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monastery in the neighbourhood, he promised Qucen Irminburg to follow her to Bamburgh. In the course of his visitation of his diocese of Lindisfarne, he came to the vicus' of Hemma, 39 a 'comes' of Alfrid the new king. This probably stood on the mound called Greencastle in Kenterdale40—the old name apparently for the valley in the Cheviots at the back of Wooler. Hemma, coming out to meet him, thanked heaven for his arrival, as his wife was so ill that her life was despaired of, and if only he would bless some water, it might shorten her agony or restore her health. The bishop at once blessed the water, and gave it to Bede his chaplain, not to be confounded with the historian, who sprinkled the patient and gave her some to drink. Her recovery was so rapid that she was able to rise and entertain St. Cuthbert, herself handing him the loving cup. Cuthbert proceeded on his episcopal tour across the Tweed as far as 'Bedesfeld,'41 where he had shortly before granted a settlement to some nuns who had abandoned their convent further north through fear of an advance of the victorious Picts.42 He was probably recalled to Hexham in consequence of the death of bishop Eata, which is supposed to have taken place on the 26th October. From Hexham, probably in February, he journeyed towards Carlisle, 43 no doubt along the ancient Carel-gate. Half-way between the two cities he spent two days in a mountainous country, preaching and confirming at a place called
39 Vita Lindisf. iv. $ 3, Giles ed. p. 374; "hemma,' Arras MS.; "hemini,' Treves MS. fo. 139, d. ; 'Heunna,' Act. Sanct. Bolland. It is right to mention that Redesdale and Coquetdale met on the Scottish frontier at a place called * Henmer's (or Henmyer's) Well’in the Border Survey of 1604 (printed by Mr. R. P. Sanderson, Alnwick, 1891, pp. 41, 81), but apparently · Hyndemars felde' in the survey of 1541 (Hodgson, Northumberland, III. ii. p. 208).
40 Vita Lindisf. iv. 3; in regione quae dicitur Kintis,' Arras MS. ; -hintis,' Treves MS.; · Henitis,' Act. Sanct. Bolland. I was disappointed not to find a reading that would identify this regio' with the •Cheviots,' as I had expected.
41 ad vicum, qui Bedesfeld dicitur,' Vita Lindisf. iv. $ 4, Giles ed. p. 375 ; bedesfeld,' Arras MS.; · Bedesfied,' Treves MS.; · Bedesfeld,' Act. Sanct. Bolland. The place is probably either Bedrule in Roxburghshire, or Bedshield at the fout of the Lammermoors, near Polwarth.
42 in vicum quendam, in quo erant feminae sanctimoniales non multae, quibus timore barbarici exercitus a monasterio suo profugis, ibidem manendi sedem vir Domini paulo ante donaverat.'- Bede, Vita S. Cuthberti, cap. xxx. Giles ed. iv. p. 306. This donation to the nuns shows that, whether as bishop or not, St. Cuthbert did really possess some property in land.
13 Vita Lindisf. iv. $ 5, Giles ed. p. 375 ; luel,' Arras MS. and Treves MS. P. 139, d. The Boilandists misread this . Vel,' and have to answer for a multitude of learned conjectures as to its location. That . Luel' was Carlisle is well known: -- Luel, quod nunc Carleol appellatur.'— Hist. Dunelm. Eccl.; Symeon of Durham, Rolls ed. i. p. 53.
Æhse' or · Echse,"44 probably the Roman station of Æsica or Great Chesters. As this was clearly within the diocese of Hexham, it is probable that he had undertaken the administration of it till a new bishop should be appointed. At Carlisle he received the religious profession of the widowed Queen Irminburg, 45 and met for the last time on earth his great friend St. Herbert, the hermit of Derwentwater. 46 He then set out to visit Elfed, the abbess of Whitby, and to dedicate a church for her at Easington, 47 on the Yorkshire coast. On his way he appears to have passed through the village of Medomsley, in which the plague was committing frightful ravages at the time.48 At Easington Cuthbert, who as a shepherd, had seen a vision of the beatification of bishop Aidan, beheld now as a bishop
+ Quodam tempore episcopus sanctus profisciscens ab Hagustaldense, tendebat ad civitatem, quae Luel dicitur. Mansio tamen in media via facta est, in regione ubi dicitur æhse,' Vita Lindisf. Arras MS.; 'echse,' Treves MS. The Bollandists have ‘Alise,' a mistake that might easily arise in making a hasty transcript of the Arras MS. where the word is somewhat blurred. If their read. ing had rested on independent authority, it would have been most interesting, since Alislee is the name of a farm just west of ÆSICA, and we should have had the English and Roman name of what was practically the same place side by side. The survival of the Roman name so late is, of course, unique in Northumberland ; but Luel likewise seems only a contracted form of LUGUVALLIUM. Ash, in Cumberland, on the King's Water, seems both too near Carlisle and too far off the road to the north to enable it to compete with ÆsicA, the position of which exactly suits all the requirements of the case. After · Hagustaldense' in the passage quoted above, ó civitate ’ is to be understood. This miracle is said in the Vita Lindisf. to rest especially on the testimony of a certain Penna' (Treves MS.), whom the Bollandists call Henna.
