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UNEMPLOYMENT RELIEF BY THE HUMANITARIAN SOCIETY AND THE TRADE

ASSOCIATIONS OF MILAN, BY TRADE ASSOCIATIONS, 1906, 1907, AND 1908. (Source: Bollettino dell' Ufficio del Lavoro, April, 1907, May, 1908, and April, 1909. Some of the totals in

this table do not agree with the totals in the preceding table. The figures are given as shown in the original report.)

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Bronze workers.
Chiselers...
Compositors.
Blacksmiths.
Metal casters.
Printers.
Instrument makers.
Bookbinders(b).
Lithographers.
Ironworkers.
Goldsmiths..
Mechanics.
Polishers and platers.
Workers in leather...
Newspaper dealers and

distributers.
Dyers....
Metal turners..
Office employees.
Women in printing in-

dustry....
Ribbon makers.
Workers in trimmings...
Type founders..
Hat makers..
Glassworkers
Basket makers.
Typographical union
Bookbinders (6).
Metal cutters.
Brasiers..
Metal forgers.
Saddlers...
Pharmaceutical employees
Workers in knit goods..
Gilders.
Lace workers.
Upholsterers.
Horseshoers.

Total..

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a For 1906 and 1907 the mean membership is given; for 1908 the average for the year is used. o The two lines for bookbinders represent two different organizations.

c Including a duplication of 29 cases, due to the payment of benefits by three different organizations of printers to the ame persons. This total is not the correct sum of the iter the figures ar

given as shown in the original report.

d Including a duplication of 469 days due to benefits being paid by the typographical union, the compositors' union, and the printers' union to the same persons.

UNEMPLOYMENT RELIEF BY THE HUMANITARIAN SOCIETY AND THE TRADE ASSOCIATIONS OF MILAN, BY TRADE ASSOCIATIONS, 1906, 1907, AND 1908-Continued.

Cases of relief by

Days for which benefits

were paid by-

Amount of benefits paid

by-

Trade asso

Trade associaMem- ciations.

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Trade (a) Per

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Aver-
Aver-

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Num-
of Soci. Num-

Sociations. age

per
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per
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member

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ber. ship.

агу. .

121

69 576

66.51 89.6 39.7

121 1,987

69 1,116 532 6,716

10.9 14.5 4.6

16.4 16.2 11.7

1.2

182

77 1,450

35 800 1,015

514 546 150 120 103 208

5.9

79 418

31 147

5 5 7 21

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6.0 26.9

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79 965 399 5,970 31

248 146 2,036

84 5 71 7 90 21 204

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12. 2 965 258. 43 12.8 4,7171,011.98 8.0 248 67. 10 13.9 2,024

514.63 16.8 84 16.21 14.2 71 8. 59 12.9 90 17. 37 9.7 204 39. 37 7.2

14.07

1.0 .8

78

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Trade associations.

Humanitarian Soci. ety.

Total.

1907.

1,987 $565. 49 $191.70 8757.19 1,116

321.93 107.09 429. 62 5,869 1,532. 58 536.05 2,068. 63

88.51 346.94 434. 55 1,446. 53

24.00 91. 10 195.90 710. 53

8.11 24. 32 6.85 15. 44 8.68 26.05 19. 69 59.06 6. 27 20.94

6.94

6. 46 152. 68 38. 31

20.84 21.59 576. 59 129. 50

20. 46
56. 05
4. 25
6.08
20. 84
2. 80

41.01 179.87 12. 74 22. 43 73. 63 8. 40

Bronze workers..
Chiselers.
Compositors.
Blacksmiths.
Metal casters.
Printers..
Bookbinders(b).
Lithographers..
Ironworkers.
Goldsmiths.
Mechanics..
Polishers and platers.
Workers in leather.
Newspaper dealers and

distributers..
Dyers..
Metal turners..
Office employees.
Women in printing in-

dustry..
Ribbon makers.
Workers in trimmings,
Type founders..
Hat makers.
Glassworkers
Basket makers.
Typographical union.
Bookbinders()).
Metal cutters.
Brasiers.
Metal forgers..
Saddlers..
Chemical workers..
Workers in knit goods..
Gilders..
Upholsterers
Glass decorators.
Employees of cooperative

societies..
Horseshoers.
Comb makers.
Photo-engravers.
Loom turners.
Glove makers.
Glass polishers.
Workers in white glass.
Soap and perfume makers.
Helpers in printing shops.
Stereotypers...

Total.

