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About the wine-press where sweet must is pour'd,
Beat off, returns as oft with humming sound;
Or surging waves against a solid rock,

that they are of the degrading kind, and unworthy of the subject they were intended to illustrate. In Milton, on the contrary, the simile is perfectly appropriate, and designedly introduced here in order to diminish and degrade the character of the Tempter, which in other parts of the poem it had been found convenient to invest with a portion of dignity. The low cunning and base arts of an insidious adversary may be with propriety elucidated by a comparison of an insect or a reptile. It be observed, that via in may Greek, and musea in Latin, are used to signify a pertinacious parasite. So Antiphanes in his Пgeyors of a Parasite,

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So have I scen a rock's heroic breast, Against proud Neptune; that his ruin threats,

When all his waves he hath to battle prest,

And with a thousand swelling billows beats

The stubborn stone, and foams, and chafes, and frets

To heave him from his root, unmoved stand;

And more in heaps the barking surges land,

The more in pieces beat fly weeping to the strand.

And we may trace all these later poets to Virgil, Æn. vii. 586.

Ille, velut pelagi rupes immota, resistit ;

Ut pelagi rupes, magno veniente fra-
gore,

Quæ sese, multis circum latrantibus
undis,
Mole tenet; scopuli nequicquam et
spumea circum

Though all to shivers dash'd, th' assault renew,
Vain batt'ry, and in froth or bubbles end;
So Satan, whom repulse upon repulse
Met ever, and to shameful silence brought,
Yet gives not o'er though desp'rate of success,
And his vain importunity pursues.
He brought our Saviour to the western side
Of that high mountain, whence he might behold
Another plain, long but in breadth not wide,
Wash'd by the southern sea, and on the north
To equal length back'd with a ridge of hills,
That screen'd the fruits of th' earth and seats of men 30
From cold Septentrion blasts, thence in the midst
Divided by a river, of whose banks

On each side an imperial city stood,
With tow'rs and temples proudly elevate
On sev'n small hills, with palaces adorn'd,

Saxa fremunt, laterique illisa refun. ditur alga.

· ηύτε πέτρη

Ηλίβατος, μεγάλη, πολιης αλος εγγυς Ητι μενει λιγέων ανεμων λαιψηρα και λευθα,

εούσα,

Κύματα σε τροφόεντα, τα τε προσερευ

γεται αυτήν.

Dunster.

27. Another plain, &c.] The learned reader need not be informed, that the country here meant is Italy, which indeed is long but not broad, and is washed by the Mediterranean on the south, and screened by the Alps on the north, and divided in the midst by the river Tiber.

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27. The ridge of hills here does not mean the Alps, but the

As we may Virgil himself to Apennines, which divide the Homer, Il. xv. 618. south-west part of Italy from the north-west; and in which the Tiber has its source. The

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plain, between these hills and

the Mediterranean, consists of the old Etruria, Latium, and Campania; the two latter being divided from the former by the course of the Tiber. Dunster.

35. On sev'n small hills,] Virgil, Georg. ii. 535.

Septemque una sibi muro circumdedit arces.

35. And so Horace describes Rome, Carm. sec. 7. and Propertius, El. iii. 10. Statius, 4 Sylv. i. 6. and Prudentius, Rom. Mart. supplicium, 414. Dunster.

Porches and theatres, baths, aqueducts, Statues and trophies, and triumphal arcs,

35.with palaces adorn'd, Porches and theatres, &c.] The palaces at Rome were a subject of immense expence and grandeur. Clodius, even in the times of the republic, dwelt in a house that cost near £100,000 of our money. Sallust mentions "domos et villas in urbium modum exædificatas." Bell. Catilin. 12. So Ovid, Fast. vi. 639. Urbis opus domus una fuit, &c. See also Seneca, De Benefic. vii. 10. and Epist. xc. The porticos also were an article of immense magnificence. They were elevated structures of great extent; much resorted to for shade in summer, and for dryness in winter. See Martial De Spectac. ep. ii. 9. and lib. ii. ep. xiv. Ovid, de Art. Amand. i. 67. They were introduced by Scipio Nasica, on the termination of the Punic war. Besides those which were separate buildings by themselves, others were prefixed to temples, theatres, and baths. See Propertius, lib. ii. el. xxxi. and Ovid, lib. iii. Trist. i. 59. As Roman luxury rose to its height, private persons had their porticos. See Juvenal, Sat. vii. 178. and Paterculus, lib. ii. c. 1. The theatres, in which we may include the amphitheatres, circi, and naumachia, were conspicuous objects among the magnificent buildings of Rome. See Pliny, lib. xxxvi. c. 15. and c. 2. Tacitus, Annal. xiv. c. 20. and vi. 42. Pliny, xxxiii. 3. The great extent of the Roman public baths may be judged of by the ruins now remaining of those of Caracalla and Dioclesian. See

