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29 And Jesus departed from him, Whence should we have so thence, and came nigh unto the much bread in the wilderness, sea of Galilee; and went up as to fill so great a multitude ? into a mountain, and sat down 34 And Jesus saith unto there.

them, How many loaves have 30 And great multitudes ye? And they said, Seven, and came unto him, having with a few little fishes. them those that were lame, blind, 35 And he commanded the dumb, maimed, and many others, multitude to sit down on the and cast them down at Jesus' ground. feet; and he healed them: 1 36 And he took the seven

31 Insomuch that the multi- loaves and the fishes, and gave tude wondered, when they saw thanks, and brake them, and the dumb to speak, the maimed gave to his disciples, and the to be whole, the lame to walk, disciples to the multitude. and the blind to see : and they 37 And they did all eat, and glorified the God of Israel. were filled: and they took up

32 Then Jesus called his dis of the broken meat that was left, ciples unto him, and said, I have seven baskets full. compassion on the multitude, 38 And they that did eat because they continue with me were four thousand men, besides now three days, and have noth- women and children. ing to eat : and I will not send 39 And he sent away the them away fasting, lest they multitude, and took ship, and faint in the way.

came into the coasts of Mag33 And his disciples say unto dala.

strength of her confidence, Jesus pur- 32. Have nothing to eat. Not that sued the course here related. He did they had been destitute all the three not mean to deny her request, nor to days. But now, their supply of food worry her mind. The effect on her was exhausted. character, and on the disciples, was 33. Wilderness ; thinly-settled place. doubtless very salutary. That Jesus See on 3: 1. |To fill. See on 14: 20. did not intend to deny her request, is 35. To sit down ; to recline. The manifest from his bestowing favors at recumbent posture was usual at meals. other times on persons not properly | See on 8: 11. belonging to the Jewish nation. Com- 36–38. Compare 14:19-21. As pare 8: 5--13.

a parallel passage, see Mark 8:

1-10. REMARKS. 1. Perseverance in pray- 39. Magdala. Mark (8: 10) says er is necessary.

Dalmanutha. The two places were 2. In whatever circumstances we doubtless contiguous, so that it might are, let us never suffer our confidence with propriety be said he came into in Christ to waver.

the vicinity of the one or of the other. 3. Humility is peculiarly lovely and | As to the precise situation of these acceptable to God. v. 27.

towns, we have not the means of cer

tain information. Some place them As the parallel passage, see Mark south-east of the sea of Galilee, others 7: 24–30.

I on the west side.

CHAPTER XVI. generation seeketh after a sign; MTHE Pharisees also and and there shall no sign be given

the Sadducees came, and unto it, but the sign of the tempting, desired him that he prophet Jonas. And he left would show them a sign from them, and departed. heaven.

5 And when his disciples 2 He answered and said unto were come to the other side, them, When it is evening, ye they had forgotten to take bread. say, It will be fair weather : for | 6 Then Jesus said unto them, the sky is red

Take heed and beware of the 3 And in the morning, It leaven of the Pharisees and of will be foul weather to-day : for the Sadducees. i the sky is red and lowering. 0 7 And they reasoned among ye hypocrites, ye can discern themselves, saying, It is bethe face of the sky; but can yecause we have taken no bread. not discern the signs of the 8 Which when Jesus pertimes ?

ceived, he said unto them, O 4. A wicked and adulterous ye of little faith, why reason ye


of the Pharisees and Sadducees, or 1. Sadducees. See INTRODUCTORY thé sentiments with which they leaoEXPLANATIONS, III. 2. On many ened the people. But the disciples of points, the Sadducees were at vari- | Jesus misapprehended his meaning, as ance with the Pharisees; but they were appears by the next verse. In Mark both hostile to Jesus. A sign from 8: 15, we read," the leaven of the heaven ; a sign, a token from above, Pharisees, and the leaven of Herod.” from the sky, in proof of his being The Saviour's object probably was, to the Messiah. See on 12:38.

caution his disciples against the in2, 3. He answered, &c. Knowing sidious attempts of all kinds, whether that they had an evil design, Jesus by professedly religious men or by took occasion to rebuke them for not political men, to pervert their minds. rightly estimating, and not candidly In Luke 13: 32, Jesus alludes to the admitting, the abundant evidence crafty character of Herod, by calling which he had already given. They him à fox. By Matt. 22: 16, it would knew how to judge respecting the appear that Herod had a set of politiordinary appearances of the sky, so cal friends among the Jews, called, as to feel warranted in predicting a from his name, Herodians. Against change of weather. Yet the evi. such men, as well as against the Phardences which he had given of being the isees and Sadducees, Jesus cautioned Messiah, were as appropriate, and, to his disciples ; for they were in dana candid mind, as convincing, as those ger, both by false doctrine and by the about which they felt no difficulty. subtlety of men in political power. ll Ye can discern ; discriminate, judge 7. Because we have taken no bread. of. || Signs of the times; marks, evi- They thought Jesus was unwilling dences, which pointed out those times they should procure bread from perto be the times of the Messiah.

sons of the classes named, lest they 4. See on 12: 39.

should be defiled by it; just as the 5. The other side ; of the sea of | Jews were in dread of being polluted Galilee.

by food procured from Gentiles. 6. Leaven. Jesus used this word 8. Of little faith. Had they placed metaphorically to signify the doctrine a more thorough confidence in Jesus,

among yourselves, because ye | Who do men say that I, the Son have brought no bread ?

