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النشر الإلكتروني

same name.

Adhesive plaster.

and two spoonsful of yeast. Set the whole in a Take of common, or litharge plaster, 5 parts, warm place, near the fire, for six or eight weeks, white resin, 1 part.

then place it in the open air until it becomes of the Melt them together, and spread the liquid com- consistence of a syrup; lastly, decant, filter, and pound thin, on strips of linen, by means of a spa- | bottle it up, adding a little sugar to each boulle. tula, or table-knife.

The above ingredients ought to yield, when pre This plaster is very adhesive, and is used for perly made, about two pints of the strained liquor keeping on other dressings, &c.

Godfrey's cordial.
Court plaster.

Dissolve an oz. of opium, 1 drachm of oil of Bruise a sufficient quantity of fish glue, and let | sassafras, in 2 ounces of spirit of wine. Now it soak for twenty-four hours in a little warm water; mix 4 lbs. of treacle, with 1 gallon of boiling expose it to beat over the fire, to dissipate the water, and when cold, mix both solutions. This greater part of the water, and supply its place by is generally used to soothe the pains of children, colourless brandy, which will mix the gelatine of || &r. the glue. Strain the whole through a piece of

Balsamn of honey. open linen; on cooling, it will form a trembling Take of balsam of Tolu, 2 oz. gum storax, ? jelly.

drachms, opium, 2 do. honey, 8 oz. Dissolve Now extend a piece of black silk on a wooden these in a quart of spirit of wine. frame, and fix it in that position by means of tacks, This balsam is exceedingly useful in allaying or pack thread. Then with a brush made of the irritation of cough. The dose is 1 or 2 teabadger's hair apply the glue, after it has been ex- | spoousful in a little tea, or warm water. posed to a gentle heat to render it liquid. When

Tincture of the balsam of Tolu. This stratum is dry, which will soon be the case, Take of balsarp of Tolu, 1 oz. alcohol, 1 pint. apply a second, and then a third, if necessary, to Digest until the balsam be dissolved, and then give the plaster a certain thickness, as suon as the strain the tincture through a paper. whole is ury, cover it with two or three strata of a This solution of the balsam of Tolu possesses strong tincture of balsam of Peru.

all the virtues of the balsam itself. It may be This is the real English court plaster: it is plia-| taken internally, with the several intentions for ble, and never breaks, characters which distinguish which that balsain is proper, to the quantity of a it from so many other preparations sold under the tea-spoonful or two, in any convenient vehicle.

Mixed with simple syrup, it fornis au agreeable Compound tincture of rhuburb.

balsamic syrup. Take of rhubarb, sliced, 2 oz. liquorice root,

Tincture of Peruvian bark. bruised, 5 oz. ginger, powdered, saffiron, each 2 Take of Peruvian bark, 4 oz. proof spirit, ! dr. distilled water, 1 pint, proof spirit of wine, 12 i pints. Digest for te' days, and strain. 02. by measure.

It may be given from a lea-spoonful to an oz Digest for 14 days, and strain. Dose, 1 an oz. or an ounce, according to the different purposes is as an aperient, or 1 oz. in violent diarrhea.

is intended to answer. Tincture of ginger.

Hucham's tincture of bark. Take of ginger, in coarse powder, 2 oz. proof Take of Peruvian bark, powdered, 2 oz. the spirit, 2 points.

peel of Seville oranges, dried, 1) do. Virginina Digest in a gentle heat, for 7 days, and strain. soake root, bruised), 3 drachms, saifron, 1 do.com

This tincture is cordial and stimulant, and is chineal, powdered, 2 scruples, proof spirit, 20 02. generally employed as a corrective to purgative Digest for 14 days, and strain. draughts.

Ås a corroborant and stomachic, it is given in Compounul tincture of senna.

doses of (wo or three drachins; but when employed Take of senna leaves, 2 oz. jalap root, 1 oz. for the cure of intermillent fevers, it must be taken coriander seeds, oz. proof spirit, 2 pints. lo a greater extent. Digest for seven days, and to the strained liquor

Tincture of guaiacum. add 4 ounces of sugar cancy.

