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end he may be an everlasting saviour, this we are taught by divine law, which law both ascertaineth the truth and supplieth unto us the want of that other law. So that in moral actions, divine law helpeth exceedingly the law of reason to guide man's life; but in supernatural it alone guideth. Proceed we further; let us place man in some public society with others, whether civil or spiritual; and in this case there is no remedy but we must add yet a further law. For although even here likewise the laws of nature and reason be of necessary use, yet somewhat over and besides them is necessary, namely, human and positive law, together with that law which is of commerce between grand societies, the law of nations, and of nations Christian. For which cause the law of God hath likewise said, “Let every soul be subject to the higher powers.” The public power of all societies is above every soul contained in the same societies. And the principal use of that power is to give laws unto all that are under it; which laws in such case we must obey, unless there be reason showed which may necessarily enforce that the law of reason or of God doth enjoin the contrary. Because except our own private and but probable resolutions be by the law of public determinations overruled, we take away all possibility of sociable life in the world. A plainer example whereof than ourselves we cannot have. How cometh it to pass that we are at this present day so rent with mutual contentions, and that the Church is so much troubled about the polity of the Church 2 No doubt if men had been willing to learn how many laws their actions in this life are subject unto, and what the true force of each law is, all these controversies might have died the very day they were first brought forth. It is both commonly said, and truly, that the best men otherwise are not always the best in regard of society. The reason whereof is, for that the law of men's actions is one, if they be respected only as men; and another, when they are considered as parts of a politic body. Many men there are, than whom nothing is more commendable when they are singled; and yet in society with others none less fit to answer the duties which are looked for at their hands. Yea, I am persuaded, that of them with whom in this cause we strive, there are whose betters amongst men would be hardly found, if they did not live amongst men, but in some wilderness by themselves. The cause of which their disposition, so unframable unto

societies wherein they live, is, for that they discern not aright what place and force these several kinds of laws ought to have in all their actions. Is their question either concerning the regiment' of the Church in general, or about conformity between one church and another, or of ceremonies, offices, powers, jurisdictions in our own church? Of all these things they judge by that rule which they frame to themselves with some show of probability, and what seemeth in that sort convenient, the same they think themselves bound to practise; the same by all means they labour mightily to uphold; whatsoever any law of man to the contrary hath determined they weigh it not. Thus by following the law of private reason, where the law of public should take place, they breed disturbance. For the better inuring therefore of men's minds with the true distinction of laws, and of their several force according to the different kind and quality of our actions, it shall not peradventure be amiss to show in some one example how they all take place. To seek no further, let but that be considered, than which there is not anything more familiar unto us, our food. What things are food and what are not we judge naturally by sense; neither need we any other law to be our director in that behalf than the selfsame which is common unto us with beasts. But when we come to consider of food, as of a benefit which God of his bounteous goodness hath provided for all things living; the law of reason doth here require the duty of thankfulness at our hands, towards him at whose hands we have it. And lest appetite in the use of food should lead us beyond that which is meet, we owe in this case obedience to that law of reason, which teacheth mediocrity in meats and drinks. The same things divine law teacheth also, as at large we have showed it doth all parts of moral duty, whereuntowe all of necessity stand bound, in regard of the life to come. But of certain kinds of food the Jews sometime had, and we ourselves likewise have, a mystical, religious, and supernatural use, they of their Paschal lamb and oblations, we of our bread and wine in the Eucharist; which use none but divine law could institute. Now as we live in civil society, the state of the commonwealth wherein we live both may and doth require certain laws concerning food; which laws, saving only that we are members of the commonwealth where they are of force,

