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IV Α Ν Η ΟΕ
SIR WALTER SCOTT, BART.
Illustrated Edition, with School Notes
Editor Of "The EDUCATIONAL News.'
AND AT BELFAST AND NEW YORK
SKETCH OF THE AUTHOR.
CIR WALTER SCOTT, the son of a lawyer, was born in Edinburgh on
August 15th, 1771. Educated at Bath, and at the High School of his native city, he passed through Edinburgh University without distinction. In his father's office, he subsequently devoted himself less to legal studies than to research in ballad literature and tales of chivalry. He was called to the Scottish bar in July, 1792, but never had any success as an advocate. In 1796, his translation of Burger's “Lenore ” was published ; in 1802, his collection entitled “The Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border” was begun; and in 1805, he became one of the most popular poets in Europe through the publication of the “Lay of the Last Minstrel.” This was followed, in 1808, by “Marmion ;” and two years later he published “The Lady of the Lake.” Scott anonymously published his novel called “Waverley” in 1814. This was at once a marvellous success, and was followed by many other romances of a similar kind, which brought their author a large fortune. Of these novels, it must suffice here to mention “Guy Mannering” (1815), “Heart of Mid-Lothian " (1818), “Ivanhoe” (1819), “Kenilworth ” (1821), “Quentin Durward” (1823), “The Talisman (1825), “ Fair Maid of Perth" (1828). Most of his literary earnings Scott spent upon his home at Abbotsford, on the Tweed; but his connection with the Ballantyne printing house in Edinburgh ultimately involved him in the loss of £150,000. From this ruin he strove to recover by renewed literary toil, and for one of his subsequent works, “Life of Napoleon," he received as much as £18,000. He was, however, seized with paralysis, and in 1831 he went abroad for his health ; but, becoming worse, he returned to Abbotsford to meet his death, which took place on the 21st of April, 1832.
Scott and Burns are two of Scotland's greatest sons. Burns was more distinctly the genius. He took nature as he found it around him, and glorified it. Scott searched among the brilliant records of the past, and his chief merit is not so much that he created, as that he revived for us the ways and customs of bygone generations.
From this School Edition of “Ivanhoe” the publishers have omitted sixteen pages of prefatory matter unsuited for school purposes.
The story, with all the author's notes, forms one of “ Marcus Ward's Illustrated Waverley Novels,” complete in 25 volumes (or with the Author's Poetical Works, 26 volumes), published at 2s. 6d. each, handsomely bound in cloth.
With din obstreperous, and ungrateful cries.-Pope's Odyssey
& covering the greater part of the beautiful hills and valleys which lie between Sheffield and the pleasant town of Doncaster. The remains of this extensive wood are still to be seen at the noble seats of Wentworth, of Wharncliffe Park, and around Rotherham. Here haunted of yore the fabulous Dragon of Wantley ; here were fought many of the most desperate battles during the civil wars of the Roses ; and here also flourished in ancient times those bands of gallant outlaws whose deeds have been rendered so popular in English song.
Such being our chief scene, the date of our story refers to a period towards the end of the reign of Richard I., when his return from his long captivity had become an event rather wished than hoped for by his despairing subjects, who were in the meantime subjected to every species of subordinate oppression. The nobles, whose power had become exorbitant during the reign of Stephen, and whom the prudence of Henry the Second had scarce reduced into some degree of subjection to the crown, had now resumed their ancient licence in its utmost extent; despising the feeble interference of the English Council of State, fortifying their castles, increasing the number of their dependants, reducing all around them to a state of vassalage, and striving, by every means in their power, to place themselves each at the head of such forces as might enable him to make a figure in the national convulsions which appeared to be impending.
