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chair of authority, not unworthy of James VI., whose conceits procured him, from the flattery of his own age, what the contempt of all succeeding ones has perpetuated, the appellation of the British Solomon; but, like his, the pusillanimity of her character rendered them harmless, and happily she did not, like him, find a successor that was disposed to improve upon them.

In her expenses she was moderate, and even economical. She was on some very rare occasions

generous, sometimes liberal, but never profuse.

If we consider her in the relations of domestic life, her character is more amiable than as the ruler over a great nation. As a child, perhaps, her conduct can scarcely be held up as an example that can be generally instructive. But in this respect her situation was singular and extraordinary. As a wife and a mother she afforded a bright example, worthy of being followed by all. Though encumbered with the cares of royalty, and often depressed by bodily infirmity, she attended carefully to the minutest conjugal duty, and waited upon the sickbed of her husband with a tenderness and a respect, which is but seldom exhibited in the higher walks of life. Her children she loved with the fondest affection, and their health and education were the objects of her most assiduous attention; but she was bereaved of them all in infancy, and her mind was clouded with the dark idea, that this was the hand of retributive justice stretched out against her, for having deserted her father in the hour of his extremity, and possessing herself of a throne, of her title to which, it does not appear that at any period of her life, she was fully assured.

THE

HISTORY OF SCOTLAND.

BOOK III.

1714-1715.

Consequences of the death of the Queen Lords Justices— George I. Proclaimed Pre

cautions for preserving the public peace Parliament is assembled--Prorogued, on account of the Queen's FuneralIs further Prorogued, and finally is dissolved Vigorous proceedings of the Regency towards Sweden and Spain-Conduct of the late Ministry towards the Catalans-Prince Royal created Prince of Wales-Bolingo broke discarded-Jacobites in Scotland-A reward offered for the Chevalier King prepares for leaving his German dominions-Honourably received by the Dutch Arrives in England-Duke of MarlboroughKing takes the oath for securing the Church of Scotland-New Privy Council-Coronation. Congratulatory AddressesProceedings of the Tories- The Chevalier de St. George-Papists– New Parliament - Criminate the late Ministry-Tory mobs Scotish Jacobites- General Assembly Mr. CarstaresIntrigues with the French-Suspension of the Habeas CorpusBritish fleet puts to seaAssistance is demanded from the States General-Scotish loyalists Activity of the Chevalier--Earl of Marr-Erects the standard of Rebellion -Attempt on the castle of Edinburgh-Rebel Declaration-Fix their Headquarters at Perth-Clans attempt Inverlochy-Despatch from the Chevalier-Death of Louis XIV.-Earl of Argyle takes the command in Scotland-Calls forth the Volunteers -Encamps at Stirling-Rebels levy contributions-Sufferings and exertions of the Presbyterians.

The

unexpected death of the queen, put an end at once to all the delusive dreams, with which her ministry had been amusing themselves, during the four last years of her reign, and they were, by the pressure of circumstances, compelled to do every thing for the new succession, that its best friends, had they held the same situations, could have done. The bitter animosity, which subsisted between the lords Oxford and Bolingbroke, had, from the very beginning of their career, grievously obstructed their progress, and, upon the resignation of the former, the appointment of the duke of Shrewsbury to the treasurership, involved them in still deeper perplexity;" but the dukes of Argyle and Somerset, on the alarming report of the queen's illness, going into the council chamber,

* Secret History of the White Staff, pp. 62--18.

without waiting to be sent for, and prevailing to have all the privy counsellors in and about London, called in without distinction, rendered their whole previous preparations nugatory, and made any, even the least display of disloyalty, next to impossible. Measures were accordingly adopted, with the utmost promptitude, for securing the public tranquillity. Orders were issued to the lord mayor of London, to provide for the peace of the city, by summoning the lieutenancy, who ordered out the trainbands, the militia of the Tower hamlets, and of Westminster; and the lords of admiralty, by order of the council, issued directions for fitting out ships of war, with all possible despatch. An express was also sent, on the day before the queen's death, to the elector of Hanover, to assure him of their inviolable duty in the prospect of that event, and to request his presence in England without loss of time. Orders were at the same time forwarded to the earl of Strafford, to lay the state of matters in Britain, before the states of Holland, and to demand the performance of the stipulations in the treaty of guarantee, for the protestant succession, All the military officers in Great Britain were ordered to repair immediately to their respective posts. The demise of the queen was no