Take of guaiacum, 4 ounces, rectified spirit of This tincture is an useful carminative and ca- wine, 2 pints. Digest for seven days, and filter. thartic, especially to those who have accustomed What is called gum guaiacum is, in fact, a resin, themselves to the use of spirituous liquors; it often and perfectly soluble in alcohol. This solution is relieves fatulent complaints and colics, where the l a powerful stimulating sudorific, and may be given common cordials have little effect; the dose is from i in doses of about is an ounce in rheumatic and 1 to 2 ounces. It is a very useful addition to the asthmatic cases. castor-vil, in order to take off its mawkish taste; Ammoninted tincture of guaiacuin. and, as coinciding with the virtues ci the oil, it is Take of resin of guaiacuni, in powder, 4 02 therefore much preferable to brandy, shrub, and ammoniated alcohol, in powder, 1 lbs. Digese such like liquor's, which otherwise are often found for seven days, and filter through a paper. necessary to make the oil sit on the storaach. This is a very elegant and efficacious tincture; Duffy's elixir.

the ammoniated spirit readily dissolving the resin, Take of senna, 9 lbs. rhubarb shavings; 2 lbs. and, at the same time, promoting its medical vir jalap rool, 1 lb). caraway seeds, 1 lb. aniseeds, 2 tues. In rheumatic cases, a tea, or even table. lis. sugar, 4 lbs. shavings of red sanders wood, spoonful, laken every morning and evening, in any

convenient vehicle, particularly in milk, has Digest these in 10 gallons of spirit of wine, for i proved of singular service. 14 days, and strain for use.

Compound tincture of benzoin. This elixir possesses almost the same qualities Take of benzoini, 3 oz. purified storax, 9 02as the Compound Tincture of Senna. The above balsam of Tolu, 1 oz. socotrine aloes, J an oz. Tee* quantities may be reduced to as small a scale as tified spirit of wine, 2 pints. Digest for seven quay be required.

days, and filter. The black drop.

This preparition may be considered as an eleTake half a pound of opium, sliced, three pints gant simplification of some very complicated comof good verjuice, one and a half ounces of nutmeg, positions, which were celebrated under different and half an oz. of saffron; boil them to a proper names; such as Baume de Commandeur, Wade's thickness, then add a quarter of a pound ot' sugar || Balsam, Friar's Balsam, Jesuit's Drops, ka

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These, in general, consisted of a confused farrago | into a proper mass with rose-waler, so as to form of discorrlant substacces. The dose is a tea-spoon- || lozenges. ful in some warın water four times a day, in con- These compositions are very agreeable pectorals, wumptions and spitting of blood. It is useful, also, and may be used at pleasure. They are calculated when applied on lint, to recent wounds, aod serves for softening acrimonious bumours, and allaying the purpose of a scab, but must not be soon remov. the tickling in the throat which provokes coughing. eu. Poured on sugar it removes spitting of blood

Syrup of ginger. immediately.

Take of ginger bruised, 4 oz. boiling distilled Tincture of catechu.

water, 3 pin's. Take of extract of catechu, 3 oz. cinnamon, Macerale four hours, and strain the liquor; then bruised, 2 oz. diluted alcohol, 2 pints. Digest for add double refined sugar, and make into a syrup, seven days, and strain through paper.

This syrup promotes the circulation through the The cinnamon is a very useful addition to the extreme vessels; it is to be given in torpid and catechu, not only as it warms the stomach, but phlegmatic habits, where the stomach is subject to likewise as it covers its roughness and astringency. be loaded with slime, and the bowels distended

This tincture is of service in all kinds of de- with flatulency. Hence it enters into the compound fusions, catarrhs, loosenesses, and other disorders tincture of cinnamon and the aromatic powder. where astringent medicines are indicated. Two Dyspeplic patients, from hard drinking, ani or three tea-spoonsful may be taken every now and those subject to flatulency and gout, have been then, in red wine, or any other proper vehicle. known to receive considerable benefit by the use Godbold's vegetable balsum.

of ginger tea, taking two or three cupsful for A pound of sugar-candy, dissolved by heat, in a breakfast, suiting it to their palate. quantity of white wine vinegar, and evaporated to

Syrup of poppies. the measure of 1 pint, during which operation as Take of the heads of white poppies, dried, 3. much garlic as possible is dissolved with it, an- lbs. double refined sugar, 6 lbs. distilled water, 8 swers all the purposes of Godbold's Vegetable gallons. Balsam, and is probably the same medicine. Slice and bruise the heads, then boil them in the Spirit of nutmeg.

