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“Ye have herde howe it is saide: thou shalt love thyne neghbour, and hate thyne enemy. But y saye unto you, love youre enemies. Blesse them that cursse you. Doo good to them that hate you, Praye for them which doo you wronge, and persecute you, that ye maye be the chyldren of youre hevenly Father: for he maketh his sunne to aryse on the evle and on the good, and sendeth his reyne on the juste and on the onjuste. For if ye shall love them, which love you: what rewarde shall ye have? Doo not the publicans even so? And if ye be frendly to youre brethren only: what singuler thynge doo ye?" Doo nott the publicans lyke wyse? Ye shall therfore be perfecte, even as youre hevenly Father is perfecte.”

HUGH LATIMER (1485?–1555)

FROM THE FIRST SERMON BEFORE KING EDWARD VI

And necessary it is that a kyng have a treasure all wayeys in a redines, for that, and such other affayres, as be dayly in hys handes. The which treasure, if it be not sufficiente, he maye lawfully and wyth a salve' conscience take taxis of hys subjectes. For it were not mete” the treasure shoulde be in the subjectes purses whan the money shoulde be occupied,” nor it were not best for themselves, for the lacke there of, it myght cause both it and all the rest that they have shold not long be theirs, And so for a necessarye and expedyent occacion, it is warranted by Goddes word to take of the subjectes. But if there be sufficyente treasures, and the burdenynge of subjectes be for a wayne thyng, so that he wyl require thus much, or so much, of his subjects, whyche perchaunce are in great necessitie and penurye, then this covetous intent, and the request thereof, is to muche, whych God forbiddeth the king her in this place of scripture to have. But who shal se this “to much,” or tell the king of this “to much”? Thinke you anye of the Kynges prevye chamber? No. For feare of losse of faver. Shall any of his sworne chapelins? No. Theibee of the clausset" and kepe close such matters. But the Kynge him selfe must se this “to much,” and that shal he do by no meanes with the corporal eyes. Wherfore he must have a paier of spectacles, whiche shall have two cleare syghtes in them, that is, the one is fayth, not a seasonable fayeth, which shall laste but a wnyle, but a fayeth whiche is continuynge in God. 8 made use of 4 closet

The seconde cleare sighte is charitie, whych is fervente towardes hys Chrysten brother. By them two must the Kynge se ever whan he hath to muche. But fewe therbe that useth these spectacles, the more is theyr dampnacion. Not wythoute cause Chrisostome wyth admiracion' sayeth, “Miror si aliquis rectorum polest salvari. I marvell if anye ruler can be saved.” Whyche wordes he speaketh not of an impossibilitie, but of a great difficultie; for that their charge is marvelous great, and that none aboute them dare shew them the truth of the thing how it goth. Wel then, if God wyl not alowe a king to much, whither” wyl he alowe a subject to much? No, that he wil not. Whether have any man here in England to much? I doubte most riche men have to muche, for wythout to muche, we can get nothynge. As for example, the Phisicion. If the pore man be dyseased, he can have no helpe without to much; and of the lawyer the pore man can get no counsell, expedicion, nor helpe in his matter, except he geve him to much. At marchandes handes no kynd of wares can be had, except we geve for it to muche. You landelordes, you rent-reisers, I maye saye you steplordes, you unnaturall lordes, you have for your possessions yerely to much. For that" herebefore went for .xx. or xl. pound by yere, (which is an honest porcion to be had gratis in one Lordeshyp, of a nother mannes sweat and laboure) now is it let for .l. (fifty) or a .C. (hundred) pound by yeare. Of thys “to muche” commeth thys monsterous and portentious dearthis made by man. Not with standynge God doeth sende us plentifullye the fruites of the earth, mercyfullye, contrarye unto oure desertes, not wythstandynge “to muche,” whyche these riche menne have, causeth Suche dearth, that poore menne (whyche live of theyr laboure) can not wyth the sweate of their face have a livinge, all kinde of victales is so deare, pigges, gese, capons, chickens, egges, etc. These thinges with other are so unresonably enhansed. And I thinke verely that if it this: continewe, we shal at length be constrayned to paye for a pygge a pounde. I wyl tel you, my lordes and maysters, thys is not for the kynges honoure. Yet some wyl saye, knowest thou what belongeth unto the kinges honoure better then we? I answere, that the true honoure of a Kinge, is moost perfectly men. cioned and painted furth in the scriptures, of which, if ye be ignoraunt, for lacke of tyme, * what

