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One day, however, as he was walking alone near Munich, in the melancholy mood, which his desperate affairs might well inspire, he chanced to take up a piece of limestone, one of the compact carbonates, and cutting into it from mere idleness with his penknife, it occurred to him, that, for musical printing and similar work, it might be employed instead of wood and type metal-an improvement, which he thought would be important, because the portions to be taken off in order to procure the necessary relief could be so easily removed by an acid. He pursued this thought soon afterwards, and actually engraved and published several pieces of music on stone, but in the block method.
While, however, he was engaged in this experiment, he observed one day, that the parts of the stone which had been touched with acid refused to receive ink, even in the slightest degree ; and this led him at once very naturally to the conclusion, that these portions did not need to be removed; but that it would be sufficient for his purpose to touch them with a weak solution of acid, after the portions from which it was intended to obtain the impression, should be covered with some oily matter. This was in the year 1796, and this is the substance of the invention of Lithography, which consists in taking a compact carbonate of lime, making it perfectly smooth, covering with some oily matter, usually made by the addition of wax into the form of a crayon, the design to be struck off, wetting it freely with a weak solution of acid, which will not at all effect the drawing, and then inking it nearly in the usual method, and taking the copy by pressure.
Patents were obtained for this invention in Munich in the year 1800, and in both London and Vienna in 1802. But still little or nothing was attempted, except to print music, copy books for children, and other similar and inconsiderable works. In 1804, we believe, the first efforts were made in landscape designs. This was the decisive step, and from this time it has gone on in a rapid course of improvement and extension. Within ten or twelve years, it has been much known out of Germany, Count Lasteyrie, the son in law of La Fayette, and the same person who introduced merino sheep into France, and who has done so much for popular education, went to Munich in 1814 and in 1816, for the express purpose of transporting this beautiful invention to
Paris, and succeeded. Engelmann, a German, who is among those that have improved the art, resorted also to Paris in 1816. Since that time another German by the name of Delpech has distinguished himself in the same capital. W. Westall has lately adopted it in England, and published some beautiful sketches for the first volume of Southey's Peninsular War; and in Russia, it has been so long established, that several of the Lithographers of St Petersburg are already well known to collectors throughout Europe.
The following short account from Professor Griscom, of Count Lasteyrie's method, will show how far the art was advanced in 1818; but it has made considerable progress since.
We also called on Count Lasteyrie, who is likewise distinguished for his philanthropic efforts in the cause of education, and for his ingenious and persevering endeavors to introduce the art of printing on stone. He politely conducted us to his Lithographic rooms, where we saw the operation of smoothing the stone, putting on the colors, sponging, inking, and printing. The stone is a compact carbonate of lime, of a close texture. After it has received the requisite polish, the figure or character is laid on with a pencil dipped in ink of a particular composition. An actual drawing is thus effected of the object to be represented. The stone being then placed in the frame of the press, a sponge, dipped in water, is several times passed over it, and the ink is put on, by pressing upon the stone a soft substance, charged with it, much in the same manner as that practised with common types. But the ink adheres to no part of the surface which is thoroughly wet, and of course it is only that part which has been previously covered with the paint that takes the ink, and produces the impression, when covered with paper, and subjected to the press. vol. i. 258.
How far this very simple and beautiful invention may be extended, we have not yet experience enough to determine with any considerable degree of probability. But its past history and success are so remarkable, that we cannot help anticipating much from its future progress. It has already been applied with more or less advantage, wherever the methods on copper, wood and type metal have heretofore prevailed. Ruins and the misty indistinctness of a remote background can even now be represented by it to more striking effect than in any other way; and quite recently we have seen a large series of portraits of distinguished Frenchmen, executed with a degree of success, that seems to remove the limits, which have usually been assigned to the art. Every year, indeed, of the last seven or eight, has brought with it some striking improvement in the management of lithography; and we are therefore rejoiced to find an effort now making to give it currency in our own country, where it can so easily be made useful and important. We do not indeed believe that it will, either here or anywhere else, supersede a method, which has produced such masters as have engraved on copper from Marco Antonio to Morghen ; yet, as it is probably nine hundred per cent cheaper, the temptation to exertion is almost indefinite ; and, as its progress during the few years of its existence has been so rapid and fortunate, we may calculate, that for a long period yet to come we shall witness a corresponding increase in its delicacy, depth and spirit.
