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teces subside. To the decanted liquor add the a spoon, until the batter is melted when it via ne spirit.

fine and smooth. Vinegar of squills is a medicine of great anti

Panada. quity. It is a very powerful stimulant; and hence Put a blade of mace, a large piece of the crumb it is frequently used with great success as a diu- of bread, and a quart of water, in a clean sauce retic and expectorant. The dose of this medicine pan. Let it boil two minutes, then take out the is from a drachm to half an ounce: where crudities bread, and bruise it very fine in a basin. Mix with abound in the first passages, it may be given at it as much of the warm water as it will require, first in a larger dose, to evacuate them by vomit. pour away the rest, and sweeten it to the laste of ing. It is most conveniently exhibited along with the patient. If necessary, put in a piece of butter cinnamon, or other agreeable aromatic waters, of the size of a walnut, but add no wine. Grate ia which prevent the nausen it would otherwise, even a little nutmeg if requisite. in small doses, be apt to occasion,

Isingluss jelly, &c.

Put an ounce of isinglass, and half an ounce of Take of tar, 2 pints; water, 1 gallon. Mix, by. cloves, into a quart of water. Boil it down to a stirring them with a wooden rod for a quarter of pint, strain it upon a pound of loaf sugar, and when an hour, and, after the tar has subsided, strain the cold add a little wine, when it will be fit for use.liquor, and keep it in well corked phials.

A very nourishing beverage may be made by Tar-water should have the colour of white wine, merely boiling the i singlass with milk, and sweeiand an empyreumatic taste. It is, in fact, a solu- ening with lump-sugar. tion of empyreumatic oil, effected by means of

Beef tea. acetoris acid. It acts as a stimulant, raising the Take off the fat and skin from a pound of lean puise, and increasing the discharge by the skin beef, and cut it into pieces. Then put it into a and kidneys. It may be drank to the extent of a gallon of water, with the under crust of a penny pint or two in the course of a day.

loaf, and a small portion of salt. Let the whole Decoction of sursaparilla.

boil till reduced io ? yuarts, and strain, when i Take of sarsaparilla root, cut, 6 oz.; distilled will be fit for use. water, 8 pints.

Another method. - In some cases, when the paAfter macerating for two hours, with a heat about tient is very weak, the tea must be made thus:195 degrees, then take out the root and bruise it; Take a piece of lean beef, cut it across and across, add it again to the liquor, and macerate it for lwo and then pour on it scalding water. Covet it up hours longer; then boil down the liquor to 4 pints, close, and let it stand till cold. Then pour it ofi, and strain it. The dose is from 4 oz. to half a pint, and warm it as the patient requires, having se or more, daily.

soned it moderately. Compound decoction of sarsaparilla.

Transparent soup for convalescents. Take of sarsaparilla root, cut and bruised, 6 oz.; Cut the meat from a leg of veal into small pieces, the hark of sassafras root, the shavings of guaiacum and break the bone into several bits. Put the ment wood, liquorice root, each, 1 oz.; the bark of me- into a very large jug, and the bones at top, with a Zereon root, 3 drachms; distilled water, 10 pints. bunch of common sweet herbs, a quarter of au oz.

Digest with a gentle heat for 6 hours; then boil of mace, and half a pound of Jordan almonds, down the liquor to one half (or five pints), adding finely blanched and beaten. Pour on it four quarts the bark of ihe mezereon root towards the end of l of boiling water, and let it stand all night, covered boiling. Strain off the liquor. The dose is the close by the fireside. The next day put it into a same as the last, and for the same purposes. well-tinned saucepan, and let it boil slowly, till it

These decoctions are of very great use in purify- is reduced to two quarts. Be careful, at the time ing the blood, and resolving obstructions in scor- it is boiling, to skim it, and take off the fai as it bitie and scrofulous cases; also in cutaneous erup- rises. Strain into a punch-bow), and when settled tions, and many other diseases. Obstinate swellings, for two hours, pour it into a clean saucepan, clear that had resisted the effect of other remedies for from the sediments, if any. Add 3 oz. of rice, above twelve months, have been cured by drinking or 2 oz. of vermicelli, previously boiled in a little a quart of decoction of this kind, daily, for some

When once more boiled, it will be fit for weeks. Decoctions of sarsaparilla ought to be made falesh every day, for they very soon become

Scditz powders. quite fætid, and unfit for use, sometimes in less Take of Rochelle salt, 1 drachm, carbonate of than 24 hours, in warm weather.

soda, 25 grains, tartaric acid, w do. Decoction of the woods.