1 safe 2 proper

* whether

" wonder * thus

that ye cannot reade it, albeit, that your counsaile be never so politike, yet is it not for the kynges honoure. What his honoure meaneth ye canottel. It is the kynges honoure that his subjectes bee led in the true religion. That all hys prelates and Cleargie be set about their worcke in preching and studieng, and not to be interrupted from their charge. Also it is the Kinges honour that the commen wealth be avaunsed, that the dearth of these forsaied thynges be provided for, and the commodities of thys Realme so emploied, as it may be to the Setting his subjectes on worke, and kepyng them from idlenes. And herin resteth the kinges honour and hys office. So doynge, his accompte before God shalbe alowed, and rewarded. Furder' more, if the kinges honour (as sum men say) standeth in the great multitude of people, then these grasiers, inclosers, and rente-rearers, are hinderers of the kings honour. For wher as have bene a great meany” of householders and inhabitauntes, ther is nowe but a shepherd and his dogge, so thei hynder the kinges honour most of al. My lordes and maisters, I say also that all suche procedynges which are agaynste the Kynges honoure (as I have a part declared before) and as far as I can perceive, do intend plainly, to make the yomanry slavery and the Cleargye shavery. For suche worckes are al syngular,” private welth and commoditye. We of the cleargye had to much, but that is taken away; and nowe we have to little. But for myne owne part, I have no cause to complaine, for, I thanke God and the kyng, I have sufficient, and God is my judge I came not to crave of anye man any thyng; but I knowe theim that have to litle. There lyeth a greate matter by these appropriacions, greate reformacions is to be had in them. I knowe wher is a great market Towne with divers hamelets and inhabitauntes, wher do rise yereli of their labours to the value of l. (fifty) pounde, and the vicar that serveth (being so great a cure) hath but Wii or xiiii, markes by yere, so that of thys Pension he is not able to by him bokes, nor geye hys neyghboure dryncke, al the great gaine goeth another way. My father was a Woman, and had no landes of his owne, onlye he had a farme of .iii. or iiii. pound by yere at the uttermost, and here upon he tilled so much As kepte halfe a dosen men. He had walke “ for a hundred shepe, and my mother mylked

... further company "for the benefit of an individual “pasture

.xxx. kyne. He was able and did find the king a harnesse, wyth hym selfe, and hys horsse, whyle he came to the place that he should receyve the kynges wages. I can remembre that I buckled hys harnes when he went unto Blacke-heeath felde. He kept me to schole, or elles I had not bene able to have preached before the kinges majestie nowe. He maryed my systers with v. pounde or .xx. nobles a pece, so that he broughte them up in godlines, and feare of God. He kept hospitalitie for his pore neighbours. And sum almess' he gave to the poore, and all thys did he of the sayd farme. Wher he that now hath it, paieth .xvi. pounde by yere or more, and is not able to do any thing for his Prynce, for himselfe, nor for his children, or geve a cup of drincke to the pore. Thus al the enhansinge and rearing goth to your private commoditie and wealth. So that where ye had a single “to much,” you have that: and syns the same, ye have enhansed the rente, and so have encreased an other “to much.” So now ye have doble to muche, whyche is to to much. But let the preacher preach til his tong be worne to the stompes, nothing is amended. We have good statutes made for the commen welth as touching comeners, enclosers, many metinges and Sessions, but in the end of the matter their commeth nothing forth. Wel, well, thys is one thynge I wyll saye unto you, from whens it commeth I knowe, even, from the devill. I knowe his intent in it. For if ye bryng it to passe, that the yomanry be not able to put their sonnes to schole (as in dede universities do wonderously decaye all redy) and that they be not able to mary their daughters to the avoidyng of whoredome, I say ye plucke salvation from the people and utterly distroy the realme. For by yomans sonnes the fayth of Christ is and hath bene mayntained chefely. Is this realme taught by rich mens sonnes? No, no!, Reade the Cronicles; ye shall fynde sumtime noble mennes sonnes which have bene unpreaching byshoppes and prelates, but ye shall finde none of them learned men. But verilye, they that shoulde loke to the redresse of these thinges, be the greatest against them. In thyse realm are a great meany ” of folkes, and amongest many I knowe but one of tender zeale, at the mocion of his poore tennauntes, hath let downe his landes to the olde rentes for their reliefe. For Goddes love, let not him be a Phenix, let him not be