water to three gallons, and press out the decoction. Take of bruised nutmegs, 2 oz. proof spirit, ! Reduce this, by boiling to about 4 pints, and strain gallon, water sufficient to prevent burning. 'Distil it while hot through a sieve, then through a thin off a gallon.

woollen cloth and set it aside for 12 hours, that the This is used to take off the bad flavour of medi- l grounds may subside. Boil the liquor poured off aine, and is a grateful cordial.

from the grounds to 3 pints, and dissolve the sugar Lavender water.

in it, that it may be made a syrup. The common mode of preparing this, is to put This syrup, impregnated with the narcotic mate 3 drachms of the essential oil of lavender, and a ter of the poppy-head, is given to children in doses drachm of the essence of ambergris, into 1 pint of of two or three drachms, and to adults of from spirit of wine.

an oz. to one ounce and upwards, for easing paili, Wuler of pure ammoniu.

procuring rest, and answering the other intentions Take of sal-ammoníac, 1 lb. quick lime, 2 lbs. of mild operations. Particular care is requisite water, 1 gallon. Add to the lime two pints of the in its preparation, that it may be always made, as water. Let them stand together an hour: then add nearly as possible, of the same strength. the sal-ammoniac and the other six pints of water

Syrup of violets. boiling, and immediately cover the vessel. Pour Take of fresn flowers of the violet, 1 lb. boiling out the liquor when cold, and distil off, with a slow | distilled water, 3 pints. fire, one pint. This spirit is 100 acrimonious for Macerate for 25 hours, and strain the liquor internal use, and has therefore been chiefly em- through a cloth, without pressing, and add double ployed for smelling to, in faintings, &c. though, refined sugar, to make the syrup. This is an when properly diluted, it may be given inwardly li agreeable laxative medicine for young children. with safety.

Syrup of squills.
Water of acetated ammonia.

Take of vinegar of squills, 2 lbs. double refined Take of ammonia, by weight, 2 oz. distilled sugar, in powder, 34 lbs. vinegar, 4 pints; or as much as is sufficient to sa- Dissolve the sugar with a gentle heat, so as to turate the ammonia.

This is an excellent aperient saline liquor. This syrup is used chiefly in Guses of a spoocful Taken warm in bed, it proves commonly a power- or two for promoting expectoration, which it does ful diaphoretic or sudorifie; and as it operates very powerfully. It is also given as an emetic to without heat, it is used in febrile and inflammatory children. disorders, where medicines of the warm kind, if

Orymel of squils. they fail of procuring sweat, aggravate the distem- Take of clarified honey', 3 lbs. vinegar of squills, per. Its action may likewise be determined to the

2 pints. kidneys, by walking about in cool air. The com- Boil them in a glass vessel, with a slow fire, to mon dose is half an ounce, either by itself, or the thickness of a syrup. along with other medicines adapted to the inten- Oxymel of squills is an useful aperient, deler. tion. Its strength is not a little precarious, depend- gent, and expectorant, and of great service in huing on that of the vinegar.

moral asthmas, coughs, and other disorders whimo Black pectoral lozenges.

thick pulegm abounds. It is given in doses of two Take of extract of liquorice, gum-arabic, each, or three drachms, along with some aromatic water, 4 oz. white sugar, 8 oz.

as that of cię amon, to prevent the great hiuse> Dissolve them in warm water, and strain: then which it would otherwise be apt to excite. evaporate the mixture over a gentle fire till it be large doses it proves emetic. of a proper consistence for being formed into lo

Vinegar of squlls. Zenges, which are to be cut out of any shape. Take of squills, recently driedl, 1 lb.; vinegar, 6 White pectoral lozenges.

pints; proof spirit, spirit. Take of fine sugar, 1 lb. gum arabic, 4 oz. Macerate tlie saulio with the vinegar, is a glass march, 1 oz. flowers of benzoin, i drachm. vessel, with a gentle heat, for twenty-fuar harus

Having beaten them all in a powder, make them then express the liquor, and set it aside mi wie

form a syrup



teces subside. To the decanted liquor add the a spoon, until the batter is melted when it via ne spirit.

