صور الصفحة
PDF
النشر الإلكتروني
[ocr errors]

tróf fy

trò phy.

for git

66 for get.

Thirdly, from substituting one element for another; as, set for sit.

cárse for course. sence since.

re pårt re pòrt. shet shůt.

på rent

pår ent. cåre cåre.

bản net bồn net. dånce dånce.

chil drun" chil dren. påst påst.

sůl ler

cel lar.
åsk
åsk.

mel ler mel low.
grass gråss.
shrill.

mo munt

mo mènt. whirl.

harm liss 66 harm less. a gån “ again (ă gen).

kind nisso

kind ness.
a gånst “ against (ă genst). wis per
herth
hearth (hårth).

sing ing.

[ocr errors]

pil ler

pil lów.

srill wirl

whis per.

sing in

VII.
WORDS.

A WORD is one or more Oral elements, or letters used

[ocr errors][ocr errors]

2. WORDS ARE DIVIDED into primitive, derivative, simple, and compound

3. A PRIMITIVE WORD is not derived, but constitutes a root from which other words are formed; as faith, ease.

4. A DERIVATIVE WORD is formed of a primitive and an affix or prefix; as faithful, disease.

5. A SIMPLE WORD is one that can not be divided without destroying the sense; as an, the, book.

6. A COMPOUND WORD is formed by two or more words; as inkstand, book-binder, laughing-stock.

VIII.
ANALYSIS OF WORDS.

I

order to secure a practical knowledge of the preceding definitions and tables, to learn to spell spoken words by their oral elements, and to understand the uses of letters in written words, the instructor will require the student to master the following exhaustive, though simple analysis.

ANALYSIS.—1st. The word SALVE, in pronunciation, is formed by the union of three oral elements ; så v-salve. [Here let the student utter the three oral elements separately, and then pronounce the word.] The first is a modified breathing; hence, it is an atonic. The second is a pure tone; hence, it is a tonic. The third is a modified tone; hence, it is a subtonic.

2d. The word SALVE, in writing, is represented by five letters; salve-salve. S represents an atonic; hence, it is a consonant. Its oral element is chiefly formed by the teeth ; hence, it is a dental. Its oral element is produced by the same organs and in a similar manner as the first oral element of z; hence, it is a cognate of 2. A represents a tonic; hence, it is a vowel. L is silent. V represents a subtonic; hence, it is a consonant. Its oral element is chiefly formed by the lower lip and the upper teeth; hence, it is a labia-dental. Its oral element is formed by the same organs and in a similar manner as that of f; hence, it is a cognate of f. E is silent.

ANALYSIS.—1st. The word shoe, in pronunciation, is formed by the union of two oral elements; sh 8—shoe. The first is a modified breathing; hence, it is an atonic. The second is a pure tone; hence, it is a tonic.

2d. The word shoe, in writing, is represented by four letters; shoe-shoe. The combination sh represents an atonic; hence, it is a consonant. Its oral element is chiefly formed by the teeth; hence, it is a dental. Its oral element is produced by the same organs and in a similar manner as the second oral element represented by z; hence, it is a cognate of %. The combination oe is formed by the union of two vowels, one of which is silent; hence,

The analysis logical.-It will stated, is as follows :-All modified be seen that this analysis is strictly breathings are Atonics ; logical ; and that each conclusion is The oral element of s is a modi. deduced from two premises, one of fied breathing; which (the major proposition) is sup. Hence, the oral element of 8 is an pressed. The first syllogism, fully Atonic.

it is an improper diphthong. It represents the oral element usually represented by 8; hence, it is an alphabetic equivalent of ð.

ANALYSIS-1st. The compound word FRUIT'-BUD is a dissyllable, accented on the penult. In pronunciation, it is formed by the union of seven oral elements; frở t'-bůdfruit-bud. The first is a modified breathing; hence, it is an atonic. The second is a modified tone; hence, it is a subtonic. The third is a pure tone; hence, it is a tonic. The fourth is a modified breathing; hence, it is an atonic. The fifth is a modified tone; hence, it is a subtonic. The sixth is a pure tone; hence, it is a tonic. The seventh is a modified tone; hence, it is a subtonic.