Dissolve the two first in a tumbler of water Take of guaiacum raspings, 3 oz.; raisins, then add the latter, and swallow without loss of stonedi, 2 oz.; sassafras root, sliced, liquorice root, time. bruised, each 1 oz.; waler, 10 lbs.

Boil the guaiacum and raisins with the water, over a gentle fire, to the consumption of one half, melding, towards the end, the sassafras and liquorice, and strain the decoction without expression.

Purification of water by charcoal This decoction is of use in some rheumatic and Nothing has been found so effectual for preserto rutaneous affections. It may be taken by itself, to ing water sweet at sea, during long voyages, 4 the quantity of a quarter of a pint, twice or thrice charring the insides of the casks well before they a day, or used as an assistant in a course of mer- are filled. Care ought at the same time to be taken rurial or antimonial alteratives; the patient in either || that the casks should never be filled with sea wa ouse keeping warm, in order to promnte the opera- ter, as sometimes bappens, in order so save the tion of the medicine.

trouble of shutiing the ballast, because this tends Water-gruel.

to hasten the corruption of the fresti water after l'rt a large spoonful of oatmeal into a pint of wards put into thein. W. en the water becomes water, stir it well together, and let it boil three or impure and offensive at sea, from ignorance of the four times, stirring it often. Then strain it through preservative eifect produced on it by charring the

sieve, put in some salt according to taste, and if casks previous to their being filled, it may be rende ressary add a piece of fresh butter. Stir with dered perfectly sweet by putting a little fresh char



coal in powder into each cask before it is tapped, should be fumigated now and then, and the seamet or by filtering it through fresh burnt and coarsely allowed to smoke tobacco freely. powdered charcoal.

Unless absolutely necessary, it will be improper No practice has answered better than that of to permit any of the crew to sleep from on board, charring their water casks on their inside. Three when stationed off an unhealthy shore; but when casks of water in one of his Majesty's lock yards, necessity obliges them to do so, for the purpose of three years'standing, were perfectly sweet when of wooding or watering, a tent or marquee should tapped. There is, therefore, little doubt but that || becerected, if a proper house cannot be procored, water may be preserved fresh and fit for drinking and this should be pitched on the dryest and highfor any length of time, in charred barrels. est spot that can be found, being so situated, as Cleanliness.

that the door shall open towards the sea. Under To preserve seamen in health, and prevent the cover of this, a sufficient number of hammocks are prevalence of scurvy, and other diseases, it will be to be suspended for the accommodation of the

men Further necessary to keep the ship perfectly clean, by night, as they should by no means be suffered and to have the different parts of it daily purified to sleep on the open ground. liv a free admission of air, when the weather will If the tent happens unfortunately to be in the sumit of it, and likewise by frequent fumigations. neighbourhood of a morass, or has unavoidably This precaution will more particularly be neces- been pitched on flat moist ground, it will be allsary for the purification of such places as are re- visable to keep up a constant fire in it by day as markably close and confiner.

well as by night; and as a further preventive against Prevention of dampess and cold. those malignant disorders which are apt to arise in The coliness and dampness of the atmosphere such situations, the men should be directed to are to be corrected by sufficient fires.

smoke freely of tobacco, and to take a wine-glassCleanliness on board of a ship is highly neces- ful of the coinpound tincture of Peruvian bark sary for the preservation of the health of seamen; every morning, on an empty stomach, and the but the custom of frequent swabbings or washings same quantity again at night. between the decks, as is tuo frequently practised,

Cautions when in tropical ciimates. is certainly injurious, and greatly favours the pro- In tropical climates, the healthiness of seamen duction of scurvy and other diseases by a constant will much depend upon avoiding undue exposure dampness being kept up.

to the sun, rain, night air, long lasting, intempeExercise and amusements.