fine and smooth. Vinegar of squills is a medicine of great anti

Panada. quity. It is a very powerful stimulant; and hence Put a blade of mace, a large piece of the crumb it is frequently used with great success as a diu- of bread, and a quart of water, in a clean sauce retic and expectorant. The dose of this medicine pan. Let it boil two minutes, then take out the is from a drachm to half an ounce: where crudities bread, and bruise it very fine in a basin. Mix with abound in the first passages, it may be given at it as much of the warm water as it will require, first in a larger dose, to evacuate them by vomit. pour away the rest, and sweeten it to the laste of ing. It is most conveniently exhibited along with the patient. If necessary, put in a piece of butter cinnamon, or other agreeable aromatic waters, of the size of a walnut, but add no wine. Grate ia which prevent the nausen it would otherwise, even a little nutmeg if requisite. in small doses, be apt to occasion,

Isingluss jelly, &c.

Put an ounce of isinglass, and half an ounce of Take of tar, 2 pints; water, 1 gallon. Mix, by. cloves, into a quart of water. Boil it down to a stirring them with a wooden rod for a quarter of pint, strain it upon a pound of loaf sugar, and when an hour, and, after the tar has subsided, strain the cold add a little wine, when it will be fit for use.liquor, and keep it in well corked phials.

A very nourishing beverage may be made by Tar-water should have the colour of white wine, merely boiling the i singlass with milk, and sweeiand an empyreumatic taste. It is, in fact, a solu- ening with lump-sugar. tion of empyreumatic oil, effected by means of

Beef tea. acetoris acid. It acts as a stimulant, raising the Take off the fat and skin from a pound of lean puise, and increasing the discharge by the skin beef, and cut it into pieces. Then put it into a and kidneys. It may be drank to the extent of a gallon of water, with the under crust of a penny pint or two in the course of a day.

loaf, and a small portion of salt. Let the whole Decoction of sursaparilla.

boil till reduced io ? yuarts, and strain, when i Take of sarsaparilla root, cut, 6 oz.; distilled will be fit for use. water, 8 pints.

Another method. - In some cases, when the paAfter macerating for two hours, with a heat about tient is very weak, the tea must be made thus:195 degrees, then take out the root and bruise it; Take a piece of lean beef, cut it across and across, add it again to the liquor, and macerate it for lwo and then pour on it scalding water. Covet it up hours longer; then boil down the liquor to 4 pints, close, and let it stand till cold. Then pour it ofi, and strain it. The dose is from 4 oz. to half a pint, and warm it as the patient requires, having se or more, daily.

soned it moderately. Compound decoction of sarsaparilla.

Transparent soup for convalescents. Take of sarsaparilla root, cut and bruised, 6 oz.; Cut the meat from a leg of veal into small pieces, the hark of sassafras root, the shavings of guaiacum and break the bone into several bits. Put the ment wood, liquorice root, each, 1 oz.; the bark of me- into a very large jug, and the bones at top, with a Zereon root, 3 drachms; distilled water, 10 pints. bunch of common sweet herbs, a quarter of au oz.

Digest with a gentle heat for 6 hours; then boil of mace, and half a pound of Jordan almonds, down the liquor to one half (or five pints), adding finely blanched and beaten. Pour on it four quarts the bark of ihe mezereon root towards the end of l of boiling water, and let it stand all night, covered boiling. Strain off the liquor. The dose is the close by the fireside. The next day put it into a same as the last, and for the same purposes. well-tinned saucepan, and let it boil slowly, till it

These decoctions are of very great use in purify- is reduced to two quarts. Be careful, at the time ing the blood, and resolving obstructions in scor- it is boiling, to skim it, and take off the fai as it bitie and scrofulous cases; also in cutaneous erup- rises. Strain into a punch-bow), and when settled tions, and many other diseases. Obstinate swellings, for two hours, pour it into a clean saucepan, clear that had resisted the effect of other remedies for from the sediments, if any. Add 3 oz. of rice, above twelve months, have been cured by drinking or 2 oz. of vermicelli, previously boiled in a little a quart of decoction of this kind, daily, for some

When once more boiled, it will be fit for weeks. Decoctions of sarsaparilla ought to be made falesh every day, for they very soon become

Scditz powders. quite fætid, and unfit for use, sometimes in less Take of Rochelle salt, 1 drachm, carbonate of than 24 hours, in warm weather.

soda, 25 grains, tartaric acid, w do. Decoction of the woods.