1 of man, am ? 9 Do ye not yet understand, 14 And they said, Some say neither remember the five loaves that thou art John the Baptist : of the five thousand, and how some Elias; and others, Jeremany baskets ye took up? mias, or one of the prophets.

10 Neither the seven loaves 15 He saith unto them, But of the four thousand, and how who say ye that I am ? many baskets ye took up ?

16 And Simon Peter an11 How is it that ye do not swered and said, Thou art the understand that I spake it not Christ, the Son of the living to you concerning bread, that God. ye should beware of the leaven 17 And Jesus answered and of the Pharisees and of the Sad said unto him, Blessed art thou, ducees?

Simon Bar-jona : for flesh and 12 Then understood they blood hath not revealed it unto how that he bade them not be thee, but my Father which is ware of the leaven of bread, but in heaven. of the doctrine of the Pharisees 18 And I say also unto thee, and of the Sadducees.

That thou art Peter, and up13 When Jesus came into on this rock I will build my the coasts of Cesarea Philippi, church: and the gates of hell he asked his disciples, saying, shall not prevail against it.

they would have felt how little occa- by some of the Jews, not only that sion they had to be troubled in respect Elijah (Mal. 4: 5) would appear on to food. He then immediately pro-earth as an attendant upon the Messiceeded to remind them of what had ah, but also, that others of the ancient recently taken place in respect to the prophets would appear as his assupplying of food. See 14: 15–21. sistants. 15: 22-38. Compare, as the parallel 16. Christ; the Messiah. || Living passage, Mark 8: 13-21.

God; the true, the real God, in oppo

sition to idols. REMARK. Our past experience of 17. Simon Bar-jona; that is, SiGod's mercy ought to give us confi- mon son of Jonas. Compare John dence for the time to come. vs. 9, 10. 1:42. The word Bar, when traced

to its original language, signifies 13. Cesarea Philippi; a city in the son. This addition was made to the north part of Palestine, near the source name Simon, in order to distinguish of the Jordan. It was formerly called him from others of the same name. Paneas, and it is generally supposed || Flesh and blood ; that is, man, a to have been on the same spot as the human being. ancient city Dan. Judges 18: 26m 18. Thou art Peter. Peter is thy 29. By Philip the tetrarch it was en name. His name originally and proplarged and embellished, and in honor erly was Simon; and by way of disof the Roman emperor, it was named | tinction, Simon son of Jonas. See Cesarea ; and to distinguish it from John 1:42. Very soon after Jesus Cesarea on the coast of the Mediter- commenced his public work, he made ranean, it was named Cesarea Philippi. an addition to Simon's name, which

14. Elias; Elijah. It was believed I came to be used as his ordinary name. 19 And I will give unto thee heaven: and whatsoever thou the keys of the kingdom of shalt bind on earth, shall be This name was characteristic of cer- was selected as the distinguished intain qualities which Jesus perceived strument of commencing this great in Simon, and was appropriate to the work. In this connection, however, part which Simon was to perform in it is obvious, Peter is not called the promoting the cause of Jesus. This rock on which the church was to rest, name was Cephas; and it signified, in to the exclusion of Christ himself as the language which Jesus spoke, a the foundation. The term, as applied rock. The word Cephas, regarded as to Peter, must, of course, have a lima proper name of a man, could well ited meaning. Compared with Christ, be expressed in the Greek language he was subordinate” (1 Pet. 2: 4-6); only by the name translated Peter. compared with other human teachers, John 1: 42. Thus, he whose name | even the apostles, he was greatly disoriginally was Simon, received the tinguished. It is the idea, contained additional name Cephus · (or rock), in this metaphorical language, that which is the same as Peter in Greek. / should occupyour minds; and not || And upon this rock. Here the the mere language, taken in all its Saviour alludes to the radical mean- possibility of extent. || The gates of ing of the word Peter ; and points out hell shall not prevail against it. The Peter as a distinguished instrument gates of ancient Eastern cities were in the building up of his church. of great importance. They were neThe ineaning of the Saviour is the cessary to the defence of the cities, same as we should judge it to be, if which were walled: they were places he had used the English language, of much resort, and no little expense and had said to Peter, Thy name is was laid out in their erection and furRock, and upon this rock, &c. This nishing. The gates are sometimes method of speaking, by which the spoken of as representing the whole same words, or similarly sounding city, and might be regarded as the words, are used with a somewhat seat of power. || Hell. The word in different signification, was common the original here employed, is equivaamong the Hebrews; and those who lent to our expression, 6 world of heard Jesus on this occasion, would the dead," "state of the departed.” at once understand him as pointing Gates of hell, then, mean powers of out Peter. || I will build mij church. the lower world. Satan was regarded The church of Christ is here com- as the prince of death (Heb. 2: 14) pared to an edifice, and Peter to the and when the regions of the dead, foundation of the edifice. Here com- or the lower world, were spoken of, pare Eph. 2: 20. As the foundation particularly in contrast to the powis a most important part in respect to ers of righteousness, or the cause of an edifice, so Peter was to act a very Christ, Satan and his hosts would at distinguished part in respect to the once be thought of. The declaration church. The history of Peter fully of Christ, then, was, the powers of justifies what Jesus thus predicted of darkness, Satan and all his hosts of him. He became a fearless and suc- adversaries to my cause, shall never cessful champion in the cause of prevail to the subduing or destroying Christ. On the day of Pentecost, of my church. My church shall be after the ascension of our Lord, he victorious. defended the cause of his Master with 19. The keys. It was customary singular clearness, and ability, and among the ancient Hebrews, in famiforce of conviction. See Acts 2:14 lies of distinction, for a certain man