rance, unwholesome shore duties, especially during The men should be made to air their hammocks the sickly season, and upon the atiention paid to and bedding every fine day; they should wash their the various regulations and preventive measures. bodies and apparel often, for which purpose an The bad effects of remaining too long in port at adequate supply of soap ought to be allowed; and any one time (independent of irregularities, of they should change their linen and other clothes harbour duties, partioularly after sunset, as well as frequently. In rainy weather, on being relieved | during his meridian power), cannot be too strongly from their duty on the deck by the succeeding adverted to by the commander of every ship; and watch, they should take off their wet clothes, in- therefore a measure of the highest importance in stead of keeping them on, and lying down in them, the navy is the employment of negroes and natives as they are too apt to do. Two seis of hammocks of the country, or at least men accustomed to the vught to be provided for them. In fine pleasant torrid zone, in wooding, watering, transporting Weatl'er, and after their usual duty is over, they stores, rigging, clearing, careening ships, &c.; and, should be induiged in any innocent amusement in fine, in all such occupations as might subject that will keep their minds, as well as bodies, in a the seamen to excessive heat or noxious exhalastate of pleasant activity, and perhaps none is more tions, which cannot fail to be bighly dangerous to proper than dancing. This makes a fiddle or a the hexlth of the unassimilated seaman. pipe and tabor, desirable acquisitions on board of The practice of heaving down vessels of wai in every ship bound on a long voyage.

the West Indies, in the ordinary routine of serEffects of climate, &c.

vice at least, cannot be toc: highly deprecated, as In warm climates the crews of ships are healthier well from the excessive fatigue and exertion it at sea when the air is dry and serene, and the heat demands, as because it is a process which requires moderated by gentle breezes, than when rainy or for its execution local security, or, in other words, dlamp weather prevails; and they usually enjoy a land that is locked, and therefore generally av , better health when the ship is moored at a con- unhealthy harbour. The instances of sickness siderable distance from the shore, and to wind- and mortality from the effects of clearing a foul wurd of any marshy ground or stagnant waters, hold in an unhealthy harbour, are loo numerous lo than when it is anchored to leeward of these, and be specified. lies close in with the land. Masters of vessels,

Intoxication. stationed at, or liading to, any parts between the A very productive source of disease in warm tropics, will therefore act prudently, when they climates among seamen, is an immoderate use of have arrived at their destined port, to anchor a spirituous and fermented liquors, as they are tvo considerable distance from the shore, and as far lo apt, whilst under a state of intoxication, io throw windward of all swamps, pools, and lakes, as can themselves on the bare ground, wliere, perhaps, conveniently be done, as the noxious vapours which they lie exposed for many hours to the influence of will be watied to the crew, when the ship is in a | the meridian sun, the heavy dews of the evening, station of this nature, will not fail to give rise to or the damp chilling air of the night. The comdiseases aniong them.

mander of a ship who pays attention to the localth Cautions to be observed when on shore. of his crew, will therefore take every possible peWhen unavoidably obliged to submit to such an caution to prevent lis men from being guilly 1 an inconvenience, some means ought to be adopted to excess of this nature; and likewise that they doc For this purpose a large sail should be hoisted ai prevent disagrecable consequences from ensuing. lie out in the open air, when overcome by fatigus

and hard labour. the foremast or most windward part of the ship, The different voyages of that celebrated naviga so as to prevent ib9 noxious vapours from coming tor, Captain Cook, as well as that of the unfortustraft; the cabin, steerage, and Letween the decks, ll nate La Perouse, incontestably prove that by due



care and a proper regin ?n, seamen may be pre- || without a spout, and with a hole in the lid, in the berved from the scurvy and other diseases which place of the knob; the kettle being filled with ser have formerly been inseparable from long sea water, the fresh vapour, which arises from the voyages; and that they can thus support the fatigues water as it boils, will issue through the hole in of the longest navigations in all climates, and un- the lid; into that hole fit the mouth of a tobacet der a burning sun.

pipe, letting the stem have a little inclination Noxious vapours.