Ammianus Marcellinus, lib. xvi. c. 10. and Rutilius, in his Itinerarium, 102. The baths even of private persons were very lofty buildings, and superbly ornamented. The expence of one seems to be estimated by Juvenal, Sat. vii. 178, at nearly £5000 of our money. See also Seneca, ep. lxxxvi. and Statius, 1 Sylv. v. 47. The aqueducts were some of the noblest works of the Romans. See the treatise of Frontinus, de Aquæductibus urbis Romæ; Pliny, lib. xxxvi. c. 15. and Rutilius, Itinerar. 97. The passion of the Romans for statues appears from the number of antique statues yet remaining at Rome, after the numerous desolations of that city. Greece, Asia, and Egypt, were all plundered to ornament it with statues. Among the most conspicuous of these, on a bird's eye view of the city, were the colossal images of some of their emperors standing on superb columns. These may be what the poet here intends. Rutilius, Itinerar. 91. notices the numberless trophies which decorated every part of the city of Rome. With these also, as well as with statues and the most curious sculpture, they adorned their triumphal arches in later times, particularly those of Titus and Constantine. See Claudian, In secund. Cons. Stilich. 65. As to their gardens and groves, these are well known to have been high articles of luxury among the Romans. See Tacit. Annal. xi. 1. Martial, lib. xii. ep. 50. Dunster.

Gardens and groves presented to his eyes,
Above the height of mountains interpos'd:
By what strange parallax or optic skill
Of vision multiplied through air, or glass
Of telescope, were curious to inquire:
And now the Tempter thus his silence broke.
The city which thou seest no other deem
Than great and glorious Rome, queen of the earth

40. By what strange parallax or optic skill &c.] The learned have been very idly busy in contriving the manner in which Satan shewed to our Saviour all the kingdoms of the world. Some suppose it was done by vision; others by Satan's creating phantasms or species of different kingdoms, and presenting them to our Saviour's sight, &c. &c. But what Milton here alludes to is a fanciful notion which I find imputed to our famous countryman Hugh Broughton. Cornelius a Lapide, in summing up the various opinions upon this subject, gives it in these words: Alii subtiliter imaginantur, quod Dæmon per multa specula sibi invicem objecta species regnorum ex uno speculo in aliud et aliud continuò reflexerit, idque fecerit usque ad oculos Christi. In locum Matthai. For want of a proper index I could not find the place in Broughton's works. But Wolfius, in his Curæ Philologicæ in SS. Evangelia, fathers this whim upon him: Alii cum Hugone Broughtono ad instrumenta artis optica se recipiunt. Vid. Wolf. in Matt. iv. 8. Thyer.

The learned Bochart has a Dissertation on this subject;

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and there is a passage in it (tom. i. p. 949.) which may perhaps have been in Milton's recollection, in which he notices the optic skill of men, and concludes that the devil, as prince of the air, may easily have surpassed them. But by the words were curious to inquire, Milton may be supposed to glance at the idly busy enquiries of the learned on such a subject. So Horace says, lib. iv. od. 4.

-quibus Mos unde deductus per omne Tempus Amazoniâ securi Dextras obarmet, quærere distuli; on which the Delphin commentator observes, Hæc ironiam sane continent in quosdam eo tempore de nugis ejusmodi acrius et perperam disputantes. Dunster. 45. great and glorious Rome, queen of the earth, So Rutilius, Itinerar. lib. i. 47. So far renown'd, &c.]

Exaudi, Regina tui pulcherrima mundi, &c.

And in the same manner the Latin poets generally address her. Of the spoils of nations with which Rome was enriched, see Lucan, Pharsal. iii. 155167. Of the capitol, her citadel

So far renown'd, and with the spoils enrich'd
Of nations; there the capitol thou seest
Above the rest lifting his stately head
On the Tarpeian rock, her citadel
Impregnable, and there mount Palatine,
Th' imperial palace, compass huge, and high
The structure, skill of noblest architects,
With gilded battlements, conspicuous far,
Turrets and terraces, and glitt'ring spires.
Many a fair edifice besides, more like
Houses of gods, (so well I have dispos'd
My aery microscope) thou may'st behold
Outside and inside both, pillars and roofs,
Carv'd work, the hand of fam'd artificers
In cedar, marble, ivory, or gold.

impregnable, see Virgil, Æn. viii. 652. and Silius Italicus, iii. 623. Tacitus also, Hist. iii. 78, terms it, munitissimam Capitolii arcem, et ne magnis quidem exercitibus expugnabilem. Perhaps in a passage of Claudian, De vi. Cons. Honor. 35-52, we may trace something like the groundwork of this description of Rome. Ecce Palatino crevit reverentia monti,

&c.

Dunster. 57. My aery microscope] He had called it telescope before, ver. 42. here microscope, being altogether uncertain what sort of glass it was, or how this vision was performed: but microscope seems to be the more proper word here, as here our Saviour is presented with a view of minuter objects.

58. Outside and inside both,] So Menippus, in Lucian's Icaro

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Menippus, could see clearly and
distinctly from the moon cities
and men upon the earth, and
what they were doing, both
without doors and within, where
they thought themselves most
secret. κατάκυψας γουν ες την γην,
ἑωρων σαφως τας πόλεις, τους ανθρω-
πους, τα γιγνόμενα, και
ὑπαιθρῳ μόνον, άλλα και όποσα οικοι
επραττον, οιόμενοι λανθανειν. Luciani
Op. vol. ii. p. 197. ed. Græv.
Calton.
59.

00 τα εν

-the hand of fam'd artificers] The handywork, as in Virg. Æn. i. 455.

Artificumque manus inter se operum-
que laborem
Miratur.

59. And in Par. Lost, ix. 438, where see the notes. E.

60. In cedar, marble, ivory, or gold.] The Romans were incredibly expensive in the columns and roofs, or ceilings of their

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