sooner known than Tennison, archbishop of Canterbury, the chancellor Harcourt, the lord treasurer Shrewsbury, Buckingham lord president of the council, and Dartmouth lord privy seal, five of the seven justices or regents, on whom the administration of the government, during the king's absence, devolved, by acts of parliament, of the fourth and fifth of queen Anne, assembled at St. James', together with the dukes of Somerset, Ormond, Northumberland, Argyle, Roxburgh, and Kent, the earls of Poulet, Northampton, Sunderland, Radnor, Rochester, Orford, Marr, Loudon, Ferrers, Oxford, and Portmore, the viscount Bolingbroke, the lord bishop of London, the lords Lexington, Berkely of Stratton, Guilford, Somers, Guernsey, Cowper, Mansel, Lansdown, and Bingley, William Bromley, Esq. Henry Boyle, Esq. Sir William Windham, chancellor of the exchequer, Sir John Trevor, Sir John Holland, Sir John Hill, Sir Richard Onslow, and John Smith, Esq. The earl of Strafford, and Sir Thomas Parker, lord chief justice of the court of the queen's

bench, two of the lords justices, appointed by the above act, were necessarily absent.

By the above mentioned act, the successor to the crown, was impowered to nominate as many persons, as he or she, should think fit, to be joined to the seven lords justices above named; and accordingly, the archbishop of Canterbury, the lord chancellor, and Monsieur Kreyenberg, as directed by the said act, produced before the council, three instruments, under the hand and seal of the elector of Hanover, by which it appeared, that the persons appointed by his highness, as lords justices, were the archbishop of York, the duke of Shrewsbury, then lord high treasurer, and so one of the seven justices before mentioned, the dukes of Somerset, Bolton, Devonshire, Kent, Argyle, Montrose, and Roxburgh, the earls of Pembroke, Anglesea, Carlisle, Nottingham, Abingdon, Scarborough, and Oxford, lords viscount Townshend, Halifax, and Cowper.

The following proclamation was immediately emitted by the council. “ Whereas, it hath pleased Almighty God, to call to his mercy, our late sovereign lady queen Anne, of blessed memory, by whose decease, the imperial crowns of Great Britain, France and Ireland, are solely and rightfully come to the high and mighty prince George elector of Brunswick Lunenburg. We, therefore, the lords spiritual and temporal of the realm, being here assisted with those of her late majesty's privy council, with numbers of other principal gentlemen of quality, with the lord mayor, aldermen, and citizens of London, do now hereby, with one full voice, and consent of tongue and heart, publish and proclaim, that the high and mighty prince George, elector of Brunswick Lunenburg, is now, by the death of our late sovereign, of happy memory, become our lawful and rightful liege lord, George, by the grace of God, king of Great Britain, France, and Ireland, defender of the faith, &c., to whom we do acknowledge all faith and constant obedience, with all hearty and humble affection, beseeching God, by whom kings and queens do reign, to bless the royal king George, with long and happy years, to reign over us,” &c. &c.*

Pursuant to this proclamation, his majesty was immediately

* Rae's History of the Rebellion, p. 59.

proclaimed by the heralds at arms with the usual solemnities, before the gate of the royal palace at St. James', at CharingCross, at Temple-Bar, at the end of Wood Street, in Cheapside, and at the Royal Exchange. Vast numbers of the nobility and principal gentry attended in their coaches during the whole solemnity, as did the lord mayor and aldermen within the city. The joy of the people appeared to be boundless. Many of them were deeply sensible how narrowly they had escaped being again brought under the yoke of the infatuated Stuarts, and even those who had been straining every nerve to advance that unfortunate family, either were, or feigned themselves to be, highly satisfied with his majesty's peaceable accession, and paraded as proudly, and swelled the joyful acclamations as deliberately, as the most devoted of their brethren. The park and tower guns were fired, all the flags displayed, and in the evening there were bonfires, illuminations, ringing of bells, with every demonstration of joy, without any thing tumultuous or disorderly.

A proclamation was also issued the same day, ordering prayers to be offered up for his majesty king George and the royal family, in place of queen Anne and the elector of Hanover; and the baron de Bothmar, his majesty's minister, despatched his secretary express to Hanover with tidings of the queen's death, and of his majesty's peaceable proclamation. The earl of Dorset was also, by the lords justices appointed to carry the same advice to his majesty, to report specially the state of the nation, and to wait upon him in his progress thither.

thither. An express was also sent to the lords justices of Ireland, with directions for proclaiming the king, and disarming the papists and Jacobites—and, finally, orders were sent to Scotland, directed to the earl of Ila, lord justice general, and to the lord provost of Edinburgh, for proclaiming his majesty there without loss of time, and with all due solemnity.*

These orders did not reach Edinburgh till Wednesday the fourth of August, about twelve o'clock at night, which, considering the state of the roads, and the manner of travelling at that period, was as early as could have been expected, and

* Rae's History of the Rebellion.

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