downwards, then will the vapour of fresh water Smoking or fumigating ships with charcoal or take its course through the stem of the tube, and sulphur, is the most effectual means of killing all may be collected by fitting a proper vessel to its kinds of vermin, and is therefore always resorted end. to; but it is recommended that no sailor nor boy This would be an apt representation of Dr Irrbe allowed to go under the decks until the hatches, ing's contrivance, in which he has luted or adapter and all the other openings, have been for three a ún, iron, or tinned copper tube, of suitable do hours uncovered; in that time all noxious vapours mensions, to the lid of the common kettle used for will be effectually dissipated.

boiling the provisions on board a ship; the fresh Captain Cook's rules for preserving the health of vapour which arises from boiling sea-water in the

keitle, passes, as by common distillation, through 1. The crew to be at three watches. The men this tubs into a hogshead, which serves as a receive will by this means bave time to shift and dryer; and in order that the vapour may be readily themselves, and get pretty well refreshed by sleep condensed, the tube is kept cool by being constant. Defore called again to duty. When there is no ly wetted with a mop dipped in cold sea water. pressing occasion, seamen ought to be refreshed. The waste water running from the mop, may be with as much uninterrupted sleep, as a common carried off by means of ewo boardis nailed together, day labourer.

like a spout. Dr Irving particularly remarks, that 2. To have dry clothes to shift themselves after only three-fourths of the sea-water should be disgetting wet:--One of the officers to see that every tilled; the brine is then to be let off and the copper man, on going wet from his watch, be immediately replenished, as the water distilled from the remainshified with dry clothes, and the same on going to ing concentrated brine is found to have a disagreer bed.

ble taste; and as the farther continuation of the 3. To keep their persons, hammocks, bedding, distillation is apt to be injurious to the vessels. and clothes, clean and dry. This commander When the water begins to boil, likewise, the va made his men pass in review before him, one day! pour should be allowed to pass freely for a minutes in every week, and saw that they had changed their il ihis will effectually cleanse the tube, and upper linen, and were as peat and clean as circumstances i part of the boiler. would admit. He had also every day the ham- To render sea-water capable of waslung linen. mocks carried on the booms, or some other airy It is well known that sea-water cannot be em part of the ship, unlashed, aud the bedding tho- ployed for washing clothes.-It refuses to dissolve roughly shaken and aired. When the weather soap, and possesses all the properties of hard prevented the hammocks being carried on deck, they were constaully taken down, to make rooom This is a great inconvenience to seamen, whose for the fires, the sweeping, and other operations. allowance of fresh water is necessarily limited, When possible, fresh water was always allowed to and it prevents them from enjoying many of those the men to wash their clothes, as soap will not mix | comforts of cleanliness which contribute not a little with sea-water, and linen washed in brine never to health. The method of removing this defect is thoroughly dries.

exceedingly simple, and by no means expensive. 4. To keep the ship clean between decks.

It has lately been pointed out by Dr Mitchell, of 5. To have frequent tires between decks, and New York:-Drop into bea-water a solution of at the bottom of the well. -Captain Cook's method soda, or potash. It will become milky, in consewas to have iron pots with dry wood, which liequence of the decomposition of the earthy salts, burned between decks, in the well, and other parts and the precipitation of the earths. This addition of the ship; during which time, some of the crew renders it solt, and capable of washing. Its milkiwere employed in rubbing, with canvas or oakum, ness will have no injurious effect. every part that had the least damp. Where the heat from the stoves did not readily absorb the moisture, loggerheads, heated red hoi, and laid on

PRESERVATION FROM DROWNING AND SHIPWRECE. sheets of iron, speedily effected the purpose. 6. Proper attention to be paid to the ship's cop

When a mun falls overboard. pers, to keep them clean and free from verdigris. The instant an alarm is given that a man is

7. The fat that is boiled out of the salt beef or overboard; the ship's helm should be put down, pork, never to be given to the people.

and she should be hove in stays; a hen coop or 8. The men to be allowed plenty of fresh water, other object that can float should also be thrown at the ship's return to port; the water remaining on overboard as near the man as possible, with a rope board to he started, and fresh water from the shore tied to it, and carefully kept sight of, as it will to be taken in its room.