alms ” there * company

alone, let hym not be an Hermite closed in a wall, sum good man follow him and do as he geveth example! Surveiers' there be, that gredyly gorge up their covetouse guttes, handemakers? I meane (honest men I touch not but al suche as survei"); thei make up “their mouthes but the commens" be utterlye undone by them. Whose" bitter cry ascendyng up to the eares of the God of Sabaoth, the gredy pyt of hel burning fire (without great repentaunce) do tary and loke for them.” A redresse God graunt! For suerly, suerly, but that .ii. thynges do comfort me, I wold despaire of the redresse in these maters. One is, that the kinges majestie whan he commeth to age wyll se a redresse of these thinges so out of frame, geving example by letting doune his owne landes first and then enjoyne hys subjectes to folowe him. The second hope I have, is, I beleve that the general accomptyng" daye is at hande, the dreadfull day of judgement I meane, whiche shall make an end of al these calamities and miseries. For as the scryptures be, Cum dixerint, pax pax, “When they shal say, Peace, peace,” Omnia tuta, “All thynges are sure,” then is the day at hand, a mery day, I saye, for al such as do in this world studye to serve and please god and continue in his fayth, feare and love: and a dreadful, horrible day for them that decline from God, walking in ther owne wayes, to whom as it is wrytten in the xxv of Mathew is sayd: Ite maledicti in ignem eternum, “Go ye curssed into everlastynge punyshment, wher shalbe waylinge and gnashing of teeth.” But unto the other he shal saye: Venite benedicti, “come ye blessed chyldren of my father, possesse ye the kyngdome prepared for you from the beginninge of the worlde.” Of the which God make us al partakers! Amen.

ROGER ASCHAM (1515–1568) THE SCHOLEMASTER FROM THE FIRST BOOKE FOR THE YOUTH

After the childe hath learned perfitlie the eight partes of speach, let him then learne the right joyning togither of substantives with adjectives, the nowne with the verbe, the relative with the antecedent. And in learninge farther hys Syntaxis, by mine advice, he shall

not use the common order in common scholes, for making of Latines: wherby the childe commonlie learneth, first, an evill choice of wordes, (and right choice of wordes, saith Caesar, is the foundation of eloquence) than,' a wrong placing of wordes: and lastlie, an ill framing of the sentence, with a perverse judgement, both of wordes and sentences. These faultes, taking once roote in yougthe, be never, or hardlie, pluckt away in age. Moreover, there is no one thing, that hath more, either dulled the wittes, or taken awaye the will of children from learning, than the care they have, to satisfie their masters, in making of Latines. For the scholer is commonlie beat for the making, when the master were more worthie to be beat for the mending, or rather, marring of the same: The master many times being as ignorant as the childe what to saie properlie and fitlie to the matter. Two scholemasters have set forth in print, either of them a booke, of soch kinde of Latines, Horman and Whittington. A childe shall learne of the better of them, that, which an other daie, if he be wise, and cum to judgement, he must be faine to unlearne againe. There is a waie, touched in the first booke of Cicero De Oratore, which, wiselie brought into scholes, truely taught, and constantly used, would not onely take wholly away this butcherlie feare in making of Latines, but would also, with ease and pleasure, and in short time, as I know by good experience, worke a true choice and placing of wordes, a right ordering of sentences, an easie understandyng of the tonge, a readines to speake, a facultie to write, a true judgement, both of his owne, and other mens j what tonge so ever he doth use. The waie is this. After the three concordances’ learned, as I touched before, let the master read unto hym the Epistles of Cicero, gathered togither and chosen out by Sturmius for the capacitie of children. First, let him teach the childe, cherefullie and plainlie, the cause, and matter of the letter: then, let him construe it into Englishe, so oft, as the childe may easilie carie awaie the understanding of it: Lastlie, parse it over perfitlie. This done thus, let the childe, by and by,” both construe and parse it over againe; so that it may appeare that the childe douteth “ in nothing that his master taught him before. After this, the childe must take a paper booke, and sitting in some place where no man shall prompe him, by him self, let him translate into Englishe his former lesson. Then shewing it to his master, let the master take from him his Latin booke, and pausing an houre, at the least, than" let the childe translate his owne Englishe into Latin againe, in an other paper booke. When the childe bringeth it, turned into Latin, the master must compare it with Tullies’ booke, and laie them both togither: and where the childe doth well, either in chosing, or true placing of Tullies wordes, let the master praise him, and saie, “Here ye do well.” For I assure you, there is no such whetstone to sharpen a good witte and encourage a will to learninge as is praise. But if the childe misse, either in forgetting a worde, or in chaunging a good with a worse, or misordering the sentence, I would not have the master, either froune, or chide with him, if the childe have done his diligence, and used no trewandship * therin. For I know by good experience, that a childe shall take more profit of two fautes “jentlie warned of then of foure thinges rightly hitt. For than the master shall have good occasion to saie unto him, "N." Tullie would have used such a worde, not this: Tullie would have placed this word here, not there: would have used this case, this number, this person, this degree, this gender: he would have used this moode, this lens, this simple, rather than this compound: this adverbe here, not there: he would have ended the sentence with this verbe, not with that nowme or participle,” etc. In these fewe lines, I have wrapped up the most tedious part of Grammer: and also the ground of almost all the Rewles, that are so busilie taught by the Master, and so hardlie leamed by the Scholer, in all common Scholes: which after this sort, the master shall teach without all error, and the scholer shall learne without great paine: the master being led by $0 sure a guide, and the scholer being brought into so plaine and easie a waie. And therefore, we do not contemne Rewles, but we gladlie teach Rewles: and teach them, more plainlie, sensiblie, and orderlie, than they be commonlie taught in common Scholes. For whan the Master shall compare Tullies booke with his Scholers translation, let the Master, at the first, lead and teach his Scholer to joyne the Rewles of his Grammer booke, with the examples of

