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III.

COGNATES.

FIR
VIRST require the student to pronounce distinctly the

word containing the atonic element, then the subtonic cognate, uttering the element after each word—thus : lip, p; orb, b, &c. The attention of the pupil should be called to the fact that cognates are produced by the same organs, in a similar manner, and only differ in one being an undertone, and the other a whisper.

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THE

HE instructor will require the students to read or

recite the table of Alphabetic Equivalents, using the following formula : The Alphabetic Equivalents of A first power are ai, au, ay, e, ea, ee, ei, ey; as in the words, gain, gauge, stray, melee', great, vein, they.

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For å, ai, au, ay, e, ea, ee, ei, ey; as in gain, gauge, stray, melee', great, vein, they.

For å, ai, ua; as in plaid, guaranty.
For å, au, e, ea, ua; as in haunt, sergeant, heart, guard.

For å, au, aw, eo, 0, oa, ou; as in fault, hawk, George, oork, broad, bought.

For å, ai, e, ea, ei ; as in chair, there, swear, heir.

For è, ea, ee, ei, eo, ey, i, ie; as in read, deep, ceil, people, key, valise, field.

For è, a, ai, ay, ea, ei, eo, ie, u, ue; as in any, said, says, head, heifer, leopard, friend, bury, guess.

For è, ea, i, o, ou, u, ue, y ; as in earth, girl, word, scourge, burn, guerdon, myrrh.

For i, ai, ei, eye, ie, oi, ui, uy, y, ye; as in aisle, sleight, eye, die, choir, guide, buy, my, rye.

For i, ai, e, ee, ie, 0, 01, U, ui, y; as in captain, pretty, been, sieve, women, tortoise, busy, build, hymn.

For ó, au, eau, eo, ew, oa, oe, oo, ou, ow; as in hautboy, beau, yeoman, sew, coal, foe, door, soul, blow.

For o, a, ou, ow; as in what, hough, knowledge.

For 8, ew, oe, oo, ou, u, ui; as in grew, shoe, spoon, soup, rude, fruit.

For ů, eau, eu, ew, ieu, iew, ue, ui; as in beauty, feud, new, adieu, view, hue, juice.

For ů, o, oe, oo, ou; as in love, does, blood, young.
For ů, 0, 00, ou ; wolf, book, could.
For ou, ow; as in now.
For oi (år), oy; as in boy.

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For f, gh, ph; as in cough, nymph.
For j, 9; as in gem, gin.
For k, c, ch, gh, q; as in cole, conch, lough, etiquette.
For s, c; as in cell.
For t, d, th, phth ; as in danced, Thames, phthisic.
For v,f, ph; as in of, Stephen.
For y, i; as in pinion.
For 2, C, 8, 2; as in suffice, rose, xebec.
For 2, 9, 8; as in rouge, osier.
For ng, n; as in anger, bank.
For ch, t; as in fustian.

For sh, c, ch, s, ss, t; as in ocean, chaise, sure, assure, martial.

V.

ORAL ELEMENTS COMBINED.

A

FTER the instructor has given a class thorough drill

on the preceding tables as arranged, the following exercises will be found of great value, to improve the organs of speech and the voice, as well as to familiarize the student with different combinations of sounds. Students will not pass from these exercises until they can utter the elements represented by the figured vowels in whatever order the instructor may require.

As the fifth element represented by a, and the third element of e, are always immediately, followed by the oral element of r in words, the r is introduced in like manner in these exercises. Since the sixth sound of a, when not a syllable by itself

, is always immediately followed by the oral element of f, n, or s, in words, these letters are bere employed in the same manner.

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ber;

åb,

erb;

der;

dů;

èrd;

id;

1. bå, bå, bå, bå,

bi, bỉ ; bồ, bỏ, àb, åb,

åb, ib, ib; ob, b, då, då, då, då, di, di; dồ, dỗ, åd, åd, åd, åd, id,

dd, 8d, gå, gå,

gå, gå, gå, gi, gi; go, go, åg, åg, égeg

ig, ig; òg, og, 2. jås, jår, já,

jår, ja, ja, ji, ji; jo, jo, lås, lår, lå, lå, li, li; 18, 18, åf, årl, A1, ål, il, il; 81, 81,

bår, båf; bė, be,
bỏ ; bi, bů,

bů; bou. årb, åf; éb,

éb, 8b; ub, ůb, ůb; oub. dår, dås; dė, de, do; dů, dů,

dou. ård, åf; ed, ed, 8d; úd, ůd, ůd; oud. går, gån; gė, ge, gẰr; g; gủ, gủ,

gů; gou. årg, áf; ég, ég, erg; og; úg, ůg, üg; oug. jà, jà; jer, jė, jè; jo; jů, jů, jů; jou. lå,

ler, le, le; lů, lů, lù; lou. ål, al: erl, el, èl; ol;

