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lence; that they bear to all others of the same species, who come in their way; without jealousy, fondness, quarrelling, or discontent.

In educating the youth of both sexes, their method is admirable, and highly deserves our imitation. These are not suffered to taste a grain of oats, except upon certain days, till eighteen years old ; nor milk, but very rarely; and in summer they graze two hours in the morning, and as many in the evening, which their parents likewise observe ; but the servants are not allowed above half that time, and a great part of their grass is brought home, which they eat at the most convenient hours, when they can be best spared from work.

Temperance, industry, exercise, and cleanliness, are the lessons equally enjoined to the young ones of both sexes : and my master thought it monstrous in us, to give the females a different kind of education from the males, except in some articles of domestick management; whereby, as he truly observed, one half of our natives were good for nothing but bringing children into the world : and to trust the care of our children to such useless animals, he said, was yet a greater instance of brutality.

But the Houyhnhnıs train up their youth to strength, speed, and hardiness, by exercising them in running races up and down steep hills, and over hard stony gróunds, and when they are all in a sweat, they are ordered to leap over head and ears into a pond or river. Four times a year the youth of a certain district meet to show their proficiency in running and leaping, and other feats of strength and agility; where the victor is rewarded, with a song in his or her praise. On this festival, the servants drive a herd VOL. VI. Y

of

of yahoos into the field, laden with hay, and oats, and milk, for a repast to the Houyhnhnms; after which, these brutes are immediately driven back again, for fear of being noisome to the assembly.

Every fourth year, at the vernal equinox, there is á representative council of the whole nation, which meets in a plain about twenty miles from our house, and continues about five or six days. Here they inquire into the state and condition of the several districts; whether they abound, or be deficient in hay or oats, or cows or yahoos ? and wherever there is any want, (which is but seldom) it is immediately supplied by unanimous consent and contribution. Here likewise the regulation of children is settled : as for instance, if a Houyhnhnm has two males, he changes one of them with another that has two females: and when a child has been lost by any casualty, where the mother is past breeding, it is determined what family in the district shall breed another, to supply the loss.

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A grand debate at the general assembly of the Houyhnhnms, and how it was determined. The learning of the Houyhnhnms. Their buildings. Their manner of burials. The defectiveness of their language.

ONE of these grand assemblies was held in my time, about three months before my departure,

whither

whither my master went as the representative of our district. In this council was resumed their old debate, and indeed the only debate that ever happened in their country; whereof my master, after his return, gave me a very particular account.

The question to be debated was, whether the yahoos should be exterminated from the face of the earth. One of the members for the affirmative, offered several arguments of great strength and weight; alleging, that as the yahoos were the most filthy, noisome, and deformed animal, which nature ever produced, so they were the most restive and indocible, mischievous and malicious: they would privately suck the teats of the Houyhnhnms cows; kill and devour their cats, trample down their oats and grass, if they were not continually watched, and commit a thousand other extravagancies. He took notice of a general tradition, that yahoos had not been always in their country; but that many ages ago, two of these brutes appeared together upon a mountain ; whether produced by the heat of the sun upon corrupted mud and slime, or from the ooze and froth of the sea, was never known: that these yahoos engendered, and their brood, in a short time, grew so numerous, as to overrun and infest the whole nation : that the Houyhnhnms, to get rid of this evil, made a general hunting, and at last enclosed the whole herd; and destroying the elder, every Houyhnhnm kept two young ones in a kennel, and brought them to such a degree of tameness, as an animal, so savage by nature, can be capable of acquiring; using them for draught and cațriage : that there seemed to be much truth in this tradition, and that those creatures could not be ylnhniamshy (or.

aborigines

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aborigines of the land) because of the violent hatred the Houyhnhnms, as well as all other animals, bore them ; which, although their evil disposition sufficiently deserved, could never have arrived at so high a degree, if they had been aborigines; or else they would have long since been rooted out: that the inhabitants, taking a fancy to use the service of the yahoos, had very imprudently neglected to cultivate the breed of asses, which are a comely animal, easily kept, more tame and orderly, without any offensive smell, strong enough for labour, although they yield to the other in agility of body; and if their braying be no agreeable sound, it is far preferable to the horrible howlings of the yahoos.

Several others declared their sentiments to the same purpose, when my master proposed an expedient to the assembly, whereof he had indeed borrowed the hint from me. He approved of the tradition mentioned by the honourable member, who spoke before; and affirmed, that the two yahoos, said to be first seen among them, had been driven thịther over the sea ; that coming to land, and being forsaken by their companions, they retired to the mountains, and degenerating by degrees, became in process of time much more savage, than those of their own species in the country whence these two originals

The reason of this assertion was, that he had now in his possession a certain wonderful yahoo, (meaning myself) which most of them had heard of, and many of them had seen. He then related to them, how he first found me; that my body was all covered with an artificial composure of the skins and hairs of other animals : that I spoke in a language of my own, and had thoroughly learned theirs : that I

had

came.

had related to him the accidents, which brought me thither; that when he saw me without my covering, I was' an exact yahoo in every part, only of a whiter colour, less hairy, and with shorter claws. He added, how I had endeavoured to persuade him, that. in my own and other countries, the yahoo acted as the governing, rational animal, and held the Houyhnhnms in servitude : that he observed in me all the qualities of a yahoo, only a little more civilized by some tincture of reason; which however was in a degree as far inferiour to the Houyhnhnm race, as the yahoos of their country were to me:

that

among other things, I mentioned a custom we had of castrating Houyhnhnms when they were young, in order to render them tame; that the operation was easy and safe ; that it was no shame to learn wisdom from brutes, as industry is taught by the ant, and building by the swallow ; (for so I translate the word lyhannh, although it be a much larger fowl) that this invention might be practised upon the younger yahoos here, which, beside rendering them tractable and fitter for use, would in an age put an end to the whole species, without destroying life': that in the mean time the Houyhnhnms should be exhorted to cultivate the breed of asses, which as they are in all respects more valuable brutes, so they have this advantage, to be fit for service at five years old, which the others are not till twelve.

This was all my master thought fit to tell me at that time, of what passed in the grand council. But he was pleased to conceal one particular, which related personally to myself, whereof I soon felt the unhappy effect, as the reader will know in its proper

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place,

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