prove a beacon, towards which the boat may pull By means of the above regulations, (in addition as soon as lowered down. A primary objeci is, to rúles relative to temperance; and supplying the having a boat ready to lower down at a moment's crews as much as possible with fresh meat and notice, which should be hoisted up at the steru if vegetables), this celebrated navigator performed a most convenient; the lashings, tackle, &c. to be voyage of upwards of three years, in every climate always kept clear, and a rudder, tiller, and spare of we globe, with the loss of only one man.

spar, to be kept in her. When dark, she should 10 obtain fresh water from the sea. not be withoui a lanthorn and a compass. The method ot obtaining fresh water from the There should also be kept in her a rope with a sea by distillation, was iutroduced into the English ruuning bowline, ready to fix in or to throw to the navy in the year 1770, by Dr Irving, for which he person in danger. Coils of small rope, with runobtained a parliamentary reward of £5000.

ning bowlines, should also be kept in the chains In order to give a clear notion of Dr Irving's quarters, and abatt, ready to throw over, as it most method, let us suppose a teakettle to be made il generally occurs, that men pass close to the ship's


ude, and have often been miraculously aved by il inches long and half an inch in diem.cer is fastdinging to ropes.

ened to the front of the girdle by a tape or cort, Upsetting of a boat.

about three inches long. To use the spencer, it If a person should fall out of a boat, or he boat should be slidden from the feet close up to the arms, upset by going foul of a cable, &c. or should he the tapes or cords are to be brought one over each fall off the quays, or indeed fall into any water, shoulder, and fastened by the loops to the pin: from which he cannot extricate himself, but must those between the legs are to be fastened to the wait some little time for assistance--had he pre- other pin. A person thus equipped, though unacsence of mind enough to whip off his hat, and hold | quainted with swimming, may safely trust himself it by the brim, placing his fingers within side of to the waves; for he will float, head and shoulders the crown, (top upwards) he would be able, by || above water, in any storm, and by paddli: g witn this method, to keep his 'mouth above water till his hands, may easily gain the shore. Such a spenassistance should reach him. It often happens that cer may also be made of cork shavings put into a danger is apprehended long before we are involved long canvass bag. in the peril, although there may be time enough li has also been suggested, that every part of the to prepare this, or adopt any other method. Tras usual dress of the sailor should be made with a vellers, ir fording rivers at unknown fords, or view of preserving his life, in cases of accident; and where shallows are deceitful, might make use of for this purpose that a quantity of cork shavings this method with advantage.

or clippings should be quilted into his jacket about Cork waistcoats.

the collar and neck, between the outside and inProvide a cork waistcoat, composed of four side lining: or as a belt, of considerable breadtha pieces, two for the breast and two for the back, || across the back and shoulders, then principally each pretty near in length and breadth to the quar-il omitted under the arms, and resumed over the ters of a waistcoat without flaps; the whole is to be chest and stomach, yet not so much as to create incovered with coarse canvass, with two holes to put convenience. If in these, and other parts of his the arms through. There must be a space left be- dress, so much cork could commodiously be worktween the two back pieces, and the same betwixt | ed, as would give the sailor an opportunity of reeach back and breast piece, that they may fit the covering himself, and making use of his own pow. easier to the body. By this means the waistcoaters in cases of contingency, many valuable lives is open only before, and may be fastened on the might be saved. 'wearer by strings; or if it should be thought more

Bamboo habil. secure, with buckles and leather straps. This The bamboo habit is an invention of the Chines, waistcoat may be made up for five or six shillings. || by the use of which, a person unskilled in the art

If those who use the sea occasionally, and espe- of swimming, may easily keep himself above water. cially ihose who are obliged to be almost con- The Chinese merchants, when going on a voyage, stantiy there, were to use these waistcoats, it are said always to provide themselves with this would he next to impossible that they should be simple apparatus, to save their lives in cases of drowned.

danger from shipwreck. It is constructed by placFurther meuns.

