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and liberal spirit of the British government in a more imposing point of view than any description; and, especially when contrasted with the conduct of the Scotish government but a very

honour, interest, fundamental laws, and constitutions of this kingdom, and palpable surrender of the sovereignty, rights, and privileges of the nation, and how by this surrender of parliament and sovereignty, the people are denuded of all security as to any thing that is agreed to by this Union, and all that is dear to them is daily in danger to be encroached upon, altered, or subverted by the said British parliament, managed entirely by the English, who seldom have consulted our welfare, but rather have sought opportunities to injure us, and are now put in greater capacity, with more ease to act to our prejudice, and poor people to be made liable to taxes, levies, and unsupportable burdens, and many other imminent hazards and impositions, all which we here protest against.

“ As also that which is little considered, (though most lamentable,) how the fundamental constitutions should be altered, subverted, and overturned, not only renitente et reclamante populo, but also by such men who, if the righteous and standing laws of the nation were put in execution, are incapable of having any vote or suffrage in any judicatory, seeing the Covenants, National and Solemn League, which had the assent and concurrence of the three estates of parliament, and the sanction of the civil law, cordially and harmoniously assenting to complying with, and corroborating the acts and canons of ecclesiastic courts in favour of their covenants, whereby they became the foundation, limitation, and constitution of the government, and succession to the crown of this realm, and the qualifications of all magistrates, supreme and subordinate, and of all offices in church, state or army, and likewise the ground and condition of the people's obedience and subjection, as may be seen in the acts, laws, and practices of these times, witness the admission of Charles II. to the government, anno 1651. From all which it is evident how blind such men have been, who not only have enslaved the nation, but have rendered themselves infamous, by such an open and manifest violation of these solemn and sacred vows to the most High God, to the obligation of which they, as well as the rest of the land, are indispensably bound.

“But ah, when we mention these covenants, how notorious and palpable is the breach thereof, and indignity done to these solemn vows by the sinful union, by means whereof they come to be buried in perpetual oblivion, and all means for prosecuting their ends are so blocked up by this incorporating union with England, as that whatever is, or may be done, or acted contrary thereunto, or in prejudice thereof, by any of the enemies of the same, cannot be reminded in a due and spiritual exercise of church discipline, and execution of the laws of the land against such transgressors, and if we would open our eyes, and consider a little with reference to the National Covenant, we may clearly see, that this incorporating union is directly contrary to this particular oath and vow made to God by us in this kingdom, which we are obliged to fulfil and perform in a national state and capacity, as we are a par

short time before its extinction, ought to have made every wise, and every honest man ashamed of the vulgar and violent in

ticular nation by ourselves, distinct in the constitution of our government and laws from those of England and from all others. But now, when we cease to be a particular nation, we being no way distinct from that of England, (which is the very genuine and inevitable effect of the union,) how then can we keep our national vows to God, when we shall not be a particular nation, but only (by means of this incorporating union) made a part of another nation, whose government is managed, as is very well known, in many things directly contrary to what is contained in the National Covenant of this land, though we have charity to believe there shall multitudes be found in the land, who will grant and acknowledge themselves bound to the observation of that oath by an indispensible tye, which no power on earth can dissolve.

“ And what a palpable breach is this wicked union, of our Solemn League and Covenant, which was made and sworn with uplifted hands, to the most High God, for purging and reforming his house in these three nations, from error, heresy, superstition, and profaneness, and whatever is contrary to sound and pure doctrine, worship, discipline, and government in the same. And so it involves this nation in most fearful perjury before God, being contrary to the very first article of the Covenant, wherein we swear to contribute our utmost endeavours in our several places and callings, to reform England in doctrine, worship, discipline, and government; but by this union, both we and they are bound up for ever, from all endeavours and attempts of this nature, and have put ourselves out of a capacity to give any help or assistance that way, but on the contrary, they come to be hardened in their impious and superstitious courses. And how far contrary to the second article, where we solemnly abjure prelacy for ever, when by this union, prelacy comes to be established, and placed on the surest and strongest foundation imaginable, as is evident from the ratification of the articles in the English parliament, with the exemplification of the same in the Scots parliament, where the prelatic government in England is made a foundamental article of the union, so it is also impossible for us to fulfil the other part of that article, where we forswear schism with a legal toleration of errors, which a legal toleration of errors will infer and fix among us as the native result, and inevitable consequence of this union. And how far this is contrary to the word of God, Deut. xiii. 6—12. and to our covenants any considering person may discern. As to the third article, any may see how far it is impossible for us to preserve the rights, liberties, and privileges of parliament and kingdom, when divested both of our parliaments and liberties in a distinct national way, or yet according to the same article, where we are obliged to maintain and defend the king his majesty's person and government, in defence and preservation of the true religion, how can it be supposed that we answer our obligation part of the covenant, when a corrupt religion is established, as is by this union already done, when prelatic government is made a foundamental article thereof. And it is a clear breach of the fourth article of the Solemn League and Covenant, where we

