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such special designation, (Rev. ii. 26, 27,) though quoted with this view ; for the power over the nations is given to.him that overcometh and keepeth my works (says our Lord) unto the end,This is a general description of a faithful and pure Christian, and has been already explained as such in the notes on that passage. The reader also may be referred to chap. vii. 13, and the observations upon it, where he will see the results of the freedom from persecution conferred

upon the Christians by the favour of Constantine; for from that period may be dated those corruptions in the Church, and that relaxation of genuine Christian doctrine and virtue, which opened the way for the antichristian domination, as prophetically symbolized in the subsequent chapters. In these, the conflict between the dragon and the Church of Christ is continued, by the former bringing into view his aiders and abettors. So far as this twelfth chapter, the warfare is carried on without such particular instruments or agents on either side.

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The wild Beast from the Sea.

CHAP. xii. ver. 18; xiii. 1-10.

18 And I stood upon the sand of the sea,

And I saw a beast rise up out of the sea, having seven heads and ten horns, and upon his horns ten crowns,


upon his heads the name of blasphemy.

2 And the beast which I saw was like unto a leopard, and his feet were as the feet of a bear, and his mouth as the mouth of a lion :


and the dragon gave him his power, and his seat, and great authority.

3 Ånd I saw one of his heads as it were wounded to death; and his deadly wound was healed: and all the world wondered after the beast.

4 And they worshipped the dragon which gave power unto the beast: and they worshipped the beast, saying, Who is like unto the beast? who is able to make war with him?

5 And there was given unto him a mouth speaking great things, and blasphemies; and power was given unto him to continue forty and two months.

6 And he opened his mouth in blasphemy against God, to blaspheme his name, and his tabernacle, and them that dwell in heaven.

7 And it was given unto him to make war with the saints, and to overcome them: and power was given him over all kindreds, and tongues, and nations.

8 And all that dwell upon the earth shall worship him, whose names are not written in the book of life of the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world.

9 If any man have an ear, let him hear.

10 He that leadeth into captivity shall go into captivity: he that killeth with the sword must be killed with the sword. Here is the patience and the faith of the saints.


Ch. xii. ver. 18. And I stood upon the sand of the sea.] Έσταθην, not έσταθη, appears to be the true reading. The scene is now changed, and the prophet is so stationed as to behold it. It had been removed from the earth and sea, where the angel of the tenth chapter had begun to disclose the fortunes of the Church in the western kingdoms of the Gentiles; it had been removed to heaven, to show the prime Mover of all the warfare. Both the combatants were of heavenly extraction, and had fought in heaven. These conflicts therefore were first described ; and the scene was changed to accommodate to them. But the battle, which had been begun in heaven, is now continued on earth; and is to be brought to its conclusion under the seventh trumpet. Therefore, before the final conflict, wherein

1 See the lect. var. in Griesbachi.

the heavenly leader will again appear, the combatants on earth are also to be exhibited ; first, those who continue the warfare on behalf of the dragon ; then, those who engage on the part of the woman, or Church. Accordingly, the scene is again opened upon earth, and at the brink of the sea; because a formidable agent of the dragon, or satan, is to arise from that quarter. (Ch. xi. 7.)


Ch. xiii. ver. 1. And I saw a wild beast rising up out of the sea.] The sea, in prophetic language, signifies in general, the heathen world;' numerous and powerfularmies of the Gentiles, marching against the people of God, are figuratively represented by the stormy waves of the sea. Thus the ascent of the wild beast out of the sea, seems to signify his rise in worldly power, and probably also from the western Gentiles, who are more especially represented under this symbol. The four wild beasts of the prophet Daniel, representing so many successive tyrannies which overran the earth, are described, all of them, as ascending from the sea. There is a very striking resemblance between the wild beast of the Apocalypse and those of this prophet. It will be useful to exhibit them together: and it will be done most effectually in the Greek. The translation of Daniel into that language appears to be very close to the original, as given in Mr. Wintle's version :

Dan. vii. 2-15. Θηρια μεγαλα 'Ανεβαινον εκ της θαλασσης 1. Ως λεαινα"

στομα λαλουν (orig. a lion.) μεγαλα.

Rev. xiii. 1–18; xix. 20; Xx. 4. Θηριον-εξουσιαν μεγαλην. 'Ανεβαινον εκ της θαλασσης.

“Ως στομα λεοντος.

1 See note, ch. viii. 7, 8.

l Is. xvii. 12, 13; Psalms Ixv. 7: Ixxxix. 9, 10; xciii. 3, 4; Ezek. xxvi. 3,7. See also note, ch. i. 14, 15.