36.93
11. 29

140.84
23. 16

1.06 5. 21 14. 48

2. 99 16. 21 34.74

1.22

3. 82

1.16 4. 40 289.21 1, 107.05

25.8 11,430 1,372. 71 1,103.00 2,475. 71

2. 32

6.37

2, 649

e2, 533 38, 631

14.6 136, 426 7,489. 49 3,408.75 10, 898. 24

a For 1906 and 1907 the mean membership is given; for 1908 the average for the year is used. • The two lines for bookbinders represent two different organizations. c Membership at end of year. d Based on membership at end of year. e Including a duplication of 25 cases due to benefits being paid by two societies to the same persons. 1 Including a duplication of 380 days due to benefits being paid by two societies to the same persons.

UNEMPLOYMENT RELIEF BY THE HUMANITARIAN SOCIETY AND THE TRADE ASSOCIATIONS OF MILAN, BY TRADE ASSOCIATIONS, 1906, 1907, AND 1908-Concluded.

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2,081

750

1908. Printing trades: Compositors.... 1,484 238 16.04 (6) 9,929 6.6

34.9

8,327 2,037.80 731. 55 2,769.35 Printers 1,051 200 19.03 )

4,735

4.5 21.5 4,312 806.66 388. 50 1,195. 16 Bookbinders (0) 515 31 6. 02 ()

963 1.9 31. 21 968 254.08 94.09 348. 17 Lithographers. 544 92 16.91 (0)

3,304 6.1 35.9 2,954 785. 32 285. 06 1,070.38 Women in the printing industry. 415 54 13. 01

1,321 3. 2 24.5

1,321 141. 14 127. 48 208.62 Stereoty pers...

72 Photo-engravers.

63 Type founders.. 175 24 13.71

3851 2. 2 16.0 385 92. 16 37.07 129. 23 Newspaper employees 122 Printing-shop helpers. 96 3 3.13 (6)

21.7 65 6. 27 6.27 12. 54 Printers' Institute... 320 62 19.38 (0) 833 2.6 13. 4 833 166.07 42. 78 208. 85 Bookbinders (C). 120 10 8. 33 (0) 50

5.0 50 7.34 5. 40 12.74 Metallurgy: Bronze workers.

237 49 20.68 (0) 376) 1.6 7.7 370 103. 74 35. 61 139. 35 Blacksmiths...

210
Metal founders.
550 81 14.73 (6)

3.8
23. 3

1,885 647. 24 211.98 859. 22 Ironworkers.

390 9 2.31 ) 95 .2 10.6 93 18. 33 9.17 27.50 Polishers and platers. 284 36 12. 68

391 1.4

10.9 391 75. 46 37.73 113. 19 Metal turners.. 502 33 6. 57 750 1.5 22.7

192.03 70.64 202.61 Brasiers

24 Metal forgers.

79 28 35. 44 ) 138 1.7 4.9 138 38.98 13. 32 52. 30 Stone turners.

267 55 20.60 (6) 353 1.3 6. 4 353 101.62 34. 06 135. 08 Metal beaters

85 Industries of precision: Chiselers..

87 18 20.69 (0) 222 2.6 12.3 222 33. 58 21. 43 55.01 Workers in fine mechanical work.

70

(0) Metal cutters.. Gold heaters...

50 Jewelers... 111 1 90 (6) 36

36.0 36 10. 42 3. 48 13. 90 Textiles: Weavers.

1,130 34 3.00 (6) 764 7 22.5 764 181. 18 73. 73 254. 91 Ribbon makers.

402 11 2. 74 (6) 92 . 2 8.4 92 16.08 8. 44 24. 52 Trimmings makers. 219

1.83 (6) 49 .2 12.3 49 9.55 4.73 14. 28 Dyers and stampers 424 49 11.56 (b) 747 1.8 15. 2 747 219.33 72. 18 291.51 Upholsterers...

70

(b) Glass: Glassworkers.. 250 9 3.60 (6) 245 1.0. 27.2

245 70.93 23.06 93.99 Glass fitters.. 148 1 .68 (0) 12

12.0 12 2. 31

1.16 3. 47 Glass decorators.

38

(6) Leather:

Workers in leather... 82 12 14.63 (6) 214 2. 6 17.8 214) 55. 58 20.84 79. 42 Glove makers..

105 12 11. 43 (6) 299 2.8 24 9 299 49. 22 24.39 73.61 Saddlers.. 103 2 1.94 (0) 66

33.0

06 19. 11. 6.37 25. 48 Chemical industry:

Chemical workers. 150 8 5.33 (6) 461 .3 5.8 46 8. 11 4.44 12. 55 Soap and perfumery workers..

70

(6) Various industries: llat makers..

131 15 11. 45 (6) 500 3.8 33.3 500 64.94 28. 81 93. 75 Basket makers..

90 Comb makers.. 261 3 11.54 (0) 133 5.1

44.3 133 25. 67 12. 83 38. 50 Gilders and varnishers 250 1 40 (0) 18

18.0 18

2. 41

1. 22 3. 63 Paper hangers.. 124 4 3. 23 (b) 30 .2 7.5 30

5. 80 2. 89 8. 69 Carriage makers.