—47. And when the gospel was to to have charge of the household afbe openly proclaimed to the Gentiles, fairs as a steward. His office was one and thus the cause of Christ was to of much importance and responsibe rapidly and widely extended, Peter | bility. As a token of his office, he

bound in heaven; and whatso- ! 21. From that time forth beever thou shalt loose on earth, gan Jesus to show unto his disshall be loosed in heaven. ciples, how that he must go

20 Then charged he his dis- unto Jerusalem, and suffer many ciples that they should tell no things of the elders, and chief man that he was Jesus the Christ. priests, and scribes, and be bore a key. In Isaiah 22: 22, is lan- the name of his brethren, the aposguage showing how great dignity wastles, when he declared that Jesus was represented by possessing the keys. the Messiah; and to the others, as So in Rev. 1: 18. 3: 7. || Kingdom of well as to himself, did the Saviour's heaven; the Messiah's establishment, language allude. See 18: 18. 23: 8. the new dispensation. The keys of John 20: 22, 23. While, then, Peter the nei dispensation represent the was to sustain a very signal part in power of admitting to its privileges. I establishing the Saviour's cause, he Ī Thou shalt bind on earth. The was not to have precedence in point word translated bind properly signi- of authority. Accordingly, in the fies forbid, declare unlawful. ' || Shall council spoken of in Acts, i5th chapbe bound in heaven; shall be regarded ter, it was a decision suggested by in heaven as forbidden, or unlawful. James, that was adopted; and on a That is, Thou shalt be fully qualified very remarkable occasion (see Gal. and empowered on earth to declare 2: 11), Paul felt bimself called upon what is unlawful and forbidden in re- to rebuke Peter. For Peter, though spect to the church, and the salvation he knew, and had maintained, the of men; and what thou, thus quali- | principles of the gospel, had yet, on fied and empowered, shalt pronounce the occasion referred to, through tiforbidden, shall be so regarded in midity, acted inconsistently with his heaven. There will be perfect har | avowed principles. mony between thy decisions and the 20. That he was Jesus the Christ. will of heaven. || Thou shalt loose ; | The word Jesus, in this verse, is not shalt permit, declare to be right. found in the best manuscripts of the || Shall be loosed in heaven; shall in Greek New Testament, and is beheaven be regarded as permitted, as lieved not to belong to the verse. right. Thus a promise of full quali- The Christ means the Messiah. He fication and power was made to Peter, charged his disciples that they should in respect to establishing the cause tell no man that he was the Messiah. of Christ, and deciding and making Sonne special reasons, doubtless, exknown the fundamental principles isted in the mind of Jesus, for imposof the new dispensation. This full ing this prohibition at this time. Perqualification was, doubtless, to be haps he saw that no special advangranted after the departure of Christ, tage would be gained by their publicly and at the time of the descent of the speaking of him then as the Messiah. Holy Spirit. The Saviour himself, The remarks which he had just made, the Lord of the new dispensation, be- | could not, probably, he apprehended ing then removed from among men, by them in all the fulness and corit was necessary that there should rectness of their meaning; and those be authoritative teachers and guides, remarks might become a ground of who should be Christ's representa- some improper representations; for tives, and whose decisions on mat- the disciples were not yet, nor for ters pertaining to doctrine and duty, some time after, free from the ordishould be ultirnate, like the decisions nary expectation of a glorious earthly of heaven. Peter is here spoken of government to be possessed by the as one who should be thus qualified | Messiah. and empowered. Nor was Peter 21. Elders; distinguished men alone intended; for he spoke only in / among the Jews, who were mem

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