ing four bamboos horizontally, two before, and two It will likewise be proper to prepare an oil skin behind the body of each person, so that they probag, on going to sea, for a temporary supply of hject about twenty-eight inches; these are crossed on provisions, in case of shipwreck. If suddenly I each side by two others, and the whole properly plunged into the water, and unable to swim, it will secured, leaving an intermediate space for the be necessary to keep the hands and arms under body. When thus forided, the person in danger the water-few animals being capable of drowning, slips it over his head, and ties it securely to the owing to their inability to lift their fore legs over waist, by which simple means he cannot possibly their heads.

sink. The legs, therefore, being necessarily immersed i To extricate persons from broken ice. in the water, the difference between the specific Let two or more persons hold a rope or ropes, gravity of the animal and the water, is sufficient to at buth endis, stretcheel over the broken ice; so thai enable it to keep ils nostrils and mouth above the the drowning person may catch hold of it. water, and therefore it is not suffocated by the

The life boat. fluid, but breathes freely. But man, on the con- The life-boat is generally thirty feet long, and frary, being able to lift his hands over his head, il in form much reseir bling a common Greenland and generally doing so in case of this accident, his boat, except the bottom, which is much fatter. She hands and arms make up the difference in specific || is lined with cork, inside and outside of the gungravity, and his head, impelled by the weight of wale, about two feet in breadth, and the seats un his hands and arms below the water, his body fills, derneath are filled with cork also. and he is consequently choked and suffocated. The She is rowed by ten men, double banked, and remedy therefore is, in all such cases, to keep || steered by two men with oars, one at each end, down the hands and arms, and as a furiher secu. both ends being alike. Long poles are provided rity, to act with them under and against the water. for the men, to keep the boat from being driven It will then be impossible to sink, unless the weight broadside to the shore, either in going off or laudof clothes or other circumstances operate to the ing. About six inches from the lower poles, it contrary.

increases in diameter, so as to form a flat surface The marine spencer.

against the sand. The weight of the cork used in The marine spencer is made in the form of a the boat is about seven cwt. girdle, of a proper diameter to fit the body, and She draws very little water, and when full is able Bix inches broarl, composed of about 500 old tavern lo carry twenty people. The boat is able to concurks, strung upon a strong (wine, well lashed to-tend against the most tremendous sea and broken gether with lay-cord, covered with canvass, and water; and never, in any one instance, las she pointed in oil so as to make it water-proof. 'Two failed in bringing the crew in distress into a place tapes of cords, about two feet long, are fastened || of safety. The men have no dread in going off to the back of the girdle with loops at the ends. 1 with ber in the highest sea and broken water: cork Another tape or cord of the same length, having a jackets were provided for them; but their contifew corks 'strung lo the middle of it, is covered fidence in the boat is so greut, Heat they do not use with canvass painted. A pin of hard wood, three i thens.


The success attending this expedient for dimin- 1 methods have been invented and pointed out for ishing the number of unhappy individuals almost this purpose. daily lost in a watery grave, appears to have been A common paper kite launched from the vessel, more than equal to the most sanguine expectations and driven by the wind to the shore has been su formed of its utility; and the great object in view, | posed capable of conveying a piece of pack threasi

, viz. the safety of those persons who hazard their to which a larger rope might be attached and drawn own security to preserve others, has been fully ac- on board. eomplished.

A small balloon, raised by rarified air might be Safe and readily constructed life-boat. made to answer the same purpose. In April, 1806, a model of a life-boat was eshi- A sky rocket, of a large diameter, has also been bited before the Royal Humane Society, which may considered as capable of an equal service, and, inbe put together in the space of half an hour, in any deed, this method seems the best; for besides tie case of shipwreck, and which cannot sink or over- velocity of the discharge, could it be brought to act sel, let the sea run ever so high. All that is neces- || during the night, it must both point out the situr sary to be provided is, a keel or plank of any con- tion of the ship, and the direction that the line venient length, and a few pigs of iron, such as took in Aying ashore. vessels usually carry out for ballast. The officers Useful hints when a leak is spring: of the ship are to take care to keep two or three When a vessel springs a leak near her bottom, empty water-casks, perfectly tight, the bung-holes the water enters with all the force given by the corked up, and a piece of tin or leather nailed weight of the column of water without, which force over them. These casks are to be lashed with is in proportion to the difference of the level be. ropes to the keel, along with the pigs of iron for tween the water without and that within. Il entera ballast; and any spare poles or spars may be also therefore with more force at first, and in greater lashed to the sides, so as to give the raft the form quantity than it can afterwards, when the water of a vessel, and at each end to make a lodgement within is higher. The bottom of the vessel, 100, for the men.