1 government officials 2 grafters 8 serve as overseers 4 fill 5 commons, common people 6 i.e. the commons 7 i.e. the surveyors 8 accounting

1 then * See the first sentence of this selection. * immediately * is at a loss

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his present lesson, untill the Scholer, by him selfe, be hable to fetch out of his Grammer everie Rewle for everie Example: So as the Grammer booke be ever in the Scholers hand, and also used of him, as a Dictionarie, for everie present use. This is a lively and perfite waie of teaching of Rewles: where the common waie, used in common Scholes, to read the Grammer alone by it selfe, is tedious for the Master, hard for the Scholer, colde and uncumfortable for them bothe. Let your Scholer be never afraide to aske you any dout, but use discretlie the best allurements ye can to encorage him to the same : lest his overmoch fearinge of you drive him to seeke some misorderlie shifte: as, to seeke to be helped by some other booke, or to be prompted by some other Scholer, and so goe aboute to begile you moch, and him selfe more. With this waie, of good understanding the mater, plaine construinge, diligent parsinge, dailie translatinge, cherefull admonishinge, and heedefull amendinge of faultes: never leavinge behinde juste praise for well doinge, I would have the Scholer brought up withall, till he had red, and translated over the first booke of Epistles chosen out by Sturmius, with a good peece of a Comedie of Terence also. All this while, by mine advise, the childe shall use to speake no Latine: For, as Cicero saith in like mater, with like wordes, loquendo, male loqui discunt. And, that excellent learned man, G. Budaeus, in his Greeke Commentaries, sore complaineth, that whan he began to learne the Latin tonge, use of speaking Latin at the table, and elsewhere, unadvisedlie, did bring him to soch an evill choice of wordes, to soch a crooked framing of sentences, that no one thing did hurt or hinder him more, all the daies of his life afterward, both for redinesse in speaking, and also good judgement in writinge. In very deede, if children were brought up, in soch a house, or soch a Schole, where the Latin tonge were properlie and perfitlie spoken, as Tib. and Ca. Gracci were brought up, in their mother Cornelias house, surelie than the dailie use of speaking were the best and readiest waie to learne the Latin tong. But, now, commonlie, in the best Scholes in England, for wordes, right choice is smallie regarded, true proprietie whollie neglected, confusion is brought in, barbariousnesse is bred up so in yong wittes, as afterward they be, not onelie marde for speaking, but also corrupted in judgement: as with moch adoe, or never at all they be brought to right frame againe. Yet all men covet to have their children speake Latin: and so do I verie earnestlie too. We bothe have one purpose: we agree in desire, we wish one end: but we differ somewhat in order and waie, that leadeth rightlie to that end. Other would have them speake at all adventures: and, so they be speakinge, to speake, the Master careth not, the Scholer knoweth not, what. This is to seeme and not to bee: except it be to be bolde without shame, rashe without skill, full of wordes without witte. I wish to have them speake so as it may well appeare that the braine doth governe the tonge, and that reason leadeth forth the taulke. Socrates doctrine is true in Plato, and well marked, and truely uttered by Horace in Arte Poetica, that, where so ever knowledge doth accompanie the witte, there best utterance doth alwaies awaite upon the tonge: For good understanding must first be bred in the childe, which, being nurished with skill, and use of writing (as I will teach more largelie hereafter) is the onelie waie to bring him to judgement and readinesse in speakinge: and that in farre shorter time (if he followe constantlie the trade ' of this litle lesson) than he shall do, by common teachinge of the common scholes in England. But, to go forward, as you perceive your scholer to goe better and better on awaie, first, with understanding his lesson more quicklie, with parsing more readelie, with translating more spedelie and perfitlie then he was wonte, after, give him longer lessons to translate: and withall, begin to teach him, both in nownes, and verbes, what is Proprium, and what is Translatum, what Synonymum, what Diversum, which be Contraria, and which be most notable Phrases in all his lecture: As, Proprium, Rex Sepultus est magnifice; Translatum, Cum illo principe, Sepulta est & gloria et Salus Reipublicae; Synonyma, Ensis, Gladius; Laudare, praedicare; Diversa, Diligere, Amare; Calere, Exardescere; Inimicus, Hostis; Contraria, Acerbum & luctuosum bellum, Dulcis & laeta Pax; Phrases, Dare verba, abjicere obedientiam. Your scholer then, must have the third paper booke; in the which, after he hath done his double translation, let him write, after this sort foure of these forenamed sixe, diligentlie marked out of everie lesson. Or else, three, or two, if there be no moe: and if there be none of these at all in some lecture, yet not omitte the

