« السابقةمتابعة »
lace of common, or litharge plaster, 5 parts, while resin, 1 Psrl
Melt them together, ami spread the liquid compound thin, on strips of linen, by means of a spatula, or table-knife.
This plaster is very adhesive, and is used for keeping on other dressings, kc.
Bruise a sufficient quantity of fish glue, and let it soak for twenty-four hours in a little warm water; expose it to heat over the fire, to dissipate the greater part of the water, and supply its place by colourless brandy, which will m\\ the gelatine of the glue. Strain the whole through a piece of open linen; on cooling, it will form a trembling jellv.
Now extend a piece of black silk on a wooden fnutte, and fix it in that position by means of tacks, or pack thread. Then with a brush made of badger's hair apply the glue, after it has been exposed to a gentle heat to render it liquid. When this stratum is dry, which will soon be the case, apply a second^ and then a third, if necessary, to give the plaster a certain thickness, as soon as the whole is dry, cover it with two or three strata of a Strong tincture of balsam of Peru.
This is the real English court plaster: it is pliable, and never breaks, characters which distinguish it from so many other preparations suld under the same name.
Compound tincture of rhubarb.
Take of rhubarb, sliced, 2 ox. liquorice mot, braised, £ oz. ginger, powdered, saitron, each 2 dr. distilled water, I pint, proof spirit of wine, 12 oz. by measure.
Digest for 14 days, and strain. Dose, £ an oz. as an aperient, or 1 oz. in violent diarrhoea. 'I incture of ginger.
Take of ginger, in coarse powder, 9 oz. proof spirit, 2 pints.
Digest in a gentle heat, for" days, and strain.
This tincture is cordial and stimulant, and is generally employed as a corrective to purgative draughts.
Compound tincture of senna.
Take of senna leaves, 2 oz. jalap root, I oz. coriander seeds, ^ oz. proof spirit, £• pints.
Digest for seven days, and to the strained liquor add 4 ounces of sugar canity.
This tincture is an useful carminative tod cathartic, especially to those who have accustomed themselves to the use of spirHuous liquors; it often relieves flatulent corfjpl juts and colics, where the common cordials have little effect; the dose is from 1 to 3 ounces. It is a very useful addition to the castor-oil, in order to take off its mawkish taste; and, as coinciding with the virtues of the oil, it is therefore much preferable to brandy, shrub, and such Hke liquors, which otherwise are often found necessary to make the oil sit on the stomach. Daffy's tfctsr.
Take of senna, S lbs. rhubarb shavings, 2 lbs.
Jalap root, I lb. caraway seeds, I lb. aniseeds, 2 ba, sugar, 4 lbs. shavings of red sanders wood, \ lb.
Digest these in 10 gallons of spirit of wine, for 14 days, and strain for use.
This elixi-- possesses almost the same qualities as the Compound Tincture of Senna. The above quantities may be reduced sto as small a scale as may be required.
The black drop. Take half a pound of opium, sliced, three pints of good verjuice, one and a half ounces of nutmeg, ami half an oz. of saffron; boil them to a proper thickness, then add a quarter of a pound ot sugar .
and two spoonsful of yetst. Set the whole in a warm place, near the fire, for six or eight weeks, then place it in the open air until it becomes of the consistence of a syrup; lastly, decant, filler, and bottle it up, adding a little sugar to each bottle.
The above ingredients ought toyield. when properly made, about two pints of the strained liquor Godfrey's cordial. Dissolve \ an oz. of opium, 1 drachm of oil of sassafras, in 2 ounces of spirit of wine. No* mix •* lbs. of treacle, with 1 gallon of boiling water, and when cold, mix both solutions. This is generally used to soothe the pains of children,
Jialsam of honey. Take of balsam of Tolu, 2 oz. gum storax, 2 drachms, opium, 2 do. honev, 8 oz. Dissolve these in a quart of spirit of wine.
This balsam is exceedingly useful in allaying the irritation of cough. The dose is 1 or 2 teaspoonsful in a little tea, or warm water.
Tincture of the balsam of I oht. Take of balsam of Tolu, I oz. alcohol, 1 pint. Digest until the balsam be dissolved, and then strain the tincture through a paper.
This solution of the balsam of Tolu possesses all the virtues of the balsam itself. It may he taken internally, with the several intentions lor which that balsam is proper, to the quantity of s tea-spoonful or two, in any convenient vehicle.