50

(0) Office employees, etc.: Employees' union.

9 1.85 (0)

294 .6 32.7 294 62.53 28. 37 90.90 Commercial employees.

160

(0) Employees of cooperative stores.

199 8 4.02 (6) 172 .91 21.5 172 33. 19 16. 60 49.79 Total.......

112,648 1,206 9.54 (0) 29,713 2.3 22.5, 27,1366,347. 182, 485.68 8,832. 86 & For 1906 and 1907 the mean membership is given; for 1908 the average for the year is used. Not reported.

c The two lines for bookbinders represent different organizations.

487

PROPOSED GOVERNMENTAL UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE.

On June 16, 1910, a bill was introduced in the Chamber of Deputies by the minister of the interior for the organization of a system of state insurance against unemployment, on the Ghent plan. The bill proposed only the first steps in that direction, through an appropriation of 100,000 lire ($19,300) to be used in subsidizing workmen's unemployment insurance organizations.

In a comprehensive report accompanying this bill the general problem of unemployment was discussed and the various methods of relief suggested were compared.

The bill, which is very brief, proposes the appropriation of 100,000 lire ($19,300) for the fiscal year 1910–11, to be administered by the minister of agriculture, industry, and commerce for the purpose of granting subsidies to labor organizations which grant unemployment relief. Only the following few requirements are specified in the bill: (1) That the unemployment relief granted by these organizations be based entirely, or at least partly, upon the principle of saving, i. e., that the organizations should not be purely charitable and should receive a part or the whole of their revenues from membership contributions. (2) That a definite length of membership be required before relief is granted, so that workmen would not join these organizations only at the time when relief is needed. (3) That the subsidized persons be able-bodied workmen. This, according to the memorandum accompanying the bill, is intended to exclude the sick, the injured, the aged, the invalid, and women after childbirth, for all of which groups special provision either exists already or is contemplated, and should be made upon very different principles. (4) That only persons unemployed against their will be permitted to get relief; this is to exclude: Strikers, as the State can not grant strike benefits under the principle of state neutrality in industrial conflicts; persons voluntarily leaving their employment for any reasons whatsoever; shirkers, who for any reason do not care to make the necessary effort to obtain or retain employment, or persons discharged for some fault. (5) Finally, that the state subsidy be not granted to persons in seasonal trades during the period of such seasonal unemployment.

The details of administration of this act are not prescribed in the bill, but left to an administrative regulation to be issued by royal decree, after consultation with the superior council of labor and the council of providence.

The bill was passed by the Chamber of Deputies almost without discussion. In the Senate it was referred to the central committee, which brought in an unfavorable report on July 7, 1910.(4)

a Bollettino dell' Ullicio del Lavoro, Vol. XV, January, 1911.

RAILROAD PENSION AND MUTUAL AID INSTITUTIONS.

INTRODUCTION,

The most important example of compulsory old-age and invalidity insurance in Italy is furnished by the State Railroad Employees' Pension and Aid System (I servizio delle pensioni e dei sussedi), now regulated by the law of July 9, 1908, and the royal decree of April 22, 1909, codifying this law, together with various preceding decrecs. But though the legislation above mentioned is of recent origin, various provisions and institutions for pensions and mutual aid have existed in the Italian railroads for nearly 50 years. The present system is a direct outgrowth of these earlier beginnings. It follows these to a very great extent, and can not be understood without a historical account of their origin and development.

The growth of the Italian railroad system did not assume any considerable proportion until toward the end of the eighties, as appears from the following statement:

Miles. December 31, 1871.

3, 962 December 31, 1880..

5,414 December 31, 1890.

8,170 December 31, 1900.

9,870 June 30, 1907....

10, 711 Since 1885 a very large proportion of the Italian railroad mileage has been owned by the State, as is shown by the following data, referring to June 30, 1907: Railroads owned by-The State...

8, 254 Private companies.

2, 352 Jointly by the State and private companies.

105 Total......

10, 711 While the Italian railroad mileage equaled only 4.5 per cent of the American system on the same date, the personnel of the Italian service is larger than the above proportion of mileage would indicate. Unfortunately, for the entire Italian railroad system, no data later than for 1903 are available, but for the state-operated railroads, the number of employees on June 30, 1906, was 118,815, and on June 30, 1907, 134,611, so that the total number of employees must exceed 150,000. The total number of employees for 1891 to 1903, and the total and average remuneration, including the entire contribution by the railroads for the benefit of the employees, are shown in the table following:

For the year 1903 detailed information is given for the three main railroad systems and for other railroads existing in that year. This shows that three large railroad systems, which included in 1903 7,960 miles, or less than 75 per cent, claimed over 90 per cent of the

Miles.

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