCIDENT INSURANCE INSTITUTION, BY INDUSTRIES AND RESULT OF INJURY, 1899 TO 1902.

(Source: Bollettino di Notizie sul Credito e sulla Previdenza, May, 1907.)

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Aver-
A ver-
A ver-

A ver-
Amount. age per Amount. age per Amount. age per Amount. age per
case.
case.
case.

case.

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In the details of the financial organization a radical change was affected by the decree of November 22, 1888. The original agreements provided that the premiums should be calculated without taking into consideration the cost of administration, and that these be distributed among the 10 banks pro rata, proportionately to their contributions to the guarantee fund. After 10 years of experience the banks might be permitted to substitute a definite annual payment instead of these pro rata payments, or a lump-sum payment of the capitalized value of such annual payments. Half of the surplus from the operations of the insurance institution was to be used in payment of the guarantee fund in pro rata sums; and as long as the entire guarantee fund was not repaid, the interest on the outstanding amounts was to be returned to the banks. After the entire guarantee fund is repaid from the surplus a part, but not over one-half, of the additional surplus determined by the superior council might be used for accumulating a reserve fund and part for the benefits of the insured.

This system was abolished by the decree of November 22, 1888. According to the system then established the guarantee fund was turned into the treasury of the insurance institution which was to make use of this fund and the interest from it as of all other revenue. On the other hand, the insurance institution was required to meet all expenses of administration. The prohibition to load these expenses upon the premium rate was abrogated, and the 10 banks which signed the agreement were freed from any further obligation to contribute to the cost of administration. The insurance institution was required to build up a reserve fund with the annual surpluses, and if after the first 10 years of operation this reserve should exceed 500,000 lire ($96,500) then the surpluses of the following years are to be used in repayment of the guarantee fund, without interest.

The financial condition of the insurance institution is shown in the following four tables.

The data were taken partly from the original reports of the National Accident Insurance Institution(a) and partly from the digests of these reports in the serial publication, Bollettino di Notizie sul Credito e sulla Previdenza. As this publication did not appear between 1896 and 1900, it was impossible to ascertain the data for 1895 to 1898.

As is seen from the statement of resources and liabilities, the resources had grown to $1,313,973 in 1905. The two principal items are the reserve for compensation of cases pending at the end of the year and the original guarantee fund of 1,500,000 lire ($289,500), which is practically intact. In addition the institution has carefully labored to create reserve funds for various purposes, and their growth has been fairly continuous.

RESOURCES AND LIABILITIES OF THE NATIONAL ACCIDENT INSURANCE

INSTITUTION FOR VARIOUS YEARS, 1889 TO 1907. (Source: Bollettino di Notizie sul Credito e sulla Previdenza. Data for 1890 and 1895 to 1898 not obtainable.)

Liabilities on December 31.

Resources Year. on Decem

ber 31.

Reserve
Guaran-

for com-
tee fund. Surplus. pensation

of cases pending.

Reserve
for fluc-
tuation
of value
of secu-
rities.

Extraor-
dinary
reserve.

Other
reserves

and funds.

Bills payable.

Surplus

from operations of

the year.

1889. 1891 1892. 1893. 1894 1899. 1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907.

$344,895 $289, 500
370, 198 289,500
387, 971 289, 500
407, 623 289,500
425, 084 289,500
566,171 289,500
609,589 289, 500
682, 439 289,500
808, 464 289, 500

970, 109 279, 850
1,137, 977 271, 586
1,313, 973 279, 850
1, 474,675 279, 850
1,859, 422 279,850

$9, 723 13,510 19,300 19, 300 19,300 29,837 49, 137 54,040 54, 040 54, 040

$17,894 24, 340 28, 005 25, 655 34, 289 105, 412 124, 400 195, 323 345, 864 468, 888 592, 991 742, 151

884, 483 1, 129, 426

$5,790 19, 300 28,950 36, 284 44,390 57, 900 54, 108 68,578 43,819

$13,510

13, 510 27, 406 27. 406 27, 406 27, 406 27, 406 27, 406 47,618 35, 931 40,644 23, 526 26,566

$1,930 3,860 3,860 3, 860 3,860 14,128 27,638 31, 498 19, 682 17,370 20, 021 21, 962 27,987 37,381

$17,557

3,387 3,684 4,051 4, 783 7,914 10, 497 16,094 28, 153 102, 343 128, 270 171, 860 210, 579 262,237

$2,501 2,791 1,162 1,567 1,556 34, 074 26,903

77, 200 38, 093 48, 250 38, 109

11,978 19, 413

85, 853

a Atti della Cassa Nazionale d' Assicurazione per gl' Infortuni degli Operai sul Lavoro, 1904–1909.

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