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ADAM OF ST VICTOR.

II. DE SS. EVANGELISTIS.

PSALLAT chorus corde mundo,

Hos attollat, per quos mundo
Sonant Evangelia ;

Voce quorum salus fluxit,

Nox recessit, et illuxit

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Sol illustrans omnia.

Curam agens sui gregis
Pastor bonus, auctor legis,
Quatuor instituit,

Quadri orbis ad medelam;
Formam juris et cautelam
Per quos scribi voluit.

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II. Clichtoveus, Elucidat Eccles. vol. ii. p. 221; Daniel, Thes. Hymnol. vol. ii. p. 88; Mone, Hymn. Lat. Med. Evi, vol. iii. p. 130; Gautier, Adam de S. Victor, vol. ii. p. 417.

1. This first line Gautier reads:

Plausu chorus lætabundo.

9, 10. Augustine (De Cons. Evang. i. 2): Quatuor Evangelistæ,...ob hoc fortasse quatuor, quoniam quatuor sunt partes orbis terræ, per cujus universitatem Christi Ecclesiam dilatari ipso sui numeri sacramento quodammodo declararunt.

11. cautelam] A juristic word. Ducange explains it perfectly: Cautele sunt instrumenta et chartæ, quibus privilegia, jura, possessiones, etc., asseruntur; hinc cautelæ dicta, quod sint veluti cautio (àopáλoμa) res illas ita se habere.

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25. rugientis] The legend, frequent in the middle ages, and indeed already alluded to by Origen (Hom. xvii. in Gen. xlix. 9), that the lion's whelps were born dead, and first roused to life on the third day by the roar of their sire, was often contemplated as a natural type of the resurrection: so is it here. The subject will recur in a note on Adam of St Victor's Resurrection hymn, Zyma vetus expurgetur, later in this volume.

Ritus bovis Lucæ datur,
In quâ formâ figuratur
Nova Christus hostia:
Arâ crucis mansuëtus

Hic mactatur, sicque vetus
Transit observantia.

Paradisi hæc fluenta.
Nova pluunt sacramenta,
Quæ descendunt cœlitus.

His quadrigis deportatur

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45

37. Ritus] So Clichtoveus, and this reading has manuscript authority (see Mone); but Daniel, Mone, and Gautier read rictus; in favour of which may be urged that it is the rarer word, less likely therefore to find its way into a text to which it did not belong: yet ritus seems preferable after all.

40. Arâ crucis] Elsewhere he has a beautiful stanza on the cross as the altar on which Christ was offered:

Oh, quam felix, quam præclara

Fuit hæc salutis ara,

Rubens Agni sanguine,

Agni sine maculâ,
Qui mundavit sæcula
Ab antiquo crimine!

46. His quadrigis] Clichtoveus sees here, but wrongly, an allusion to Zech. vi. Zacharias vidisse ipse dicit in spiritu quatuor quadrigas egredientes de medio duorum montium, et equos in eis varios, quibus jussum est ut totam terram perambularent: Hæ autem quadrigæ figura sunt SS. quatuor Evangelistarum, quibus Dei cognitio per universum orbem defertur et promulgatur. The traces are very slight among the Fathers of any such application of Zechariah's vision of the four chariots: St Jerome (in loc.) giving a whole series of mystical interpretations of these, does not give this; while elsewhere he makes abundantly plain that the poet is still drawing his imagery from that grand vision of Ezekiel (Ep. 50): Matthæus, Marcus, Lucas, et Johannes, quadriga Domini et verum Cherubim, per totum corpus oculati sunt, scintillæ emicant, discurrunt fulgura, pedes habent rectos et in sublime tendentes, terga pennata et ubique

Mundo Deus, sublimatur
Istis arca vectibus.

Non est domus ruitura
Hâc subnixa quadraturâ,
Hæc est domus Domini:
Gloriemur in hâc domo,
Quâ beate vivit homo
Deo junctus Homini.

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50

volitantia. Tenent se mutuo,. sibique perplexi sunt, et quasi rota in rotâ volvuntur, et pergunt quoquumque eos flatus S. Spiritûs perduxerit. Cf. Augustine, De Cons. Evang. i. 7; and Durandus, Rationale, vii. 46, who indeed suggests quite another allusion, namely to Cant. v. 11.

48. vectibus] Cf. Exod. xxv. 13-15. The vectes, of shittimwood overlaid with gold, were the staves which lifted the ark from the ground. They passed through the four golden rings at the four corners of the ark; and, though being only in fact two, had four extremities. Sometimes these, but oftener the four golden rings through which they pass, are made symbolic of the four Evangelists. Thus Hugh of St Victor: Quatuor annuli, qui arcæ inhærent, quatuor sunt Evangeliorum libri. Clichtoveus unites both: Per hos autem quatuor circulos et vectes illis insertos, quibus deferebatur arca, intelliguntur Evangelistæ, quorum narratione Christus, arca mystica et spiritualis, in omnem mundi partem, quantum ad sui notitiam, est delatus.

50. quadraturâ] The allusion is to Rev. xxi. 16. The house stands firm which stands on a foursquare foundation: in this shape is the greatest strength and stability of all. See the symbolic use of the λίθος τετράγωνοs in the Tabula of Cebes, c. 18. Even so the fourfold history of the Lord's life, the evayyéλov TETPάywvov, is the strong foundation on which the faith of the Church reposes. Thus Durandus (Rational. vii. 46): Sicut enim inter cæteras formas quadratum, sic inter cæteras doctrinas Evangelium solidius et stabilius perseverat; nam illud undique stat, et ideo legitur (Apocal. c. 21) quod civitas in quadro posita est.

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III. Gautier, Adam de S. Victor, vol. i. p. 241. This grand poem, a noble addition to our Latin hymnal, was by him published for the first time.

1-6. I cannot but think that Dr Neale, to whom we are indebted for a translation of this hymn (Medieval Hymns, 1863, p. 125), has failed to seize the true meaning of this first stanza. He renders it thus:

That substantive Word, united

To the flesh, and therein plighted

To a life of misery sore,
Him to be the Co-eternal,
John's theology supernal
Testifieth evermore.

By caro he understands that flesh which the Word assumed at the Incarnation, and the contrast which the poet, so understood, would find taught in the theology of St John is that between

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