Mixed with simple syrup, it forms an agreeable balsamic syrup.
Tincture of Peruvian hark. Take of Peruvian bark, 4 oz. proof spirit, S pints. Digest for te * days, and strain. I It may be given from a tea-spoonful to A an oz. or an ounce, according to the different puq>oses it is intended to answer.
Jiujcham's tincture of bark. Take of Peruvian bark, powdered, 2 oz. the peel of Seville oranges, dried, 1^ do. Virginian snake root, bruised, 3 drachms, saffron, 1 do. cochineal, powdered, 2 scruples, proof spirit, 2U oz. Digest for 14 days, and strain. .
As a corroborant and stomachic, it is given in doses nf two or three drachms; but when employed for the cure of intermittent fevers, it must be taken to a greater extent.
Tincture of guaiacum. Take of guaiacum, 4 ounces, rectified spirit of wine, 2 pints. Digest for seven days, and filter.
What is called gum guaiacum is, in fact, a resin, and perfectly soluble in alcohol. This solution is a powerful stimulating sudorific, and may be given in doses of about K uu ounce in rheumatic and asthmatic cases.
Ammoniated tincture of guaiacum. Take of resin of guaiacum, in powder, 4 oz. ammoniated alcolmt, in powder, 11 lbs. Digest for seven days, and filter through a paper.
This is a very elegant and efficacious tincture; the ammoniated spirit readily dissolving the resin, and, at the same time, promoting its medical virtues. In rheumatic cases, a tea, or even table* spoonful, taken every morning and evening, iu any convenient vehicle, particularly iu milk, ba* proved nt singular service.
Compound tincture of benzoin. Take of benzoin, 3 oz. purified storax, 2 oz. balsam of Tolu, I oz. socolrine aloes, \ an Oz. rectified spirit of wine, 2 pints. Digest for seven days, and fitter.
This prepar.tion may be considered as an elegant simplification of some very complicated compositions, which were celebrated under different names; such as liaume de Commandeur, Wade'i Balsam, Friar's Balsam, Jesuit's Urops, kc n»cse, in general, consisted of a confused farrago of discordant substances. The dose is a tea-spoonMi in some warm water four times a day, in consumptions and spitting of blood. It is useful, also, when applied on lint, to recent wounds, and serves the purpose of a scab, but must not be soon removed. Poured on sugar it removes spitting of blood immediately.
Tincture of catechu. Take of extract of catechu, 3 ox. cinnamon, bruised, 2 oz. diluted aleohol, 2 pints. Digest for •even dars, and strain through paper.
The cinnamon is a very useful addition to the catechu, not only as it warms the stomach, but likewise as it covers its roughness and astrlngency.
This tincture is of service in all kinds of defluxions, catarrhs, loosenesses, and other disorders where astringent medicines are indicated. Two or three tea-spoonsful may be taken every now and then, in red wine, or any other proper vehicle. GodboliFt vegetable balsam. A pound of sugar-candy, dissolved by heat, in a quantity of white wine vinegar, and evaporated to the measure of 1 pint, during which operation as much garlic as possible is dissolved with it, andl the purposes of Godbold's Vegetable , and is probably the same medicine. Spirit of nutmeg. Take of bruised nutmegs, 2 oz. proof spirit, 1 gallon, water sufficient to preveut burning. Distil otf a gallon.
This is used to take off the bad flavour of medicine, mod is a grateful cordial.
Lavender -water. The common mode of preparing this, is to put
3 drachms of the essential oil of lavender, and a drachm of the essence of ambergris, into 1 pint of spirit of wine.
Water of Jntre ammonia.
Take of sal-ammoniac, 1 lb. quick-lime, 2 lbs. water, 1 gallon. Add to the lime two pints of the water. Let them stand together an hour: then add the sal-ammoniac and the other six pints of water boiling, and immediately cover the vessel. Pour out the liquor when cold, and distil off, with a slow fire, one pint. This spirit is too acrimonious for internal use, and has therefore been chiefly employed for smelling to, in faintings, exc though, when properly diluted, it may be given inwardly with safety.
Water of acetated ammonia.
Take of ammonia, by weight, - ox. distilled vinegar, 4 pints; or as much as is sufficient to saturate the ammonia.