The situation of the inferior gentry, or Franklins, as they were called, who, by the law and spirit of the English constitution, were entitled to hold themselves independent of feudal tyranny, became
now unusually precarious. If, as was most generally the case, they placed themselves under the protection of any of the petty kings in their vicinity, accepted of feudal offices in his household, or bound themselves, by mutual treaties of alliance and protection, to support him in his enterprises, they might indeed purchase temporary repose; but it must be with the sacrifice of that independence which was so dear to every English bosom, and at the certain hazard of being involved as a party in whatever rash expedition the ambition of their protector might lead him to undertake. On the other hand, such and so multiplied were the means of vexation and oppression possessed by the great Barons, that they never wanted the pretext, and seldom the will, to harass and pursue, even to the very edge of destruction, any of their less powerful neighbours, who attempted to separate themselves from their authority, and to trust for their protection, during the dangers of the times, to their own inoffensive conduct, and to the laws of the land.
A circumstance which greatly tended to enhance the tyranny of the nobility, and the sufferings of the inferior classes, arose from the consequences of the Conquest by Duke William of Normandy. Four generations had not sufficed to blend the hostile blood of the Normans and Anglo-Saxons, or to unite, by a common language and mutual interests, two hostile races, one of which still felt the elation of triumph, while the other groaned under all the consequences of defeat. The power had been completely placed in the hands of the Norman nobility, by the event of the battle of Hastings, and it had been used, as our histories assure us, with no moderate hand. The whole race of Saxon princes and nobles had been extirpated or disinherited, with few or no exceptions ; nor were the numbers great who possessed land in the country of their fathers, even as proprietors of the second, or of yet inferior classes. The royal policy had long been to weaken, by every means, legal or illegal, the strength of a part of the population which was justly considered as nourishing the most inveterate antipathy to their victor. All the monarchs of the Norman race had shown the most marked predilection for their Norman subjects; the laws of the chase, and many others, equally unknown to the milder and more free spirit of the Saxon constitution, had been fixed upon the necks of the subjugated inhabitants, to add weight, as it were, to the feudal chains with which they were loaded. At court, and in the castles of the great nobles, where the pomp and state of a court was emulated, Norman-French was the only language employed; in courts of law, the pleadings and judgments were delivered in the same tongue. In short, French was the language of honour, of chivalry, and even of justice, while the far more manly and expressive AngloSaxon was abandoned to the use of rustics and hinds, who knew no other. Still, however, the necessary intercourse between the lords of the soil, and those oppressed inferior beings by whom that soil was cultivated, occasioned the gradual formation of a dialect, compounded betwixt the French and the Anglo-Saxon, in which they could render themselves mutually intelligible to each other; and from this necessity arose by degrees the structure of our present English language, in which the speech of the victors and the vanquished have been so happily blended together; and which has since been so richly improved by importations from the classical languages, and from those spoken by the southern nations of Europe.
This state of things I have thought it necessary to premise for the information of the general reader, who might be apt to forget that, although no great historical events, such as war or insurrection, mark the existence of the Anglo-Saxons as a separate people subsequent to the reign of William the Second, yet the great national distinctions betwixt them and their conquerors, the recollection of what they had formerly been, and to what they were now reduced, continued, down to the reign of Edward the Third, to keep open the wounds which the Conquest had inflicted, and to maintain a line of separation betwixt the descendants of the victor Normans and the vanquished Saxons.
The sun was setting upon one of the rich grassy glades of that forest, which we have mentioned in the beginning of the chapter. Hundreds of broad-headed short-stemmed oaks, which had witnessed perhaps the stately march of the Roman soldiery, flung their gnarled arms over a thick carpet of the most delicious green sward; in some places they were intermingled with beeches, hollies, and copsewood of various descriptions, so closely as totally to intercept the level beams of the sinking sun ; in others they receded from each other, forming those long sweeping vistas, in the intricacy of which the eye delights to lose itself, while imagination considers them as the paths to yet wilder scenes of sylvan solitude. Here the red rays of the sun shot a broken and discoloured light, that partially hung upon the shattered boughs and mossy trunks of the trees, and there they illuminated in brilliant patches the portions of turf to which they made their way. A considerable open space, in the midst of this glade, seemed formerly to have been dedicated to the rites of Druidical superstition ; for on the summit of a hillock, so regular as to seem artificial, there still remained part of a circle of rough unhewn stones, of large dimensions. Seven stood upright; the rest had been dislodged from their places, probably by the zeal of some convert to Christianity, and lay, some prostrate near their former site, and