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fond' scholemasters, and fewe they be that be found to be soch. They be fond in deede, but surelie overmany soch be found everie where. But this will I say, that even the wisest cf your great beaters, do as oft punishe nature as they do correcte faultes. Yea, many times, the better nature is sorer punished: For, if one, by quicknes of witte, take his lesson readelie, an other, by hardnes of witte, taketh it not so speedelie: the first is alwaies commended, the other is commonlie punished: whan a wise Scholemaster should rather discretelie consider the right disposition of both their natures, and not so moch wey” what either of them is able to do now, as what either of them is likelie to do hereafter. For this I know, not onelie by reading of bookes in my studie, but also by experience of life, abrode in the world, that those which be commonlie the wisest, the best learned, and best men also, when they be olde, were never commonlie the quickest of witte, when they were yonge. The causes why, amongest other, which be many, that move me thus to thinke, be these fewe, which I will recken. Quicke wittes, commonlie, be apte to take, unapte to keepe: soone hote and desirous of this and that: as colde and sone wery of the same againe: more quicke to enter spedelie, than hable” to pearse' farre: even like over sharpe tooles, whose edges be verie Soone turned. Soch wittes delite them selves in easie and pleasant studies, and never passe faste forward in hie and hard sciences. And therefore the quickest wittes commonlie may prove the best Poetes, but not the wisest Orators: readie of tonge to speake boldlie, not deepe of judgement, either for good counsell or wise writing. Also, for maners and life, quicke wittes, commonlie, he, in desire, newfangle in purpose unconstant, light to promise any thing, readie to forget every thing: both benefite and injurie: and therby neither fast to fiend, nor fearefull to foe: inquisitive of every trille, not secret in greatest affaires: bolde, with any person: busie, in every matter: $othing'soch as be present: nipping any that absent: of nature also, alwaies, flattering their betters, envying their equals, despising their inferiors; and, by quicknes of witte, Verie quicke and readie, to like none so well as them selves.

Moreover commonlie, men, very quicke of witte, be also, verie light of conditions: ' and thereby, very readie of disposition, to be

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caried over quicklie, by any light cumpanie, to any riot and unthriftiness, when they be yonge: and therfore seldome, either honest of life, or riche in living, when they be olde. For, quicke in witte and light in maners, be, either seldome troubled, or verie sone wery, in carying a verie hevie purse. Quicke wittes also be, in most part of all their doinges, overquicke, hastie, rashe, headie, and brainsicke. These two last wordes, Headie, and Brainsicke, be fitte and proper wordes, rising naturallie of the matter, and tearmed aptlie by the condition, of over moch quickenes of witte. In yougthe also they be readie scoffers, privie mockers, and ever over light and mery. In aige, Sone testie, very waspishe, and alwaies over miserable: and yet fewe of them cum to any great aige, by reason of their misordered life when they were yong: but a great deale fewer of them cum to shewe any great countenance, or beare any great authoritie abrode in the world, but either live obscurelie, men know not how, or dye obscurelie, men marke not They be like trees, that shewe forth faire blossoms and broad leaves in spring time, but bring out small and not long lasting fruite in harvest time: and that, onelie soch as fall and rotte before they be ripe, and so, never, or seldome, cum to any good at all. For this yeshall finde most true by experience, that amongest a number of quicke wittes in youthe, fewe be found, in the end, either verie fortunate for them selves, or verie profitable to serve the common wealth, but decay and vanish, men know not which way: except a very fewe, to whom peradventure blood and happie parentage may perchance purchace a long standing upon the stage. The which felicitie, because it commeth by others procuring, not by their owne deservinge, and stand by other mens feete, and not by their own, what owtward brag so ever is borne by them, is in deed, of it selfe, and in wise mens eyes, of no great estimation.