1 then

* practice.

order, but write these: Diversa, nulla; Contraria, nulla; etc. This diligent translating, joyned with this heedeful marking, in the foresaid Epistles, and afterwarde in some plaine Oration of Tullie, as pro lege Manil: pro Archia Poeta, or in those three ad C. Caes: shall worke soch a right choise of wordes, so streight a framing of sentences, soch a true judgement, both to write skilfullie, and speake wittielie, as wise men shall both praise and marvell at. If your scholer do misse sometimes, in marking rightlie these foresaid sixe thinges, chide not hastelie: for that shall, both dull his witte, and discorage his diligence: but monish him gentelie: which shall make him, both willing to amende, and glad to go forward in love and hope of learning. I have now wished, twise or thrise, this gentle nature, to be in a Scholemaster: And, that I have done so, neither by chance, nor without some reason, I will now declare at large, why, in mine opinion, love is fitter then feare, gentlenes better than beating, to bring up a childe rightlie in learninge. With the common use of teaching and beating in common scholes of England, I will not great. lie contend: which if I did, it were but a small grammaticall controversie, neither belonging to heresie nor treason, nor greatly touching God nor the Prince: although in very deede, in the end, the good or ill bringing up of children, doth as much serve to the good or ill service, of God, our Prince, and our whole countrie, as any one thing doth beside. I do gladlie agree with all good Scholemasters in these pointes: to have children brought to a good perfitnes in learning: to all honestie in maners: to have all fautes’ rightlie amended: to have everie vice severelie corrected: but for the order and waie that leadeth rightlie to these pointes, we somewhat differ. For commonlie, many scholemasters, some, as I have seen, moe,” as I have heard tell, be of so crooked a nature, as, when they meete with a hard witted scholer, they rather breake him than bowe him, rather marre him then mend him. For whan the scholemaster is angrie with some other matter, then will he sonest faul to beate his scholer: and though he him selfe should be punished for his folie, yet must he beate some scholer for his pleasure: though there be no cause for him to do so, nor yet fault in the scholer to deserve so. These, ye will say, be

* This is a proverbial expression. * faults * more

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