Dissolve the two first in a tumbler of water Take of guaiacum raspings, 3 oz.; raisins, then add the latter, and swallow without loss of stonedi, 2 oz.; sassafras root, sliced, liquorice root, time. bruised, each 1 oz.; waler, 10 lbs.

Boil the guaiacum and raisins with the water, over a gentle fire, to the consumption of one half, melding, towards the end, the sassafras and liquorice, and strain the decoction without expression.

Purification of water by charcoal This decoction is of use in some rheumatic and Nothing has been found so effectual for preserto rutaneous affections. It may be taken by itself, to ing water sweet at sea, during long voyages, 4 the quantity of a quarter of a pint, twice or thrice charring the insides of the casks well before they a day, or used as an assistant in a course of mer- are filled. Care ought at the same time to be taken rurial or antimonial alteratives; the patient in either || that the casks should never be filled with sea wa ouse keeping warm, in order to promnte the opera- ter, as sometimes bappens, in order so save the tion of the medicine.

trouble of shutiing the ballast, because this tends Water-gruel.

to hasten the corruption of the fresti water after l'rt a large spoonful of oatmeal into a pint of wards put into thein. W. en the water becomes water, stir it well together, and let it boil three or impure and offensive at sea, from ignorance of the four times, stirring it often. Then strain it through preservative eifect produced on it by charring the

sieve, put in some salt according to taste, and if casks previous to their being filled, it may be rende ressary add a piece of fresh butter. Stir with dered perfectly sweet by putting a little fresh char



coal in powder into each cask before it is tapped, should be fumigated now and then, and the seamet or by filtering it through fresh burnt and coarsely allowed to smoke tobacco freely. powdered charcoal.

Unless absolutely necessary, it will be improper No practice has answered better than that of to permit any of the crew to sleep from on board, charring their water casks on their inside. Three when stationed off an unhealthy shore; but when casks of water in one of his Majesty's lock yards, necessity obliges them to do so, for the purpose of three years'standing, were perfectly sweet when of wooding or watering, a tent or marquee should tapped. There is, therefore, little doubt but that || becerected, if a proper house cannot be procored, water may be preserved fresh and fit for drinking and this should be pitched on the dryest and highfor any length of time, in charred barrels. est spot that can be found, being so situated, as Cleanliness.

that the door shall open towards the sea. Under To preserve seamen in health, and prevent the cover of this, a sufficient number of hammocks are prevalence of scurvy, and other diseases, it will be to be suspended for the accommodation of the

men Further necessary to keep the ship perfectly clean, by night, as they should by no means be suffered and to have the different parts of it daily purified to sleep on the open ground. liv a free admission of air, when the weather will If the tent happens unfortunately to be in the sumit of it, and likewise by frequent fumigations. neighbourhood of a morass, or has unavoidably This precaution will more particularly be neces- been pitched on flat moist ground, it will be allsary for the purification of such places as are re- visable to keep up a constant fire in it by day as markably close and confiner.

well as by night; and as a further preventive against Prevention of dampess and cold. those malignant disorders which are apt to arise in The coliness and dampness of the atmosphere such situations, the men should be directed to are to be corrected by sufficient fires.

smoke freely of tobacco, and to take a wine-glassCleanliness on board of a ship is highly neces- ful of the coinpound tincture of Peruvian bark sary for the preservation of the health of seamen; every morning, on an empty stomach, and the but the custom of frequent swabbings or washings same quantity again at night. between the decks, as is tuo frequently practised,

Cautions when in tropical ciimates. is certainly injurious, and greatly favours the pro- In tropical climates, the healthiness of seamen duction of scurvy and other diseases by a constant will much depend upon avoiding undue exposure dampness being kept up.

to the sun, rain, night air, long lasting, intempeExercise and amusements.