This is an excellent aperient saline liquor. Taken warm in bed, it proves commonly a powerful diaphoretic or sudorific; and as it operates without heat, it is used in febrile and inflammatory disorders, where medicines of the warm kind, if they fail of procuring sweat, aggravate the distem
Klls action may likewise be determined to the ney s, by walking about in cool air. The cornmoo dose is half an ounce, either by itself, or along with other medicines adapted to lion, lu strength is not a little iog on that of the vinegar.
Black pectoral lozenge*. Take of extract of liquorice, gum-arabic, each,
4 ox. white *ugxr, 8 ox.
Dissolve them in warm water, and strain: then evaporate the mixture over a gentle fire till it be . oi a proper consistence for being formed into lo- t zenges, which are to be cut out of any shape. Hldte pectoral lozenge*. Take of fine sugar, 1 lb. gum arabic, 4 ox. starch, I ox. flowers of beiixoin, f drachm.
i them all in a powder, make them
into a proper mass witn rote-water, so ai to I
These compositions are very agreeable pectorals, j and may be used at pleasure. 1 ney are calculated for softening acrimonious humours, and allaying the tickling in the throat which provokes coughing. Syrup ofpnger.
Take of ginger bruised, 4 ox. boiling distilled water, 3 pin's.
Macerate four hours, and strain the liquor; then add double refined sugar, and make into a syrup.
This syrup promotes the circulation through the extreme vessels; it is lo be given in torpid and phlegmatic habits, where the stomach is subject to be loaded with slime, and the bowels distended with flatulency. Hence it enters into the conqiound tincture of cinnamon and the aromatic powder.
Dyspeptic patients, from hard drinking, and those subject to flatulency and gout, hate been known to receive considerable benefit by the use of ginger tea, taking two or three cupsful for breakfast, suiting it to their palate.
Syrup of poppies.
Take of the heads of white poppies, dried, 3} lbs. double refined sugar, 6 lbs. distilled water, B gallons.
Slice and bruise the heads, then boil them in the water to three gallons, and press out the decoction. Reduce this, by boiling to about 4 pints, and strain it while hut through a sieve, then through a thin woollen cloth and set it aside for labours, that the grounds may subside. Boil the liquor poured otf from the grounds to 3 pints, and dissolve the sugar in it, that it may be made a syrup.
This syrup, impregnated with the narcotic matter of the poppy-head, is given to children in doses of two or three drachms, and to adults of from jt an ox. to one ounce and upwards, for easing pain, procuring rest, and ausweriug the other iiileinions of mild operations. Particular care is requisite in its preparation, tliat it may be always made, as nearly as possible, of the same strength.
Syrup of violets.
Take of frcsn flowers of the violet, I lb. boiling distilled water, 3 pints.
Macerate for 25 hours, and stnin the liquor through a cloth, without pressing, and add doubts refined sugar, to make the syrup. This is an agreeable laxative medicine for youiig children. Syrup of squill*.
Take of vinegar of squills, 2 lbs. double refined sugar, in powder, 3£ lbs.
Dissolve the sugar with a gentle heat, so as to form a syrup.
This syrup is used chiefly in d^sesof a spoonful or two for promoting expectoration, which it dues very powerfully. It is also given as an emetic lo children.
Boil them in a glass vessel, with a slow fire, to the thickness of a syrup.
Oxymel of squills Is an useful aperient, detergent, and expectorant, and of great service in humoral asthmas, coughs, and other disorders »h r* thick pulegra abounds. It is given in doses of two or three drachms,along with some aromatic water, as that of cit-vamon, to prevent the great ■ tusea which it would otherwise be apl to excite. !• large doses it proves emetic
Vtnegar of tquill*.
Take of squills, receuUy dried, 1 lb.; vinegar, 6 pints; proof spirit, \ pinl.
Macerate the squill' with the vinegar, in a glass vessel, with a gentle bent, for twenty-h>ur tknttsa> then express iht liquor, and set it aside until Xi't
To the decanted liquor add the
faeces subside, spirit.
Vinegar ot* squills is a medicine of great antiquity. It is a very powerful stimulant; and hence ii is frequently used with great success as a diuretic and expectorant. The dose of this medicine ts from a drachm to half an ounce: where crudities abound in the first passages, it may be given at first in a larger dose, to evacuate them hv vomiting. It is most conveniently exhibited along with cinnamon, or other agreeable aromatic waters, which prevent the nausea it would otherwise, even in small, doses, be apt to occasion. Tar-water.