45 • Cuthbertus ad ... Lugubaliam ... advenit, quatenus ibidem sacerdotes consecrare, sed et ipsam reginam, dato habitu sancta conversationis, benedicere deberet.'--Bede, Vita S. Cuthberti, cap. xxviii. Dr. Giles (iv. p. 301) actually translated the latter part of this extract, but also to bless the queen herself with his holy conversation.' Eddi, Vita S. Wilfridi, $ xxiv. says of queen Irminburg, de lupa, post occisionem regis, agna Domini, et perfecta Abbatissa, materque familias optima commutata est. Her name appears in Liber Vitae of Durham, Surt. Soc. Publ. I can, however, find no authority for Dr. Obser's statement, Wilfrid der Aeltere, p. 49, n, that she was afterwards canonised.
46 Bede, Vita, cap. xxviii.
47 · Osingadun,' Arras MS. ; • Osingadum,' Act. Sanct. Bolland. The fact that the messenger who left Whitby in the early morning (Bede, Vita, cap. xxxiv.) returned to Easington as mass was being sung shows that it could not have been Easington in the county of Durham, as at first might be supposed, this being then in the diocese of Hexham. Bede, however, says Cuthbert wished his final retirement to Farne to be after a visitation, not only of his own diocese, but of certain neighbouring monasteries -- non solum sua circuita parochia, sed et aliis circa fidelium mansionibus visitata.'
48 medilwong,' Arras MS.; 'medinluong,' Treves MS. Confusing, as usual, the early 'w' with 'p,' the Bollandists have “medilpong.' I see no reason for identifying this place with Mechil Wongtune,' where king Oswulf was killed in 757, Sym. Dün. Hist. Regum, in anno, which is more probably Great (muckle) Whittington, to the north-east of Corbridge.
himself the beatification of the shepherd Hadwald,49 whose death was confirmed to him by Elfled, who came to him herself into the sanctuary as mass was being celebrated.50 He turned north to South Shields, where he received a splendid welcome from the abbess Verca ;51 and it is here, in the company of one of the five saintly women, Kenswith, Ebbe, Elfled, Irminburg, and Verca, for whom he always evinced especial affection, that the story of his life on the mainland closes, immediately opposite the spot on the northern bank of the Tyne where he first appeared. Soon afterwards he retired again to the storm-lashed rocks of Farne, and died there on the 20th of March, 687, under the touching circumstances related by Bede.
Enough has, it is hoped, been said to show that when properly studied, the actual wanderings of the historical St. Cuthbert are certainly of equal interest to the semi-mythical migrations of his shrine. The period of his retreat on Farne was probably shorter than has popularly been supposed, but his mission work from the centre of Melrose, and his episcopal administration not only of the diocese of Lindisfarne but of that of Hexham, account for the mighty influence for good that he exerted over so large a tract of country. It is not only the more famous islands that we may regard as associated with his life, but Chester-le-Street, Wark-on-Tweed, and Æsica, and with a lesser degree of certainty Roddam, Ilderton, Kenterdale, and Medomsley. The more we read of our Northumbrian history the more . should we feel inclined to put our shoes from off our feet, for nearly every spot on which we tread is holy ground.
19 "hadwuald,' Arras MS.; "haduwaldi,' Treves' MS.; Hadpuald,' Act. Sanct. Bolland.