rance, unwholesome shore duties, especially during The men should be made to air their hammocks the sickly season, and upon the atiention paid to and bedding every fine day; they should wash their the various regulations and preventive measures. bodies and apparel often, for which purpose an The bad effects of remaining too long in port at adequate supply of soap ought to be allowed; and any one time (independent of irregularities, of they should change their linen and other clothes harbour duties, partioularly after sunset, as well as frequently. In rainy weather, on being relieved | during his meridian power), cannot be too strongly from their duty on the deck by the succeeding adverted to by the commander of every ship; and watch, they should take off their wet clothes, in- therefore a measure of the highest importance in stead of keeping them on, and lying down in them, the navy is the employment of negroes and natives as they are too apt to do. Two seis of hammocks of the country, or at least men accustomed to the vught to be provided for them. In fine pleasant torrid zone, in wooding, watering, transporting Weatl'er, and after their usual duty is over, they stores, rigging, clearing, careening ships, &c.; and, should be induiged in any innocent amusement in fine, in all such occupations as might subject that will keep their minds, as well as bodies, in a the seamen to excessive heat or noxious exhalastate of pleasant activity, and perhaps none is more tions, which cannot fail to be bighly dangerous to proper than dancing. This makes a fiddle or a the hexlth of the unassimilated seaman. pipe and tabor, desirable acquisitions on board of The practice of heaving down vessels of wai in every ship bound on a long voyage.

the West Indies, in the ordinary routine of serEffects of climate, &c.

vice at least, cannot be toc: highly deprecated, as In warm climates the crews of ships are healthier well from the excessive fatigue and exertion it at sea when the air is dry and serene, and the heat demands, as because it is a process which requires moderated by gentle breezes, than when rainy or for its execution local security, or, in other words, dlamp weather prevails; and they usually enjoy a land that is locked, and therefore generally av , better health when the ship is moored at a con- unhealthy harbour. The instances of sickness siderable distance from the shore, and to wind- and mortality from the effects of clearing a foul wurd of any marshy ground or stagnant waters, hold in an unhealthy harbour, are loo numerous lo than when it is anchored to leeward of these, and be specified. lies close in with the land. Masters of vessels,

Intoxication. stationed at, or liading to, any parts between the A very productive source of disease in warm tropics, will therefore act prudently, when they climates among seamen, is an immoderate use of have arrived at their destined port, to anchor a spirituous and fermented liquors, as they are tvo considerable distance from the shore, and as far lo apt, whilst under a state of intoxication, io throw windward of all swamps, pools, and lakes, as can themselves on the bare ground, wliere, perhaps, conveniently be done, as the noxious vapours which they lie exposed for many hours to the influence of will be watied to the crew, when the ship is in a | the meridian sun, the heavy dews of the evening, station of this nature, will not fail to give rise to or the damp chilling air of the night. The comdiseases aniong them.

mander of a ship who pays attention to the localth Cautions to be observed when on shore. of his crew, will therefore take every possible peWhen unavoidably obliged to submit to such an caution to prevent lis men from being guilly 1 an inconvenience, some means ought to be adopted to excess of this nature; and likewise that they doc For this purpose a large sail should be hoisted ai prevent disagrecable consequences from ensuing. lie out in the open air, when overcome by fatigus

and hard labour. the foremast or most windward part of the ship, The different voyages of that celebrated naviga so as to prevent ib9 noxious vapours from coming tor, Captain Cook, as well as that of the unfortustraft; the cabin, steerage, and Letween the decks, ll nate La Perouse, incontestably prove that by due



care and a proper regin ?n, seamen may be pre- || without a spout, and with a hole in the lid, in the berved from the scurvy and other diseases which place of the knob; the kettle being filled with ser have formerly been inseparable from long sea water, the fresh vapour, which arises from the voyages; and that they can thus support the fatigues water as it boils, will issue through the hole in of the longest navigations in all climates, and un- the lid; into that hole fit the mouth of a tobacet der a burning sun.

pipe, letting the stem have a little inclination Noxious vapours.

downwards, then will the vapour of fresh water Smoking or fumigating ships with charcoal or take its course through the stem of the tube, and sulphur, is the most effectual means of killing all may be collected by fitting a proper vessel to its kinds of vermin, and is therefore always resorted end. to; but it is recommended that no sailor nor boy This would be an apt representation of Dr Irrbe allowed to go under the decks until the hatches, ing's contrivance, in which he has luted or adapter and all the other openings, have been for three a ún, iron, or tinned copper tube, of suitable do hours uncovered; in that time all noxious vapours mensions, to the lid of the common kettle used for will be effectually dissipated.

boiling the provisions on board a ship; the fresh Captain Cook's rules for preserving the health of vapour which arises from boiling sea-water in the

keitle, passes, as by common distillation, through 1. The crew to be at three watches. The men this tubs into a hogshead, which serves as a receive will by this means bave time to shift and dryer; and in order that the vapour may be readily themselves, and get pretty well refreshed by sleep condensed, the tube is kept cool by being constant. Defore called again to duty. When there is no ly wetted with a mop dipped in cold sea water. pressing occasion, seamen ought to be refreshed. The waste water running from the mop, may be with as much uninterrupted sleep, as a common carried off by means of ewo boardis nailed together, day labourer.