JOHN FOXE (1516–1587) ACTS AND MONUMENTS OF THESE LATTER AND PERILLOUS DAYES

THE BEHAVIOUR OF DR. RIDLEY AND
MASTER LATIMER AT THE TIME
OF THEIR DEATH

Upon the north-side of the towne, in the ditch over against Baily' Colledge, the place of execution was appointed; and for feare of any tumult that might arise, to let' the burning of them, the Lord Williams was commanded by the Queenes letters and the householders of the city, to be there assistant, sufficientlie appointed. And when every thing was in a readiness, the prisoners were brought forth by the maior and the bayliffes. Master Ridley had a faire blacke gowne furred, and faced with foines, such as he was wont to weare beeing bishop, and a tippet of velvet, furred likewise, about his neck, a velvet night-cap upon his head, and a corner cap upon the same, going in a paire of slippers to the stake, and going between the maior and an alderman, etc. After him came Master Latimer in a poor Bristow freeze” frock all worne, with his buttoned cap, and a kerchiefe on his head all readie to the fire, a newe long shrowde hanging over his hose downe to the feet; which at the first sight stirred mens hearts to rue upon them, beholding on the one side the honour they sometime had, and on the other, the calamitie whereunto they were fallen. Master Doctour Ridley, as he passed toward Bocardo,” looked up where Master Cranmer did lie, hoping belike to have seene him at the glass windowe, and to have spoken unto him. But then Master Cranmer was busie with Frier Soto and his fellowes, disputing together, so that he could not see him through that occasion. Then Master Ridley, looking backe, espied Master Latimer comming after, unto whom he said, “Oh, be ye there?” “Yea,” said Master Latimer, “have after as fast as I can follow.” So he following a prettie way off, at length they came both to the stake, the one after the other, where first Dr. Ridley entring the place, marvellous earnestly holding up both his hands, looked towards heaven. Then shortlie after espying Master, Latimer, , with a wondrous cheereful looke he ran to him, imbraced and kissed him; and, as they that stood neere reported, comforted him saying, “Be of good heart, brother, for God will either asswage the furie of the flame, or else strengthen us to abide it.” With that went he to the stake, kneeled downe by it, kissed it, and most effectuouslie praied, and behind him Master Latimer kneeled, as earnestlie calling upon God as he. After they arose, the one talked with the other a little while, till they which were appointed to see

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1 hinder 2 trimmings of beech-martin fur * a coarse woolen cloth made at Bristol : * breeches • the old north gate at Oxford, used as a prison

the execution, remooved themselves out of the sun. What they said I can learn of no man. Then Dr. Smith, of whose recantation in King Edwards time ye heard before, beganne his sermon to them upon this text of St. Paul in the 13 chap. of the first epistle to the Corinthians: Si corpus meum tradam igni, charitatem autem non habeam, nihil inde utilitatis capio, that is, “If I yeelde my body to the fire to be burnt, and have not charity, I shall gaine nothing thereby.” Wherein he alledged that the goodnesse of the cause, and not the order of death, maketh the holines of the person; which he confirmed by the examples of Judas, and of a woman in Oxford that of late hanged her selfe, for that they, and such like as he recited, might then be adjudged righteous, which desperatelie sundered their lives from their bodies, as hee feared that those men that stood before him would doe. But he cried stil" to the people to beware of them, for they were heretikes, and died out of the church. And on the other side, he declared their diversities in opinions, as Lutherians, GEcolampadians, Zuinglians, of which sect they were, he said, and that was the worst: but the old church of Christ and the catholike faith beleeved far otherwise. At which place they” lifted uppe both their hands and eies to heaven, as it were calling God to witnes of the truth: the which countenance they made in many other places of his sermon, whereas they thought he spake amisse. Hee ended with a verie short exhortation to them to recant, and come home again to the church, and save their lives and soules, which else were condemned. His sermon was scant in all a quarter of an houre. Doctor Ridley said to Master Latimer, “Will you begin to answer the sermon, or shall I?” Master Latimer said: “Begin you first, I pray you.” “I will,” said Master Ridley. Then the wicked sermon being ended, Dr. Ridley and Master Latimer kneeled downe uppon their knees towards my Lord Williams of Tame, the vice-chancellour of Oxford, and divers other commissioners appointed for that purpose, which sate upon a forme” thereby, Unto whom Master Ridley said: “I beseech you, my lord, even for Christs sake, that I may speake but two or three wordes.” And whilest my lord bent his head to the maior and vicechancellor, to know (as it appeared) whether he might give him leave to speake, the bailifies and Dr. Marshall, vice-chancellor, ran hastily