Take of tar, 2 pints; water, 1 gallon. Mix, by stirring them with a wooden rod for a garter of an hour, and, after the tar has subsided, strain the liquor, and keep it in well corked phials.
Tar-water should have the colour of white wine, and an empyreiimatic taste. It is, in fact, a solution of empyreumatic oil, effected by means of acetous acid. It acts as a stimulant, raising the pulse, and increasing the discharge by the skin and kidneys. It may be drank to tin? extent of a pint or two in the course of a day.
Decoction of tartapariUa.
Take of sarsaparilla root, cut, 6 oz.; distilled water, 8 pints.
After macerating for two hours, with a heat about 1V5 degrees, then take out the root and bruise it; •add it again to the liquor, and macerate it for two hours longer; then boil down the liquor to 4 pints, and strain it. The dose is from 4 oz. to half a pint, or more, daily.
Compound decoction of sarmbarifla.
Take of sarsaparilla root, cut and bruised, 6 oz.; tl ehark of sassafras root, the shavings of guaiacum wood, liquorice root, each, 1 pz.; the bark of mecereon root, 3 drachms; distilled water, 10 pints.
Digest with a gentle heat for 6 hours; then b >il down the liquor to one half (or five pints), adding the bark of the mezereon root towards the end of boiling. Strain off the liquor. The dose is the same as the last, and for the same purposes.
These decoctions are of very great use in purifying the blood, and resolving obstructions in scorbutic and scrofulous cases; also in cutaneous eruptions, and many other diseases. Obstinate swellings, that had resisted the effect of other remedies tor above Iwejve months, have been cured by drinking o quart of decoction of this kind, daily* for some weeks. Decoctions of sarsaparilla ought to be made fnesh every day, for they very soon become quite fcetid, and unfit for use, sometimes in less than 34 hours, in warm weather.
Decoction of the wood*.
Take of guaiacum raspings, 3 oz.; raisins, stoned, 2 oz.; sassafras root, sliced, liquorice root, bruised, each I oz.; water, 10 lbs.
Boil the guaiacum and raisins with the water, over a gentle fire, to the consumption of one half, -adding, towards the end, the sassafras and liquorice, and strain the decoction without expression.
This decoction is of use in some rheumatic and cutaneous affections. It may be taken by itself, to the quantity of a quarter of a pint, twice or thrice * day, or used as an assistant in a course of mermirial or antimonial alteratives; the patient in either case keeping warm, in order to promote the opera■■t>n of ths medicine.
Cut a large spoonful of oatmeal into a pint of
water, stir it well together, ami let it boil three or
four times, stirring it often. Then strain ii through
sieve, put in some salt acco-ding to taste, and if
a< ressary add a piece of fresh butter. Stir with
a spoon, until the butter is melted when it Wium fine and smooth.
Pot a blade of mace, a large piece of the crumb of bread, and a quart of water, in a clean saucepan. Let it boil two minutes, then lake out the bread, and bruise it very fine in a basin. Mix with it as much of the warm water as it will require, pour away the rest, and sweeten it to liic taste o* the patient If necessary, put in a piece of butter of the size of a walnut, but add no wine. Grate ia a little nutmeg if requisite.
IringUu» jelly, £/c.
Put an ounce of isinglass, and half an ounce of cloves, into a quart ot water. Bail it down to s pint, strain it upon a pound of loaf sugar, and when cold add a !!ttle wine, when it will be fit for u*e-— A very nourishing beverage may be made by merely boiling the isinglass with milk, and sweetening with lump-sugar.
Take off the fat and skin from a pound of lean beef, and cut it into pieces. Then put it into* gallon of water, with the under crust of a penny loaf, and a small portion of suit. Let the whole boil till reduced to 2 quarts, and strain, when it will be fit for use.
Anothe* method.—In some cases, when the patient is very weak, the tea must be made thus:— Take a piece of le*m beef, cut it across and across, and then pour on it scalding water. Covet it up close, and let it stand till cold. Then pour it oft, and warm it as the patient requires, having seasoned it moderately.
Transparent soup for convalescent*.