2d. The word FRUIT-BUD, in writing, is represented by eight letters; fruit-bud. Frepresents an atonic; hence, it is a consonant. Its oral element is chiefly formed by the lower lip and the upper teeth ; hence, it is a labia-dental. Its oral element is produced by the same organs and in a similar manner as that of v; hence, it is a cognate of v. R represents a subtonic; hence, it is a consonant. Its oral element is chiefly formed by the tongue; hence, it is a lingual. The combination ui is formed by the union of two vowels; hence, it is a diphthong. It represents the oral element usually represented by 8; hence, it is an alphabetic equivalent of 8. T represents an atonic; hence, it is a consonant. Its oral element is chiefly formed by the tongue; hence, it is a lingual. Its oral element is produced by the same organ and in a similar manner as that of d; hence, it is a cognate of d. B represents a subtonic; hence, it is a consonant. Its oral element is chiefly formed by the lips; hence, it is a labial. Its oral element is produced by the same organs and in a similar manner as that of p; hence, it is a cognate of p. U represents a tonic; hence, it is a vowel. D represents a subtonic; hence, it is a consonant. Its oral element is chiefly formed by the tongue; hence, it is a lingual. Its oral element is produced by the same organ and in a similar manner as that of t; hence, it is a cognate of t.

IX.
RULES IN ARTICULATION.

A

AS the name of a letter, or when used as an emphatic

word, should always be pronounced ā (a in age); as, She did not say that the three boys knew the letter ā, but that a boy knew it.

2. THE WORD A, when not emphatic, is marked short (ă),' though in quality it should be pronounced nearly like a as heard in åsk, gråss; as,

Give ă baby sister ă smile, ă kind word, and ă kiss.

3. THE, when not emphatic nor immediately followed by a word that commences with a vowel sound, should be pronounced thủ; as,

The (thă) peach, the (thă) plum, thē apple, and the (fhỏ) cherry are yours. Did he ask for à pen, or for the pen ?

4. U PRECEDED BY R.—When u long (u in tūbe), or its alphabetic equivalent ew, is preceded by r, or the sound of sh, in the same syllable, it has always the sound of o in do; as,

Are you sure that shrewd youth was rude?

5. R MAY BE TRILLED when immediately followed by a vowel sound in the same syllable. When thus situated in emphatic words, it should always be trilled; as,

He is both brave and true. She said scratching, not scrawling.

X.

EXERCISES IN ARTICULATION.

ILENT letters are here omitted, in most of the exam

ples, and the words are spelled as they should be pronounced. Students will read the sentences several times, both separately and in concert, uttering all the oral elements with force and distinctness. They will also analyze

' A initial.-A in many words, or volume of sound being less than as an initial unaccented syllable, is that of a sixth power (8), as in ålås, also marked short (ă), its quantity ămåss, ă båft.

the words, both as spoken and written, and name the rules in articulation that are illustrated by the exercises.

Sentences that are printed in the usual style are intended for dictation exercises, in which silent letters will be omitted and the words so written as to represent their cor rect and exact pronunciation.

1. Thou lādst down ănd slēptst. 2. Thů bold, båd båiz brók bólts ånd bårz. 3. Hi ồn à bil Hủ hård hårséz hårni höfs. 4. Shỏr ål hềr påfhz år påfhz óv pès. 5. Bå! fhåt'z not siks děllårz, bůt ā dollár. 6. Chẳng thể old màn tỏ chöz & châĩs chẽz. 7. Līt sēkặng līt, hăth līt ov līt bēgīld. 8. Thů hosts stůd stil, in silent wảnder fikst. 9. A thouzånd shreks får hóples mèrsi kál. 10. Thů fölishnės öv fölz iz fölli. 11. Bởth'z yởths with trởths yüz othz. 12. Arm ît wỉth răgz, ă pigmĩ strå wil pērs it. 13. Nou sot thủ tếth &nd strẻch thủ nỖstril wid. 14. Hè wócht ånd wept, he felt ånd pråd får ål. 15. Hiz iz, &midst fhů mists, mêzêrd ån åzèr ski. 16. Thů febl, fritnd frèmån fèbli fåt får frédům.

17. Whispers of revenge passed silently around among the troops.

18. No shet når shroud enshrind fhóz shrůngkn shredz óv shrivld klå.

19. He has prints of an ice-house, an ocean, and wasts and deserts.

20. Thů whảlz whéld ånd whềrld, and bård thår bråd, broun båks.

21. Jilz ănd Jasn Jõnz căn nốt sẽ,—Arörả, alis, ămẫs, mănnå, villå, når Lūnå.

22. It will pain nobody, if the sad dangler regain neither rope.

23. The ragged madman, in his ramble, did madly ran. sack every pantry in the parish.

24. Whåt thou wûdst hill thåt thou wûdst hollli.

« السابقةمتابعة »