Any of the square sails of the ship is narrower, so that the syme quantity of water will form a lug-sail, and may speedily be adapted coning into that parrow part, rises faster than to the new life-boat, and a strong and broad spar when the space for it is larger. This helps lo may be lashed on as a rudder.

terrify. But as the quantity entering is less and Another.-Let a quantity of ballast, even more less, as the surfaces without and within becomie than what is commonly used for sailing, be laid in more nearly equal in height, the pumps that could the bottom of the boat, over this lay bags filled not keep the water from rising at first, might after. with cork, prepared for the purpose, and numbered | wards be able to prevent its rising bigher, and the according to iheir places, and if considerably people might have remained on board in safety, higher than the gun wales so much the better; a sail without hazarding themselves in an open boat o or part of one folded may be thrown over from

the wide ocean. stem to stern, to combine and unite the several Besides the greater equality in the height of the parts; and lastly, the whole is to be secured to- two surfaces, there may sometimes be other causes gether by passing ropes by so many turns as may that retard the farther sinking of a leaky vessel, be deenied sufficient, round and round over the The rising water within may arrive at quantities of gunwales and under the keel, and these, if neces- light wooden works, empty chests, and particularl! sary, may be witched by a turn or two taken empty water casks, which, fixed so as not to float lengthwise.'

themselves, may help to sustain her. Many bodies Every person either on board or holding by the which compose a ship's cargo may be specifically boat, so prepared, may be absolutely certain of lighte: than water: all these, when ow of water, being carried safe through any breach whatever. are an additional weight to that of the ship, and site

When no such preparation of cork has been is in proportion pressed deeper in the water, but made, the following is proposed as a substitute: as soon as these bodies are immersed, they weight

Let a quantity of ballast, as coals in canvass, be no longer on the ship: but, on the contrary, if fixed, secured in its place, as well as circumstances will they help to support her in proportion as they are almit; then take an emply water cask (beer cask, specifically lighter than the water. or any others that are tight) and fill the boat with

Temporary nautical pump. them, and if the bilge of the cask rises considerably Captain Leslie, of the George and Susan, in a higher than the gun wales, it will be so much the voyage from North America to Stockholm, adop! better; let a sail then be thrown in to jam the cask ed an excellent mode of emptying water from his and ballast in their places, as well as to combine ship’s hold, when the crew were insufficient to per and unite the several parts by covering all fore and form that duty. About 10 or 12 feet above the att; and lastly, let the whole be lashed aud secured pump, he rigged out a spar, one end of which pro together, in the manner above stated. It is be-jected overboard, while ihe other was fastened, as lieved the boat in this trim would always continue a lever, to the machinery of the pump. To the upright on her keel, be lively and buoyant on the end which projected overboard, was witer, and have sufficient efficacy to support the water-butt,'haif full, but corked down so that crew of any ordinary vessel, till drified within their when the coming wave raised the butt-end, the own depth.

other end depressed the piston of the pump; but It frequently happens that after men have gained at the retiring of the wave, this was reversed, for, the shore, they perish of cold for want of dry by the weight of the butt, the piston came up again clothes. As a remedy for this, every man should and with it the water. 'Thus, without the aid of try to secure one or iwo flannel or woollen shirts, the crew, the ship's hold was cleared of the walet by wrapping them up tightly in a piece of oiled in a few hours. cloth or silk; and to guard against tearing, the last Another. When a vessel springs a leak at stå, Inight be covered with canvass, or inclosed in a tin which cannot be discovered, instead

the crew by continual working a. the punops, they Fixther method of preservation in cases of ship- may form, with very little trouble, a machine to wrecks.

discharge the water, which will work itself, wide It being the great object, in cases of shipwreck, || out any assistance from the hands on board. to establish a communication betwixt the vessel Let a spar, or spare lop-mast, be call to the nud the shore with the least possible delay, various length of eight or ten feet, or laore, according us


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