* constantly * Ridley and Latimer * bench

unto him, and with their hands stopped his mouth, and said: “Master Ridley, if you will revoke your erroneous opinions, and recant the same, you shall not onely have liberty so to doe, but also the benefite of a subject; that is, have your life.” “Not otherwise?” said Maister Ridley. “No,” quoth Dr. Marshall. “Therefore if you will not so doe, then there is no remedy but you must suffer for your deserts.” “Well,” quoth Master Ridley, “so long as the breath is in my bodie, I will never deny my Lord Christ, and his knowne truth: Gods will be done in me!” And with that he rose up and said with a loud voice: “Well then, I commit our cause to almightie God, which shall indifferently' judge all.” To whose saying, Maister Latimer added his old posie,” “Well! there is nothing hid but it shall be opened.” And he said, he could answer Smith well enough, if hee might be suffered. Incontinently” they were commanded to make them readie, which they with all meeknesse obeyed. Master Ridley tooke his gowne andhistippet, and gave it to his brother-in-lawe Master Shepside, who all his time of imprisonment, although he might not be suffered to come to him, lay there at his owne charges to provide him necessaries, which from time to time he sent him by the sergeant that kept him. Some other of his apparel that was little worth, hee gave away; other the bailiffes took. He gave away besides divers other small things to gentlemen standing by, and divers of them pitifullie Weeping, as to Sir Henry Lea he gave a new groat; and to divers of my Lord Williams gentlemen some napkins, some nutmegges, and races' of ginger; his diall, and such other things as he had about him, to every one that stood next him. Some plucked the pointes of his hose. Happie was he that might get any ragge of him. Master Latimer gave nothing, but very quickly suffered his keeper to pull off his hose, and his other array, which solook unto was very simple: and being stripped into his shrowd, hee seemed as comly a person to them that were there present as one should lightly see; and whereas in his clothes hee appeared a withered and crooked sillie olde man, he now stood bolt upright, as comely a father as one might lightly behold. Then Master Ridley, standing as yet in his trusse," said to his brother: “It were best for me to go in my trusse still.” “No,” quoth his brother, “it will put you to more paine; and

