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incubus and night mare; he lies in sight of all that he would fain perform, just as a man forcibly confined to his bed by the mortal languor of a relaxing disease, who is compelled to witness injury or outrage offered to some object of his tenderest love ; he curses the spells which chain him down from motion ; he would lay down his life, if he might but get up and walk; but he is powerless as an infant, and cannot even attempt to rise.'
He began to have the power, when awake, of painting, as it were upon the darkness, all sorts of phantoms.
At night,' he says, ' when I lay awake in bed, vast processions passed along in mournful pomp; friezes of never ending stories, that to my feelings were as sad and solemn, as if they were stories drawn from the times before Oedipus_before Tyre-before Memphis. A corresponding change took place in my dreams ; a theatre seemed suddenly opened and lighted up within my brain, which presented nightly spectacles of more than earthly splendor. My dreams were accompanied by deep seated anxiety and gloomy melancholy, such as are wholly incommunicable by words. I seemed to descend into chasms and sunless abysses, depths below depths, from which it seemed hopeless that I could ever reascend. Nor did I, by waking, feel that I had reascended. Buildings, landscapes, &c. were exhibited in proportions so vast as the bodily eye is not fitted to receive. Space swelled, and was amplified to an unutterable infinity. This, however, did not disturb me so much as the vast expansion of time; I sometimes seemed to have lived seventy or a hundred years in one night; nay, sometimes had feelings representative of a millenium passed in that time, or, however, of a duration far beyond the limits of any human experience.
In the early stages of my malady, the splendors of my dreams were chiefly architectural ; and I beheld such pomp of cities and palaces, as was never yet beheld by the waking eye, unless in the clouds. To my architecture succeeded dreams of lakes and silvery expanses of water. But subsequently the waters changed their character; from translucent lakes, shining like mirrors, they now became seas and oceans. Now that which I have called the tyranny of the human face began to unfold itself ; now it was that upon the rocking waters of the ocean the human face began to appear; the sea appeared paved with innumerable faces, upturned to the heavens; faces, imploring, wrathsul, despairing, surged upwards by thousands, by myriads, by generations, by centuries ; my imagination was infinite, my mind tossed, and surged with the ocean.'
Then came the Malay, and with him a train of oriental imagery and mythology.
New Series, No. 17. 13
Under the connecting feeling of tropical heat and vertical sunlights, I brought together all creatures, birds, beasts, reptiles, all trees and plants, usages and appearances, that are found in all tropical regions, and assembled them together in China or Hindostan. I brought Egypt and her gods under the same law. I was stared at, hooted at, grinned at, chattered at, by monkies, by paroquets, by cockatoos. I ran into pagodas; and was fixed for centuries at the summit, or in secret rooms; I was the idol ; I was the priest; I was worshipped; I was sacrificed. I fled from the wrath of Brama through all the forests of Asia ; Vishna hated me; Seeva laid wait for me. I was buried for a thousand years in stone coffins, with mummies and sphinxes, in narrow chambers, in the heart of eternal pyramids. The cursed crocodile became to me the object of more horror than almost all the rest. I was compelled to live with him; and for centuries. I escaped sometimes, and found myself in Chinese houses, with cane tables, &c. All the feet of the tables, sofas, &c. soon became instinct with life; the abominable head of the crocodile, and his leering eyes, looked out at me, multiplied into a thousand repetitions. And so often did this hideous reptile haunt my dreams, that many times the very same dream was broken up in the very same way; I heard gentle voices speaking to me; and I awoke and it was broad noon; and my children were standing at my bed side, come to shew me their colored shoes, or new frocks, or to let me see them dressed for going out. So awful was the transition from the damned crocodile, and other unutterable monsters of my dreams, to the sight 'of innocent human natures and infancy, that in the sudden revulsion of my mind, I wept and could not forbear it, as I kissed their faces.'
By diminishing his doses he gradually recovered the use of his faculties, and alleviated his nightly sufferings. But at the conclusion of his first edition, he says, 'One memorial of my former condition still remains; my dreams are not yet perfectly calm ; the dread swell and agitation of the storm have not wholly subsided; the legions that encamped in them are drawing off, but not all departed; my sleep is still tumultuous, and, like the gates of Paradise to our first parents, when looking back from afar, it is still
With dreadful faces thronged, and fiery arms.' This second edition has an appendix, which does not add at all to the literary merit of the production, but is rather a bulletin of the state of the patient's health, showing his constitution to be exhausted and shattered, and that, for the future, he had to expect only penance for his former habits.
Art. V.-Greek Grammar, translated from the German of
Philip Buttmann, by Edward Everett, Eliot Professor of Greek Literature in Harvard University. Boston, Oliver Everett, 1822. pp. 292. The grammar of the Greek language, with which the Eliot Professor has here favored the public, cannot but be interesting to all scholars in our country, and particularly acceptable to instructers. Its appearance we take as a good omen, both that the pursuits of classic literature are making advances among us, and that the difference of language is not to debar us from profiting by the profound learning of the Germans.