Cut the meat from a leg of veal into small pieces! and break the bone into several bits. Put the meat into a very large jug, and the bones at top, with a bunch of common sweet herbs, a quarter of an ox. of mace, and half a pound of Jordan almonds, finely blanched and beaten. Pour on it four quart* of boiling water, and let it stand all night, covered close by the fireside. The next day put it intos well-tinned saucepan, and let it boil slowly, till it is reduced to two quarts. Be careful, at the time it is boiling, to skim it, and take off the fat as it rises. Strain into a punch-bowl, and when settled for two hours, pour it into a clean saucepan, clear from the sediments, if any. Add 3 oz. of rice, or 2 oz. of vermicelli, previously boiled in a little water. When once more boiled, it will be fit (or use.
Take of Rocbelle salt, 1 drachm, carbonate ot soda, 85 grains, tartaric acid, £0 do.
Dissolve the two first in a tumbler of water then add the latter, and swallow without toss ot time.
Purification of water by charcoal Nothing has been found so effectual for | ing water sweet at sea, during long voyages, at charring the in sides of the casks well before tbey are filled. Care ought at the same lime to be takes that the casks Bhould never be tilled with sea water, us sometimes happens, in order to stive the trouble of shifting the ballast, because this trod* to hasten the corruption of the fresh water after wards put into them. VV.'en the water becomes impure arid offensive at sea, from ignorance of the preservative effect produced on it by chanite the casks previous to their being tilled, it may be rendered perfectly tweet by putting a little fresh char'
coal in powder *mto each cask before it is tapped, or by filtering it through fresh burnt and coarsely powdered charcoal.
No practice lias answered better than that of ■starring; their water casks on their inside. Three easks ot water in one of his Majesty's dock yards, af three years' standing, were perfectly sweet when tapped. There is, therefore, little doubt but that water may be preserved fresh and fit for drinking for any length of time, in charred barrels. *
To preserve seamen in health, and prevent the prevalence of scurvy, and other diseases, it will he further necessary to keep the shin perfectly clean, and to have the different parts ot it daily purified by a free admission of air, when the weather will admit of it, and likewise by frequent fumigations. This precaution will more particularly bf necessary for the purification of such places as are remarkably close and confiner!.
Prevention of dampness and cold
The coldness and dampness of the atmosphere we to be corrected by sufficient fires.
Cleanliness on board of a shi|> is highly necessary for the preservation of the health of seamen; ! ui. the custom of frequent swabbiugs or washings between the decks, as is too frequently practised, is certainly injurious, and greatly favours the production of scurvy and other diseases by a constant dampness being kept up.
Exercise and amusement*.
The men should he made to air their hammocks and bedding every fine day; they should wash their bodies and apparel often, for which purpose an adequate supply of soap ought to be allowed; and they should change their linen anil other clothes frequently. In rainy weather, on being relieved from their duty on the deck by the succeeding watch, they should take oft' their wet clothes, instead of keeping them on, and lying down in them, as ihey are too apt to do. Two sets of hammocks ought to be provided for them. In fine pleasant weather, and after their usual duty is over, they thould he indulged in any innocent amusement that will keep their minds, as well as bodies, in a stale 01' pleasant activity, and perhaps none is more pmper than dancing. This makes a fiddle or a pipe and tabor, desirable acquisitions on board of eveiy ship bound on a long voyage. Effects of climate^ &c.
In warm climates the crews of ships arc healthier at sea when the air is dry and serene, and the heat moderated by gentle breezes, than when rainy or damp weather prevails; ami they usually enjoy .better health when the ship is muored at a considerable distance from the shore, and to windward of auy marshy ground or stagnant waters, than when it is anchored to leeward of these, and lies close in with the land. Masters of vessels, stationed at, or trading to, any parts between the tropics, will therefore act prudently, when they have arrived at their destined port, to anchor a considerable distance from the shore, and as far to windward of all swamps, pools, and lakes, as can conveniently be done, as the noxious vapours which vill be wafted to the crew, when the ship is in a station of this nature, will not fail to give rise to diseases among them.
Caution* to be observed -when on shore.
When unavoidably obliged to submit to such an inconvenience, some meaus ought to be adopted to
Crevent disagreeable consequences from ensuing. '■n- this purpose a large sail should be hoisted at flic foremast or most windward part of the ship, so as to prevent lb-; noxious vapours from coming abaft; the cabin, steerage, and between the decks,
should be fumigated now and then, and the seatnei. allowed to smoke tobacco freel v.