50 • dedicantique eo die ibi ecclesiam, et missam cantantibus in eo loco, ubi dicitur Memento, domine, famulorum.''- Vita Lindisf. iv. 10. This incident perhaps shows more strongly than any other how diametrically contrary to the truth are those fantastic traditions of the Middle Ages that make out St. Cuthbert to have been a fierce woman-hater. The restrictions on women in church applied to Columban monasteries generally.--Skene, Celtic Scotland, ii. p. 207, n.
51 It was on this occasion that he is said to have chosen water to drink in preference to wine or beer, but to have afterwards changed it into wine :-• Quaerebant quid bibere vellet, rogantes ut vinum, sive cervisiam, afferri liceret. * Aquam, inquit, date mihi.''-Bede, Vita, cap. xxxv. This shows that he regarded the use of neither beer nor wine with disapproval.
VII.-NOTES ON THE JACOBITE MOVEMENT IN UPPER
[Read on the 24th February, 1892.] For the first glimpse of what may be termed Jacobite sentiments we must cast our thoughts back to the great internecine struggle of the seventeenth century, when the blood of Cavalier and Roundhead darkened many a spot throughout this fair land of England. Then the struggle lay between Royalist and Parliamentarian, as in after years it lay between Jacobite and Whig. The Royalists in the days of Charles I. and the Jacobites of the last decade of the seventeenth century and the early part of the eighteenth century were, both of them, supporters of the Stuarts, while the Whigs during the same periods were, first, the supporters of the Parliamentarian party, next of William, prince of Orange, and then of George I.
The term Jacobite (from ‘Jacobus,' the Latin form of James) was given to the party who still adhered to James II. after his deposition in 1688. The term Whig is said to have been given by the Royalists to the Parliamentarians during the days of Cromwell, from the initials of their motto, ‘We hope in God'-WHIG. It is not for me, neither is it the time or place, in which to discuss the question of the hereditary right of kings, for on this point, even at the present day, there is a great diversity of opinion. Look, for example, what an intense interest the whole nation took in the Stuart Exhibition of 1889, when Jacobite relics of almost sacred associations were sent from all parts of the kingdom. There also exist societies such as “The Jacobite League' and “The Order of the White Rose,' whose object is, amongst others, to keep in perpetual remembrance the sorrows and the sufferings of the house of Stuart; to keep the solemn days of the order, notably the 30th of January and the 29th of May, in commemoration of the murder of Charles I. and the restoration of Charles II.; and “To study the history of the house of Stuart and its adherents. To have openly held these opinions-to have published such a code of rules--would
during the last century have been accounted high treason. But in this the nineteenth century the feeling in favour of the Stuarts is supposed to be more sympathetic and sentimental than real; yet the members of the orders I have just mentioned are expected to profess certain principles, which are expressed in their monthly publication, where most able and interesting papers appear relating to Jacobite times and Jacobite measures, in which the writers evince a warm sympathy for the Stuarts and their unhappy cause. While, on the other hand, we can read, almost any day, in the columns of a portion of the English press views exactly the opposite. Therefore, it would seem that in this advanced age, as well as in ’15 and '45, we have amongst us both Jacobites and Whigs.
If during the reading of this paper, my own sympathy for the old Jacobites comes out somewhat strongly, I can at least rejoice in the companionship of an eminent member of our society. The owner of one of the old manors of the Radcliffes,” who in 1883, prompted by a laudable spirit of admiration and regret at the untimely end of two of our brave Northumbrian noblemen, caused a roadside cross to be erected between Langley castle and Haydon Bridge, bearing the following inscription :-'In memory of James and Charles Viscounts Langley, Earls of Derwentwater, beheaded on Tower Hill, 24th February, 1716, and 8th December, 1746, for loyalty to their lawful sovereign.'
Although it was not until the coming of William, prince of Orange, in 1688, that the term Jacobite was first used, and the Jacobite movement really began, yet it may be of interest if I endeavour to show you that the political leanings of the inhabitants of Upper Coquetdale were mostly in favour of the Stuarts (or Royalists) during the troubles of that melancholy era in our nation's history, the great civil war of the seventeenth century. We have in our remote valley evidences of this sympathy for the Stuart cause, not only in the traditions handed down to us, and in the historical records of that period, but it is also found expressed in the pages of the old vestry books of our parish church of Rothbury. About the year 1653, Ambrose Jones, rector of Rothbury, was ejected from the living, and his place filled by Thomes Cotes, some time schoolmaster at Stanton. ' The Royalist.
? C. J. Bates.