That the Greek grammars, which have hitherto been used in our schools, are deficient and unsatisfactory, is apparent from the frequency with which they have been changed; and no one has yet so far supplied the necessities of instruction, as to make a new work unnecessary. The imperfections of the treatises now in use may be traced, at least primarily, to two sources. They are abridgments, made from the more copious works of skilful philologists by scholars, who were not themselves acquainted with the whole extent of the subject. This is no trifling consideration ; for however easy it may be to form a new book by compilations from several others, works thus framed are inferior in clearness, method, and accuracy to those which are founded on original research. The understanding does not find its proper food in ideas, which are given at second hand; where principles are adopted on authority, instead of patient investigation, and baldness and obscurity take the place of the clear results of continued reflection and inquiry. The other source of the deficiencies in our common Greek grammars is to be found in the circumstance, that the books, from which they are principally copied, were written before the authors had gone through all the necessary preparatory studies.
Particular grammar is a science of observation ; it cannot receive a perfect form, until the whole number of individual facts has been observed and classified. To those, who first studied the subject, the variety of forms, which exist in the Greek language, seemed almost infinite ; the anomalies appeared too numerous and heterogeneous to admit of being arranged in a few comparatively simple divisions. But the more close investigations of modern scholars, some of whom still live to do honor to our age, has introduced order into every branch of the science, and exhibited the Greek grammar in its vast extent and beautiful simplicity.
Among those, who have moșt contributed to the advancement of this science, the first place is justly due to Herrmann, no less for the vigor of his mind, than the variety and accuracy of his learning. In a celebrated treatise,* he called the attention of his countrymen to the subject of Greek grammar, and has not only enriched it with many original observations and acute criticisms, but by opening new views of it, has showed others in what manner the study can be successfully pursued. His work on the metres is unequalled, and may justly be taken as the most favorable standard, by which the researches of the German scholars in this intricate branch of learning, may be measured.
be measured. His edition of Vigerus on the Greek idioms is the most esteemed, and derives no small part of its value from his own corrections and additions. But while throughout the writings of Herrmann, we admire the manly understanding of this bold and independent critic, we find ourselves sometimes appalled by his daring conjectural emendations, sometimes bewildered by his theories, and we often desire to escape from his speculative positions to the matters of fact, which have been collected by less ingenious men.
It is only as a grammarian that Matthiae can be mentioned with Herrmann; for he holds by no means one of the highest places among the proficients in philology. In his Grammar, of which an English scholar has given a translation, we find no very profound views, not much original thought, nor proofs of a very superior understanding. Still he has been a most accurate and patient inquirer; and he holds in his department of learning the same rank, which belongs in the natural sciences to the careful but unphilosophic observer. His work is invaluable to the advanced student, for it contains an explanation of almost every form that occurs, and can be consulted as a magazine of minutest criticisms on the uses and applications of words, when taken separately, or connected
* De Emendanda Ratione Graec. Gram.
in sentences. But he is no philosopher ; and his Grammar is chiefly useful as a book of reference.
But that, which Matthiae had not sufficient genius to perform, has been done by Thiersch, who is one of the most accomplished scholars of the day, possessing an elegant mind and pure taste, no less than various and profound learning. His Greek Grammar, as improved in the new edition, seems to us, not only the best of that language, but the best of any language whatever. After treating of the Attic dialect, and every subject connected with it, he has subjoined an elaborate account of the peculiarities of the Epic dialect; tracing the forms to their origin, illustrating them historically, and giving a concise but most satisfactory analysis of the Homeric verse. Having done this, the peculiarities of the other dialects are sketched with a few strokes, by enumerating and explaining the points in which they differ from the Epic. In the syntax, proofs of careful reflection and unwearied diligence in conducting his researches are visible on every page. The greatest order prevails throughout the whole, one proposition following the preceding with as much method as in books of geometry. A philosophic spirit pervades every part of the grammar; and yet he never pauses to theorize or contend for speculative notions on language ; but is always true to his purpose of writing a grammar of the Greek. In his preface he laments, that ten years of his life, and those the most precious years of early manhood, should have been occupied with the pursuits of grammar; but he has been encouraged by the general interest excited by the results of his investigations; and now, that he has gained a high reputation as an accurate and sagacious critic, he is still young enough to enjoy the more pleasing studies, which relate to the ancient poets and the history of the arts.
The Grammar, of which Professor Everett has given a translation, though originally designed for schools, is no abridgment or compilation, made from the works of others, but offers the fruits of long continued observation. It is now many years, since Buttmann first published his elements of the Greek language. His object was to prepare a work, which should contain only the information needed by beginners. But his plan was enlarged in consequence of the reception given to his labors by the public. Like so many of