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SECTION IV.

Republican form.

1. The United States shall guarantee to every state in this union a republican form of government, and shall protect each of them against invasion ; and, on application of the legislature, or of the executive, ( when the legislature cannot be convened,) against domestic violence.

SECTION V.

Amendments, 1. The congress, whenever two-thirds of both houses shall how attained. deem it necessary, shall propose amendments to this constitu

tion; or, on the application of the legislatures of two-thirds of the several states, shall call a convention for proposing amend. ments, which, in either case, shall be valid to all intents and purposes, as part of this constitution, when ratified by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several states, or by conventions , in three-fourths thereof, as the one or the other mode of ratification may be proposed by the congress; provided, that no amendment which may be made prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight, shall in any manner affect the first and fourth clauses in the ninth section of the first article: and that no state without its consent, shall be deprived of its equal suffrage in the senate.

ARTICLE VI.

Prior debts of

1. All debts contracted, and engagements entered into, begovernment. fore the adoption of this constitution, shall be as valid against

the United States under this constitution, as under the confede

ration, Constitution

2. This constitution, and the laws of the United States which and treaties are shall be made in pursuance thereof, and all treaties made, or the supreme which shall be made, under the authority of the United States, law.

shall be the supreme law of the land; and the judges in every state shall be bound thereby; any thing in the constitution or

laws of any state to the contrary notwithstanding. Oath to the 3. The senators and representatives before mentioned, and constitution. the members of the several state legislatures, and all executive

and judicial officers, both of the United States and of the seve

ral states, shall be bound by oath or affirmation to support this No religious constitution; but no religious test shall ever be required as a

qualification to any office or public trust under the United States.

test.

ARTICLE VII.

Ratification.

1. The ratification of the convention of nine states shall be sufficient for the establishment of this constitution between the states so ratifying the same.

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AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION.

March 4th,

ARTICLE 1.* 1798. Rights of con- Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of science, free- religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging

the freedom of speech, or of the press, or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.

dom of the

press, &c.

ARTICLE II.

Of the right to bear arms.

A well regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed.

ARTICLE III.

Of quartering troops.

No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house, without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

ARTICLE IV.

Of searches, seizures and general warrants.

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers,

and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated; and no warrants shall issue but upon probable cause supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.

ARTICLE V.

&c.

Ofindictments,

No

person shall be held to answer for a capital or otherwise punishments, infamous crime, unless on presentment or indictment of a grand

jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service, in time of war or public danger; nor shall

any person be subject, for the same offence, to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use without just compensation.

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dent, and of the number of votes for each; which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit, sealed, to the seat of government of the United States, directed to the president of the senate. The president of the senate shall

, in presence of the senate and house of representatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted; the person having the greatest number of votes for president shall be the president, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if no person have such majority, then, from the persons having the highest numbers, not exceeding three, on the list of those voted for as president, the house of representatives shall choose imrnediately, by ballot, the president. But, in choosing the president, the votes shall be taken by states, the representation from each state having one vote; a quorum for this purpose

shall consist of a member or members from twothirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. And if the house of representatives shall not choose a president, whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then the vice-president shall act as president, as in the case of the death or other constitutional disability of the president.

2. The person having the greatest number of votes as vicepresident, shall be the vice-president, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if no person

have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the senate shall choose the vice-presideut; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of senators; and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice.

3. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of president, shall be eligible to that of vice-president of the United States.

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