ůl, ůl; oui.

là;

lò;

ܕܐܪ

nou.

rù;

rou.

mås, mår, må, må, må, må; mer, mė, mė; mi, mi; mở, md, mo; mů, mů, mů; mou åf, ẳrm, ẩm, ẩm, ảm, am; êm, êm, em;

im, im; om, ôm, óm; ům, ům, úm; oum. 3. na, nå, nå, når, nåf, nå; nė, nêr, nė;

ni, ni; no, no, nð; nů, nů, nů; ång, årng, ång, åf, ảng, ảng; ẵng, ẵng, ong; Ẩng, ng; ông, ông, ông; ủng, ủng, ủng; oung. rà, rå, rår, rå, rå, råf; re,

rèr, re; ri, ri; ró, ro, rồ; rů, rů, 4. hả, , thẳr, m&f, thủ, ; ,

thå; ther, thè, the, ini, thì ; hỏ, thỏ,

thô, thổ; thủ, thủ, thủ; thou. åth, åth, &f, àth, årfh, åth; éth, érth, eth; ith, ith; oth, ofh, oth; ifh, ůfh, úfh; outh. và, vå, vår, vå, våf, vå; ver, vė, ve; vi, vi; vò, vě, vỏ; vů, vů, vů; åv, åf, åv, àv, åv,

årv; érv, év, év; iv, iv; ov; ov, ov; úv, ův, úv; wà, wå, wår, wå, wå, wåf; wêr, we, wė;

wi, wi; wó, wo, wở; wů, wů, wů; wou. 5. yà,

yå, på, yå, går, yản; yė, yè, yer; yi, yi; yo, yo, yồ; yů, pů, yů; you.

zů, zu; zỖ, zo, zo; zi, zer, , ze; zif,

zxf, zir, z3, zå, zà, zà. ouz; üz,

ůz; 8z,

oz, Óz; iz, iz; érz, ez, èz; åf, årz, dz,

vou.

ouv.

zou; zů,

zi;

ůz,

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ús;

ous.

2. åf, års, ås ås, ăs, ās; érs, és, ēs; is, īs ; Ös, os,

os; ůs, ŭs, tås, tår, tå, tå, tă, tā; tër, tě, tē; tì, tī; to, tô, to; tū, tů, tủ; tou. th&f, thản, thủ, thả, thã, thà; thêr, thẽ, thể; īth, ith; oth, 8th, oth; ūth, ùth, ůth; outh. ouch; ůch, ūch, úch; õch, ôch, och; ich, ich;

ërch, éch, ěch; if, āch, åch, årch, ach, ăch. 3, chou; chủ, chũ, chă; chỗ, chố, chố; chĩ, chi;

chẽ, chẽ, chẽ; chã, cha, chủ, chủ, chẳr, chẳn. oush; ůsh, úsh, ūsh; īsh, sh, osh; ish, ish; ërsh, ēsh, ësh; ash, if, ăsh, åsh, åsh, årsh. shou; shů, shủ, shū; sh8, shỏ, sho; shī, shi; sher, shē, shë; shån, shår, shā, shå, shă, shå. whou; whủ, whů, whū; who, who, whỏ; whī, whữ; wher, whê, whē; whås, whår, whả, whă, whā, whå.

VI.
ERRORS IN ARTICULATION.

ERRORS in Articulation, arismo echieilly, first, from the

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his try

his to ry.

nov el.

of elements in , an' for and.

stå'm for storm. frien's friends.

wa'm

wärm. blin'ness blind ness.

bois trous

bois tèr ous. fac's facts.

chick'n chick én. soft ly. fiel's fields.

nov'l wil's wilds.

tray'l

trav el. Secondly, from uttering one or more elements that should not be sounded; as, év en for ev'n.

for rav'l. heav en « heav'n.

sev'n. tảk en tåk’n.

sof ten sof'n. sick en sick'n.

shảk en shak'n. driv el driv’l.

shov el shov'l. grov'l.

shriv 1 shriv'l.

rav el sev en

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