like a spout. Dr Irving particularly remarks, that 2. To have dry clothes to shift themselves after only three-fourths of the sea-water should be disgetting wet:--One of the officers to see that every tilled; the brine is then to be let off and the copper man, on going wet from his watch, be immediately replenished, as the water distilled from the remainshified with dry clothes, and the same on going to ing concentrated brine is found to have a disagreer bed.

ble taste; and as the farther continuation of the 3. To keep their persons, hammocks, bedding, distillation is apt to be injurious to the vessels. and clothes, clean and dry. This commander When the water begins to boil, likewise, the va made his men pass in review before him, one day! pour should be allowed to pass freely for a minutes in every week, and saw that they had changed their il ihis will effectually cleanse the tube, and upper linen, and were as peat and clean as circumstances i part of the boiler. would admit. He had also every day the ham- To render sea-water capable of waslung linen. mocks carried on the booms, or some other airy It is well known that sea-water cannot be em part of the ship, unlashed, aud the bedding tho- ployed for washing clothes.-It refuses to dissolve roughly shaken and aired. When the weather soap, and possesses all the properties of hard prevented the hammocks being carried on deck, they were constaully taken down, to make rooom This is a great inconvenience to seamen, whose for the fires, the sweeping, and other operations. allowance of fresh water is necessarily limited, When possible, fresh water was always allowed to and it prevents them from enjoying many of those the men to wash their clothes, as soap will not mix | comforts of cleanliness which contribute not a little with sea-water, and linen washed in brine never to health. The method of removing this defect is thoroughly dries.

exceedingly simple, and by no means expensive. 4. To keep the ship clean between decks.

It has lately been pointed out by Dr Mitchell, of 5. To have frequent tires between decks, and New York:-Drop into bea-water a solution of at the bottom of the well. -Captain Cook's method soda, or potash. It will become milky, in consewas to have iron pots with dry wood, which liequence of the decomposition of the earthy salts, burned between decks, in the well, and other parts and the precipitation of the earths. This addition of the ship; during which time, some of the crew renders it solt, and capable of washing. Its milkiwere employed in rubbing, with canvas or oakum, ness will have no injurious effect. every part that had the least damp. Where the heat from the stoves did not readily absorb the moisture, loggerheads, heated red hoi, and laid on

PRESERVATION FROM DROWNING AND SHIPWRECE. sheets of iron, speedily effected the purpose. 6. Proper attention to be paid to the ship's cop

When a mun falls overboard. pers, to keep them clean and free from verdigris. The instant an alarm is given that a man is

7. The fat that is boiled out of the salt beef or overboard; the ship's helm should be put down, pork, never to be given to the people.

and she should be hove in stays; a hen coop or 8. The men to be allowed plenty of fresh water, other object that can float should also be thrown at the ship's return to port; the water remaining on overboard as near the man as possible, with a rope board to he started, and fresh water from the shore tied to it, and carefully kept sight of, as it will to be taken in its room.

prove a beacon, towards which the boat may pull By means of the above regulations, (in addition as soon as lowered down. A primary objeci is, to rúles relative to temperance; and supplying the having a boat ready to lower down at a moment's crews as much as possible with fresh meat and notice, which should be hoisted up at the steru if vegetables), this celebrated navigator performed a most convenient; the lashings, tackle, &c. to be voyage of upwards of three years, in every climate always kept clear, and a rudder, tiller, and spare of we globe, with the loss of only one man.

spar, to be kept in her. When dark, she should 10 obtain fresh water from the sea. not be withoui a lanthorn and a compass. The method ot obtaining fresh water from the There should also be kept in her a rope with a sea by distillation, was iutroduced into the English ruuning bowline, ready to fix in or to throw to the navy in the year 1770, by Dr Irving, for which he person in danger. Coils of small rope, with runobtained a parliamentary reward of £5000.

ning bowlines, should also be kept in the chains In order to give a clear notion of Dr Irving's quarters, and abatt, ready to throw over, as it most method, let us suppose a teakettle to be made il generally occurs, that men pass close to the ship's


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