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vectives with which, even in its earlier career, it was too gener ally assailed.

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oppose all malignants and hinderers of Reformation and religion, and yet by this union, the prelates, who themselves are the very malignants and enemies to all further Reformation in religion, are hereby settled and secured in all their places of power and dignity, without the least appearance, or ground of expectation of any alteration for ever.

How offensive and displeasing to God this accursed Union is, may be farther evident by its involving this land in a sinful conjunction and associațion with prelatic malignants, and many other enemies to God and godliness, and stated adversaries to our Reformation of religion, and sworn to principles in our Covenants, National and Solemn League. And particularly, as this Union embodies and unites us in this land in the strictest conjunction and association with England, a land so deeply already involved in the breach of covenant, and pestered with so many sectaries, errors, and abominable practices, and joins us in issue and interest, with those that are tolerators, maintainers, and defenders of these errors, which the word of God prohibits, 2 Chron. xix. 2. Isa. viii. 12, &c. and our sacred Covenants plainly and expressly abjures. And farther, how far and deeply it engages this land in a confederacy and association with God's enemies at home and abroad, in their erpeditions and councils, a course so often prohibited by God in his word, and visibly plagued in many remarkable instances of providence, as may be seen both in sacred and historical records, and the unlawfulness thereof, on just and Scriptural grounds, demonstrate by many famous divines even of our own church and nation, and set down as a cause of God's wrath against this church and kingdom. And how detestable must such an Union be, whose native tendency leads to wear off from the dissenting party in England, all sight, sense, consideration, and belief of the indispensibility of the Solemn League, and hardening enemies in their opposition to it, and those of all ranks in the habitual breach of it. Yea, also, how shamefully it leads to the obliteration and extinguishing all the acts of parliament and assemblies made in favour of this Covenant and Reformation, especially between 1698 and 1649, inclusive. And not only so, but to a trampling on all the blood of martyrs, during the late tyrannical reigns, and a plain burying of all the testimonies of the suffering and contending party in this land, in the firm, faithful, and constant adherence to the Covenanted work of Reformation, and their declarations, protestations, and wrestlings against all the indignities done unto, and usurpations made upon, the royal crown and prerogative of the Mediator, and all the privileges and intrinsic rights of his church. We say, not only burying these in perpetual oblivion, by this copestone of the land's sins and defections, but also opposing and condemning these as matters of the least concern, and trivial, as not being worthy of the concern and suffering for, whereby those who ventured their lives and their all, may be reported to have died as fools, and suffered justly.

“We cannot omit also to declare and testify against the constitution of the British parliament, not only upon the consideration of the foresaid

But Mr. Mackmillan and Mr. Macneil, it appears, did not think the above paper, bold and specific as the language