'impartially * motto “immediately ‘roots “shirt a padded jacket

the trusse will do a poore man good.” Where. unto Master Ridley said: “Be it, in the name of God;” and so unlaced himselfe. Then beeing in his shirt, he stood upon the foresaid stone, and held up his hande and said: “O heavenly Father, I give unto thee most heartie thanks, for that thou hast called mee to be a professour of thee, even unto death. I beseech thee, Lord God, take mercie upon this realme of England, and deliver the same from all her enemies.” Then the smith took a chaine of iron, and brought the same about both Dr. Ridleyes and Maister Latimers middles; and as he was knocking in a staple, Dr. Ridley tooke the chaine in his hand, and shaked the same, for it did girde in his belly, and looking aside to the smith, said: “Good fellow, knocke it in hard, for the flesh will have his course.” Then his brother did bringe him gunnepowder in a bag, and would have tied the same about his necke. Master Ridley asked what it was. His brother said, “Gunnepowder.” “Then,” sayd he, “I take it to be sent of God; therefore I will receive it as sent of him. And have you any,” sayd he, “for my brother?” meaning Master Latimer. “Yea, sir, that I have,” quoth his brother. “Then give it unto him,” sayd hee, “betime;" least ye come too late.” So his brother went, and caried of the same gunnepowder unto Maister Latimer. In the mean time Dr. Ridley spake unto my Lord Williams, and saide: “My lord, I must be a suter unto your lordshippe in the behalfe of divers poore men, and speciallie in the cause of my poor sister; I have made a supplication to the Queenes Majestie in their behalves. I beseech your lordship for Christs sake, to be a mean to her Grace for them. My brother here hath the supplication, and will resort to your lordshippe to certifie you herof. There is nothing in all the world that troubleth my conscience, I praise God, this only excepted. Whiles I was in the see of London divers poore men tooke leases of me, and agreed with me for the same. Now I heare say the bishop that now occupieth the same roome will not allow my grants unto them made, but contrarie unto all lawe and conscience hath taken from them their livings, and will not suffer them to injoy the same. I beseech you, my lord, be a meane for them; you shall do a good deed, and God will reward you.” Then they brought a faggotte, kindled with fire, and laid the same downe at Dr. Ridleys feete. To whome Master Latimer spake in this manner: “Bee of good comfort, Master Ridley, and play the man. Wee shall this day light such a candle, by Gods grace, in England, as I trust shall never bee putte out.” And so the fire being given unto them, when Dr. Ridley saw the fire flaming up towards him, he cried with a wonderful lowd voice: “In manus tuas, Domine, commendo spiritum meum: Domine, recipe spiritum meum.” And after, repeated this latter part often in English, “Lord, Lord, receive my spirit;” Master Latimer crying as vehementlie on the other side, “O Father of heaven, receive my soule !” who received the flame as it were imbracing of it. After that he had stroaked his face with his hands, and as it were bathed them a little in the fire, he soone died (as it appeared) with verie little paine or none. And thus much concerning the end of this olde and blessed servant of God, Master Latimer, for whose laborious travailes,' fruitfull life, and constant death the whole realme hath cause to give great thanks to almightie God. But Master Ridley, by reason of the evill making of the fire unto him, because the wooden faggots were laide about the gosse * and over-high built, the fire burned first beneath, being kept downe by the wood; which when he felt, hee desired them for Christes sake to let the fire come unto him. Which when his brother-in-law heard, but not well understood, intending to rid him out of his paine (for the which cause hee gave attendance), as one in such sorrow not well advised what hee did, heaped faggots upon him, so that he cleane covered him, which made the fire more vehement beneath, that it burned cleane all his neather parts, before it once touched the upper; and that made him leape up and down under the faggots, and often desire them to let the fire come unto him, saying, “I cannot burne.” Which indeed appeared well; for, after his legges were consumed by reason of his strugling through the paine (whereof hee had no release, but onelie his contentation in God), he showed that side toward us cleane, shirt and all untouched with flame. Yet in all this torment he forgate not to call unto God still,

* early

| labors "gorse, furze

having in his mouth, “Lord have mercy upon me,” intermedling ' this cry, “Let the fire come unto me, I cannot burne.” In which paines he laboured till one of the standers by with his bill “pulled off the faggots above, and where he saw the fire flame up, he wrested himself unto that side. And when the flame touched the gunpowder, he was seen to stirre no more, but burned on the other side, falling downe at Master Latimers feete. Which some said happened by reason that the chain loosed; other said that he fel over the chain by reason of the poise of his body, and the weakness of the neather lims.