Unless absolutely necessary, it will be improper to permit any of the crew to sleep from on board, when stationed off* an unhealthy shore; but when necessity obliges them to do so, for the purpose* of wooding or watering, a tent or marquee should be^rected, if a proper house cannot be procured., and this should be pitched on the dry est and highest spot mat can be found, being so situated, as that the door shall open towards the sea. Under cover of this, a sufficient number of hammocks are to be suspended for the accommodation of the men by night, »b they should by no means be suffered to sleep on the open ground.
If the tent happens unfortunately to be in the neighbourhood ot a morass, or has unavoidably been pitched on flat moist ground, it will be advisable to keep up a constant fire in it by day as well as by night; and as a further preventive against those malignant disorders which are apt to arise in such situations, the men should be directed tc smoke freely of tobacco, and to take a wine-glassful of the compound tincture of Peruvian bark every morning, on an empty stomach, and the same quantity again at night.
Cautions when in tropical climates. In tropical climates, the healthiness of seamen will much depenil upon avoiding undue exposure to the sun, pain, night air, long fasting, intemperance, unwholesome shore duties, especially during the sickly season, and upon the attention paid to the various regulations and preventive measures. The bad effects of remaining too long in port at any one time (independent of irregularities, of harbour duties, particularly after sunset, as well as during his meridian power), cannot be too strongly adverted to by the commander of every ship; and therefore a measure of the highest importance in the navy is the employment of negroes and natives of the country, or at least men accustomed to th** torrid zone, in wooding, watering, transporting stores, rigging, clearing, careening ships, &c.; ami, in fine, in all sir-It occupations as might subject the seamen to excessive heat or noxious exhalations, which cannot fail to be highly dangerous to the health of the unassimilated seaman.
The practice of heaving down vessels of wta in the West Indies, in the ordinary routine of service at least, cannot be too highly deprecated, as well from the excessive fatigue and exertion it demands, as because it is a process which reqture* for its execution local security, or, in other words, a land that is locked, and therefore generally au unhealthy harbour. The instances of sickness and mortality from the effects of clearing a foul hold in an unhealthy harbour, are too numerous to be specified.
Intoxication. A very productive source of disease in warm climates among seamen, is an immoderate use of spirituous and fermented liquors, as they are toe apt, whilst under a state of intoxication, to throw themselves on the bare ground, where, perhaps, they lie exposed for many hours to the influence of the meridian sun, the heavy dews of the evening, or the damp chilling air ot the night. The commander of a ship who payB attention to the health of his crew, will therefore take every possible precaution to prevent his men from being guilty I ■ %n excess of this nature; and likewise that they dorx.< lie out in the open air, when overcome by fatigue and hard labour.
The different voyages of that celebrated navigator, Captain Cook, as well as that ot the unfortunate La Ferouse, inconteslably prove that by due
tare and a proper regin. Mi, seamen may be preserved from the scurry and other diseases which have formerly been inseparable from long sea voyages; and that they can thus support the fatigues of the longest navigations in all climates, and under a burning sun.
JVoxious vapour*. Smoking or fumigating ships with charcoal or sulphur, II the most effectual means of killing all kinds of vermin, and is therefore always resorted to, but it is recommended that no sailor nor boy be allowed to go under the decks until the hatches, and all the other openings, have been for three hours uncovered; in that time all noxious vapours will be effectually dissipated. Captain Cook** rules for preserving the health of seamen.
1. The crew to be at three watches. The men will by this means have time to shift and dry themselves, and get pretty well refreshed by sleep' before called again to duty. When there is no pressing occasion, seamen ought to be refreshed with as much uninterrupted sleep, as a common day labourer.
i. To have dry clothes to shift themselves after getting wet.—One of the officers to see that every man, on going wet from his watch, be immediately shifted with dry clothes, and the same on going to bed.
3. To keep their persons, hammocks, bedding, and clothes, clean and dry.— This commander made his men pass in review before him, one day in every week, and saw that they had changed their linen, and were as neat and clean as circumstances would admit. He had also every day the hammocks carried on the booms, or some other airy part of the ship, unlashed, and the bedding thuroughly shaken and aired. \\ hen the weather prevented the hammocks being carried on deck, they were constantly taken down, to make room for the fires, the sweeping, and other operations. When possible, fresh water was always allowed to Ute men to wash their clothes, as soap will not mix with sea-water, and linen washed in briue never thoroughly dries.