grounds and reasons, but also upon the account of the sinful mixture and unlawful admission of bishops and churchmen, to have a share in the legislative power, or in place of civil courts or affairs, and there to act or vote forensically in civil matters, a thing expressly forbidden and discharged by Christ, the only head and Lord of his own house, whose kingdom as Mediator, is not of this world, but purely spiritual, and so the officers in his house, must be spiritual ; so that the civil power of churchmen, is a thing inconsistent and incompatible with that sacred and spiritual function. Upon which consideration, how palpable a sin will it be, to subject to, or accept of any oath that may be imposed by the said British parliament, for the maintenance and support of such an Union, or for recognoscing, owning, and acknowledging the authority of the said parliament? And that because of our swearing, and promising subjection to the said parliament, we do thereby homologate the foresaid sinful constitution, and swear and promise subjection to the bishops of England, who are a considerable part of that parliament, and so we shall be bound and obliged to maintain and uphold them in their places, dignities and offices, which is contrary to the word of God, and our Covenants, while the very first article of the Solemn League, obliges us to endeavour the Reformation of religion in the kingdom of England, in doctrine, worship, discipline and government, according to the word of God, as well as in Scotland. And it is very well known, that the government of bishops is not according to the word of God, but contrary to it, i Pet. v. 3. Mat. xx. 25, 26. and, likewise contrary to the second article of the Solemn League, whereby we are obliged to the extirpation of prelacy, that is, church government, by archbishops, bishops, 8c. which we will be obliged by such an oath, to maintain and defend; besides, from the consideration of the person, that by the patrons and establishers of this Union, and by the second article of the Union itself, is nominated and designed to succeed, after the decease of the present queen Anne, in the government of these nations, viz. the prince of Hanover, who has been bred and brought up in the Lutheran religion, which not only different from, but in many things contrary unto that purity in doctrine, Reformation and religion, we in these nations, had attained unto, as is very well known. Now the admitting such a person to reign over us, is not only contrary to our Solemn League and Covenant, but to the very word of God itself, Deut. xvii. requiring and commanding one from among their brethren, and not a stranger, who is not a brother, to be set over them, whereby undoubtedly is understood, not only such who were of consanguinity with the people of the land, but even such as served and worshipped the God of Israel, and not any other, and that in the true and perfect way of worshipping and serving him, which he himself hath appointed, as they then did, to which this intended succession quite contrary. And besides this, he is to be solemnly engaged and sworn to the prelates of England, to maintain, protect, and defend them in all their

thereof was, sufficient for their exoneration, and accordingly next year, the case of Mr. Macneil having been, along with

dignities, and revenues, to the preventing and excluding all Reformation out of these nations for ever. And

upon the like and other weighty reasons and considerations--as popish education, conversation, &c.--we protest against, and disown the pretended prince of Wales, from having any just right to rule or govern these nations, or to be admitted to the government thereof, and when—as is reported—we are maliciously aspersed, by those who profess themselves of the Presbyterian persuasion, especially the Laodicean preachers, that we should be accessory to the advancement of him whom they call the pretended prince of Wales, to the throne of Britain. Therefore, to let all concerned be fully assured of the contrary, We protest and testify against all such so principled to rule in thir lands, because we look upon all such to be standing in a stated opposition to GOD and our Covenanted Reformation. Not that we contemn, deny, or reject civil government and governors—as our former declared principles to the world make evident-but are willing to maintain, own, defend, and sub ject to all such governors as shall be admitted according to our Covenants and laws of the nation, and act in defence of our Covenanted work of Reformation, and in defence of the nation's ancient liberties and privileges, according to the laudable laws and practique of this kingdom.

And further, we cannot but detest, abominate, and abhor, and likewise protest against the vast, unlimited toleration of error in sectaries, which, as necessary and native consequence of this Union, will inevitably follow thereupon, and which will certainly have a bad influence upon all the parts, pieces, and branches of the Reformation, both in doctrine, worship, discipline, and government, yea, even upon the most momentous and foundamental articles of the Christian faith, for hereby Anabaptists, Erastians, Socinians, Arminians, Quakers, Theists, Atheists, and libertines of all kinds, with many otherswhich abound and swarm in that land—will come crowding and thronging in among us, venting and vomiting up their damnable and hellish tenets and errors, to the destruction of souls, and great dishonour of God in many respects, and that without any check or controul by civil authority, as is evident from the present practice of England, as having gotten full and free liberty for all this, by means of this accursed Union. How then ought not every one to be afraid, when incorporating themselves with such a people, so exposed to the fearful and tremendous judgments of GOD, because of such gross im. pieties and immoralities, not that our land is free of such heinous wickedness as may draw down a judgment, but there these evils are to a degree, for what unparalleled universal national perjury is that land guilty of, both toward God and man, though there were no more, by the breach of the Solemn League and Covenant that they made with this nation, for the defence and Reformation of religion, but also what abominable lasciviousness, licentiousness, luxury, arrogancy, impiety, pride and insolence, together with the vilest of whoredoms, avowed breach of the Sabbath, and most dreadful blasphemies.

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