Some said that before he was like to fall from the stake, hee desired them to hold him to it with their billes. However it was, surelie it mooved hundreds to teares, in beholding the horrible sight; for I thinke there was none that had not cleane exiled all humanitie and mercie, which would not have lamented to beholde the furie of the fire so to rage upon their bodies. Signes there were of sorrow on everie side. Some tooke it greevouslie to see their deathes, whose lives they held full deare: some pittied their persons, that thought their soules had no need thereof. His brother mooved many men, seeing his miserable case, seeing (I say) him compelled to such infelicitie, that he thought then to doe him best service when he hastned his end. Some cried out of the lucke, to see his indevor (who most dearelie loved him, and sought his release) turne to his greater vexation and increase of paine. But whoso considered their preferments in time past, the places of honour that they some time occupied in this common wealth, the favour they were in with their princes, and the opinion of learning they had in the university where they studied, could not chuse but sorrow with teares to see so great dignity, honour, and estimation, so necessary members sometime accounted, so many godly vertues, the study of so manie yeres, such excellent learning, to be put into the fire and consumed in one moment. Well ! dead they are, and the reward of this world they have alreadie. What reward remaineth for them in heaven, the day of the Lords glorie, when hee commeth with his saints, shall shortlie, I trust, declare.

* intermingling * a kind of weapon consisting of a curved blade fixed at the end of a pole

THE AGE OF ELIZABETH

SIR PHILIP SIDNEY (1554–1586)

ARCADIA

BOOK I. CHAP. I

And now they were already come upon the stays,' when one of the sailors descried a galley which came with sails and oars directly in the chase of them, and straight perceived it was a well-known pirate, who hunted, not only for goods, but for bodies of men, which he employed either to be his galley-slaves or to sell at the best market. Which when the master understood, he commanded forthwith to set on all the canvas they could and fly homeward, leaving in that sort poor Pyrocles, So near to be rescued. But what did not Musidorus say? what did he not offer to Persuade them to venture the fight? But fear, standing at the gates of their ears, put back all persuasions; so that he had nothing to accompany Pyrocles but his eyes, nor to sucout him but his wishes. Therefore praying or him, and casting a long look that way, he saw the galley leave the pursuit of them and turn to take up the spoils of the other wreck; and lastly, he might well see them lift up the Young man; and, “Alas!” said he to himself, "dear Pyrocles, shall that body of thine be onchained? Shall those victorious hands of time be commanded to base offices? Shall Virtue become a slave to those that be slaves to Viciousness? Alas, better had it been thou hads ended nobly thy noble days. What oath is so evil as unworthy servitude?” But hopinion soon ceased when he saw the galley *tting upon another ship, which held long and long fight with her; for then he began afresh !" fear the life of his friend, and to wish well the pirates, whom before he hated, lest in their ruin he might perish. But the fishermen "ade such speed into the haven that they absented his eyes from beholding the issue;

'Come upon the stays = go about from one tack to another

where being entered, he could procure neither them nor any other as then" to put themselves into the sea; so that, being as full of sorrow for being unable to do anything as void of counsel how to do anything, besides that sickness grew something upon him, the honest shepherds Strephon and Claius (who, being themselves true friends, did the more perfectly judge the justness of his sorrow) advise him that he should mitigate somewhat of his woe, since he had gotten an amendment in fortune, being come from assured persuasion of his death to have no cause to despair of his life, as one that had lamented the death of his sheep should after know they were but strayed, would receive pleasure, though readily he knew not where to find them.

CHAP. II

“Now, sir,” said they, “thus for ourselves it is. . We are, in profession, but shepherds, and, in this country of Laconia, little better than strangers, and, therefore, neither in skill nor ability of power greatly to stead you. But what we can present unto you is this: Arcadia, of which country we are, is but a little way hence, and even upon the next confines. There dwelleth a gentleman, by name Kalander, who vouchsafeth much favour unto us; a man who for his hospitality is so much haunted ‘ that no news stir but come to his ears; for his upright dealing so beloved of his neighbours that he hath many ever ready to do him their uttermost service, and, by the great goodwill our Prince bears him, may soon obtain the use of his name and credit, which hath a principal sway, not only in his own Arcadia, but in all these countries of Peloponnesus; and, which is worth all, all these things give him not so much power as his nature gives him will to benefit, so that it seems no music is so sweet to his ear as deserved thanks. To him we will bring you, and there you may

' as then = at the time * visited

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