4. To keep the ship clean between decks.
5. To have frequent fires between decks, and at the bottom of the well.—Captain Cook's method was to have iron pot" with dry wood, which Inhumed between decks, in the well, and other parts of the ship; during which time, some of the crew were employed in rubbing, with canvas or oakum, every part that had the least damp. Where the heat from the stove did not readily absorb the moisture, loggerheads, heated red hot, and laid uu sheets of iron, speedily effected the purpose.
6. Proper attention to be paid to the ship's coppers, to keep them clean and free from verdigris.
7. The fat that is boiled out of the salt beef or pork, never to be given to the people.
8. The men to be allowed plenty of fresh water, at the ship's return to port; the water remaining on board to be started, and fresh water from the shore to be taken in its room.
By means of the above regulations, (in addition to rules relative to temperance; and supplying.the crews as much as possible with fresh meal and \eg*jtables), this celebrated navigator performed a rqy^ee of upwards ol three years, in every climate of .e globe, with the loss of only one man. To obtain fresh water from the sea.
The method of obtaining fresh water from the sea by distillation, was introduced into the English navy in the year 1770, by Ur Irving, for which he obtained a parliamentary reward ot £5000.
In order to give a clear notion of Ur Irving's method, let us suppose the teakettle to be made
without a spout, and with a hole in the lid, in the place of the knob; the kettle being filled with s*-»water, the fresh vapour, which arises from Urn water as it boils, will issue through the hole in the lid; into that hole fit the mouth of a tobacco pipe, letting the stem have a little inclination downwards, then will the vapour of fresh water take its course through the stem of the tube, and may be collected by fitting a proper vessel to its end.
This would be an apt representation of Dr Irving's contrivance, in which he has luted or adapted a tin, iron, or tinned copper tube, of suitable d»mensions, to the lid of the common kettle used for boiling the provisions on board a ship; the fresh vapour which arises from boiling sea-water in the kettle, passes, as by common distillation, through this tube into a hogshead, which serves as a receiver; and in order that the vapour may be readily condensed, the tube is kept cool by being constantly welted with a mop dipped in cold sea water. The waste water running from the mop, may be earned off by means of two boards nailed together, like a spout. 1 )r Irving particularly remarks, that only three-fourths of the sea-water should be distilled; the brine is then to be let off and the copper replenished, as the water distilled from the remaining concentrated brine is found to have a disagreeable taste; and as the further continuation of the distillation is apt to be injurious to the vessels. When the water begins to boil, likewise, the vapour should be allowed to pass freely for a minute; this will effectually cleanse the lube, and upper part of the boiler.
To render sea-ivater capable of washing- lines.
It is well known that sea-water cannot be em ployed for washing clothes.—It refuses to dissolve soap, and possesses all the properties of hard water.
This is it great inconvenience to seamen, whose allowance of fresh water is necessarily limited, and it prevents them from enjoying many of those comforts of cleanliness which contribute not a little to health. The method of removing this defect is exceedingly simple, and by no means expensive. It has lately been pointed out by Dr Mitchell, of New York:—Drop into sea-water a solution of soda, or potash, it will become milky, in consequence of the decomposition of the earthy salts, and the precipitation of the earths. This addition renders it soft, and capable of washing. Its milki* ness will have no injurious effect.
PRESERVATION FROM DROWNING AND SHIPWRECK.
When a man falls overboard.
The instant an alarm is given that a man it overboard, the ship's helm should be put down, and she should be hove in stays; a hen coop or other object that can float should also be thrown overboard RB near the man as possible, w ith a rope tied to it, and carefully kept sight of, Hs it will prove a beacon, towards which the boat may pull as soon as lowered down. A primary object is, having a boat ready to lower down at a moment's notice, which should be hoisted up at the stem if most convenient; the lashings, tackle, ice. to be always kept clear, and a rudder, tiller, and spa It spar, to be kept iu her. When dark, she should not be without a lanthorn and a compass.
There should also be kept in her a rope with « running bowline, ready to fix in or to throw to the person in danger. Coils of small rope, with running bowlines, should also be kept in the chain* quarters, and abaft, ready to throw over, as it most generally occurs, that men pass close Lo the shiti'i