2. Αρκτος"
3. Παρδαλις"
4. Θηριον,

ισχυρον περισσως,
φοβερον και εκθαμβον, οι οδον-

τες αυτου σιδηροι" κ. τ. λ.
Κερατα δεκα αυτο
Δεκα βασιλεις

Οι ποδες αυτου ως Αρκτου.
Ομοιον παρδαλει.
έδωκεν αυτή

δρακων την δυναμιν αυτου και τον θρονον

και εξουσιαν μεγαλην. Κερατα δεκα,--κεφαλας επτα.

Δεκα διαδηματα,

Δεκα βασιλεις. (Chap. xvii. 12.)
Αλλο θηριον.
Κερατα,- ---ομοια αρνιο
Ποιεί σημεια μεγαλα.

Κερας έτερον μικρον
Οφθαλμοι ώσει ανθρωπου εν τω κε- ,


Στομα λαλBν μεγαλα

κε- }

{ βλασφηΈως καιρου και καιρών και γε ήμισυ } Μηνας τεσσαρακοντα δυο.

μιας, ελαλει ως δρακων.

καιρου 'Εποιει πολεμον μετα των αγιων, και

ισχυσε προς αυτους 'Ανηρεθη το θηριον, και απωλετω» και

το σώμα αυτου έδoθη εις καυσιν πυ

pos. Οι θρονοι έτεθησαν

κριτηριον έκαθισε: Ως υίος ανθρωπου έρχομενος, και αντω

εδοθη η αρχη κ. τ. λ.

Πολεμον ποιήσαι μετα των αγιων, και

νικήσαι αυτους. 'Επιασθη το θηριον, και μετά τουτω

δ ψευδοπροφητης- -έβληθησαν οι δυο

εις την λιμνην τ8 πυρος. (Ch. xix. 20.) Και ειδον θρονους, και έκαθισαν επ' αυ

τών, και κριμα εδoθη αυτοις. Και έβασιλευσαν μετα τ8 Χριστου.

(Chap. ΧΧ. 4.)

From this comparison, it must appear, that the beast

, of the Apocalypse (including the second beast, the false prophet, who is cotemporary with him, exercises his power, and exalts him to universal worship) bears striking resemblance to the beasts of Daniel ; to all four of them in some respects; but more especially to the fourth; which, like the beast of the Apocalypse, has the same period of continuance allotted to him, at the end of which he is to be destroyed in like manner; and the destruction of both is followed by the establishment of the Messiah's reign. It will further appear, by a similar compari

. son, that the visions of the apocalyptic beast, and of this of the prophet Daniel, have a nearer resemblance to each other than the two famous visions of Daniel (of the beasts and of the image), yet these two visions of Daniel, on very satisfactory grounds, and by report of the best ancient and modern com

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mentators, are supposed to represent the same history. The three first beasts of Daniel resemble those which appear to have been most formidable to the ancient world; the lion, the bear, the leopard ; and which are enumerated as such by Hosea, (ch. xiii. 7,8.); but the fourth beast is a non-descript. He was diverse from the other beast; exceedingly terrible; had iron teeth, and ten horns; and among the ten, one more dreadful than the rest, which sprang up after them. The beast of the Apocalypse is described as possessing the most terrible parts and properties of all the beasts of Daniel. He is in his general shape like a leopard; uniting uncommon agility with ferocious strength; he has the mouth of the lion, (Psalm xxii. 13; 2 Tim. iv. 17.); the paw of the bear, (1 Sam. xvii. 34, 37.) But his resemblance is much nearer to the fourth beast, whose more dreadful power he seems to possess. He has his ten horns, his ten kings, or kingdoms. He has the “ mouth, speaking great things and blasphemies," which is seen upon the little additional horn of the fourth beast of Daniel. To which little horn, the second beast of the Apocalypse, (intimately connected with the first, rising up after him to exercise his power, and to increase his dominion) will be found to bear strong resemblance, when we proceed to consider them together, and to apply St. Paul's comment to them both. This will be done in the succeeding section, where the second beast becomes the object of more particular attention. It is enough at present to observe, that this resemblance will be shown. But sufficient evidence appears, already, to enable us to conclude, that since the beasts of Daniel, and especially the fourth, bear strong resemblance to the beast of the Apocalypse ;

i See particulars in Bp. Newton's Diss. on Prophecy, vol. i. 454. 8vo. Kett on Prophecy, vol. i. p. 320, &c. 4th ed.

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