Another very interesting subject, and one of those that occur most frequently in Professor Griscom's book, is that of Hospitals, and many valuable facts concerning their management will be found scattered through it, as he from time to time visited them. Perhaps, the most remarkable account he has given of this kind is that of the Saltpetrière near Paris, (Vol. II. 58–63,) which contains within itself a population nearly equal to that of the whole town of Newburyport; and has, of course arrangements for their nourishment, clothing and care, on the most gigantic scale. But we cannot follow this excellent philanthropist through these and many more of his details, which have gratified and instructed us. Yet, we cannot leave him without saying, that perhaps no parts of his work will be read with more pleasure, than his accounts of Fellenberg's school, (Vol. I. 392—401,) of Pestalozzi's, (Vol. 1. 415-421,) and of the singular establishment of Owen of Lanark, (Vol. II. 375–393,) three institutions, which are intended to raise the character of popular and general education and manners, and which are conducted with great spirit, enthusiasm and success, on principles so different as to be almost opposite and inconsistent.
Professor Griscom seems to have gone to Europe in order to be able more effectually to do good, after his return home. His book, therefore, is simply a useful book, rendered very interesting by its relation to the present state of our own country. Its literary execution is not remarkably good. Its notices of society and manners are necessarily superficial and imperfect; and the accounts of individuals are sometimes more free, perhaps, than they themselves would think judicious. But, there is nothing in it to gratify scandal or spleen; no exhibition or excitement of party feelings and passions in religion or politics, or anything else. It is chiefly filled with accounts of what he hiinself saw; the manufactories, mines, prisons, hospitals, public schools, and other similar establishments, which he visited ; and consists, therefore, in a great measure, of what may be called the statistics of the benevolent and useful institutions, by which misery and guilt are diminished, and knowledge and power diffused in Europe. It is a book, which, in all respects, does credit to its author, as a member of the Society of Friends, and can, therefore, hardly fail of being interesting and useful to the public.
Art. X.-Essays Descriptive and Moral on Scenes in Italy,
Switzerland, and France. By AN AMERICAN. Edinburgh. A. Constable & Co. 1 vol. 8vo. 1923. This small and unpretending volume of Essays, which appeared a few months ago at Edinburgh, is not a book of travels; but the result and reflections of some passages in its author's residence on the continent of Europe. It has been his object, therefore, to give a deep moral and religious interest and coloring to a few separate scenes and circumstances, that chiefly arrested his attention, without attempting to mark the course of his journeys, or to give a minute description even of the portions on which he has chosen to dwell. In general, he has succeeded. The grave tone of his thoughts and feelings harmonizes well with the scenes and subjects he has selected, belonging, as they do chiefly, to the antiquities of Italy and of the Catholic faith. Occasionally, indeed, he turns aside from these subjects. But still his mind keeps on in the same strain of thought and feeling, almost always solemn and sometimes sad, showing an original imagination easily excited, and sustaining itself long ; but which has evidently been little accustomed to dwell on visible things; and is, therefore, at every moment escaping from the immediate and the present to the indefinite relations of the past and the future.
It struck my imagination much,' says he, while standing on the last field fought by Bonaparte, that the battle of Waterloo should have been fought upon a Sunday. What a different scene for the Scotch Greys and English infantry, from that which at that very hour was exhibited by their relatives ; when over England and Scotland each church bell had drawn together its worshippers ! While many a mother's heart was sending upward a prayer for her son's preservation, perhaps that son was gasping in agony.
" Yet even at such a period, the lessons of his early days might give him consolation ; and the maternal prayer might prepare the heart to support maternal anguish. It is religion alone which is of universal application, both as stimulant and lenitive, as it is the varied heritage of man to labor or endure. But we know that many thousands rushed into this fight, even of those who had been instructed in our own religious principles, without leisure for one serious thought; and that some officers were killed in their balldresses. They made the leap into the gulf which divides two worlds, the present from the immutable state, without one parting prayer or one note of preparation !
As I looked over this field, now green with growing corn, I could mark with my eye spots where the most desperate carnage had been marked out by the verdure of the wheat. The bodies had been heaped together, and scarcely more than covered. And so enriched is the soil, that in these spots the grain never ripens; it grows rank and green to the end of the harvest. This touching memorial, which endures when the thousand groans have expired, and when the stain of human bland has faded from the ground, still seems to cry to Heaven that there is awful guilt somewhere, and a terrific reckoning for those who had caused destruction which the earth would not conceal. These hillocks of superabundant vegetation, as the wind rustled through the corn, seemed the most affecting monuments which nature could devise, and gave a melancholy animation to this plain of death.
When we attempt to measure the mass of suffering which was here inflicted, and to number the individuals that have fallen, considering that each who suffered was our fellow man, we are overwhelmed with the agonizing calculation, and retire from the field which has been the scene of our reflections, with the simple coneentrated feeling ;-these armies once lived, breathed, and felt like us, and the time is at hand when we shall be like them.' pp. 252255.
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