* organization and government

we should not need to respect as rules of action, whereas now in their place and kind they must be respected and obeyed. Yea, the selfsame matter is also a subject wherein sometime ecclesiastical laws have place; so that unless we will be authors of confusion in the Church, our private discretion, which otherwise might guide us a contrary way, must here submit itself to be that way guided, which the public judgment of the Church hath thought better. In which case that of Zonaras concerning fasts may be remembered, “Fastings are good, but let good things be done in good and convenient manner. He that transgresseth in his fasting the orders of the holy fathers, the positive laws of the Church of Christ, must be plainly told, that good things do lose the grace of their goodness, when in good sort they are not performed.” And as here men's private fancies must give place to the higher judgment of that church which is in authority a mother over them; so the very actions of whole churches have, in regard of commerce and fellowship with other Churches, been subject to laws concerning food, the contrary unto which laws had else been thought more convenient for them to observe; as by that order of abstinence from Strangled and blood may appear; an order grounded upon that fellowship which the churches of the Gentiles had with the Jews. Thus we see how even one and the selfsame thing is under divers considerations conveyed through many laws; and that to measure by any one kind of law all the actions of men were to confound the admirable order wherein God hath disposed all laws, each as in nature, so in degree, distinct from other. Wherefore that here we may briefly end: of saw there can be no less acknowledged, than that her seat is the bosom of God, her voice the harmony of the world; all things in heaven and earth do her homage, the very least as feeling her care, and the greatest as not exempted from her power; both Angels and men and greatures of what condition soever, though each in different sort and manner, yet all with uniorm consent, admiring her as the mother of their peace and joy.

JOHN LYLY (1554–1606)


"I perceive, Camilla, that be your cloth *Yes so bad it will take some colour, and your

cause never so false, it will bear some show of probability, wherein you manifest the right nature of a woman, who having no way to win, thinketh to overcome with words. This I gather by your answer, that beauty may have fair leaves, and foul fruit, that all that are amiable are not honest, that love proceedeth of the woman's perfection, and the man's follies, that the trial looked for, is to perform whatsoever they promise, that in mind he be virtuous, in body comely, such a husband in my opinion is to be wished for, but not looked for. Take heed, Camilla, that seeking all the wood for a straight stick you choose not at the last a crooked staff, or prescribing a good counsel to others, thou thyself follow the worst: much like to Chius, who selling the best wine to others, drank himself of the lees.” “Truly,” quoth Camilla, “my wool was black, and therefore it could take no other colour, and my cause good, and therefore admitteth no cavil: as for the rules I set down of love, they were not coined of me, but learned, and, being so true, believed. If my fortune be so ill that, searching for a wand, I gather a cammock," or, selling wine to other, I drink vinegar myself, I must be content, that of the worst, poor help, patience,” which by so much the more is to be borne, by how much the more it is perforce.” As Surius was speaking, the Lady Flavia prevented him, saying, “It is time that you break off your speech, lest we have nothing to speak, for should you wade any farther, you would both waste the night and leave us no time, and take our reasons, and leave us no matter; that every one therefore may say somewhat, we command you to cease; that you have both said so well, we give you thanks.” Thus letting Surius and Camilla to whisper by themselves (whose talk we will not hear) the lady began in this manner to greet Martius. “We see, Martius, that where young folks are, they treat of love, when soldiers meet, they confer of war, painters of their colours, musicians of their crochets, and every one talketh of that most he liketh best. Which seeing it is so, it behooveth us that have more years, to have more wisdom, not to measure our talk by the affections we have had, but by those we should have. “In this therefore I would know thy mind whether it be convenient for women to haunt such places where gentlemen are, or for men

* crooked stick " = with the only contentment possible at the worst, the poor help patience

to have access to gentlewomen, which methinketh in reason cannot be tolerable, knowing that there is nothing more pernicious to either, than love, and that love breedeth by nothing sooner than looks. They that fear water, will come near no wells, they that stand in dread of burning, fly from the fire: and ought not they that would not be entangled with desire to refrain company? If love have the pangs which the passionate set down, why do they not abstain from the cause 2 If it be pleasant why do they dispraise it? “We shun the place of pestilence for fear of infection, the eyes of Catoblepas' because of diseases, the sight of the basilisk for dread of death, and shall we not eschew the company of them that may entrap us in love, which is more bitter than any destruction? “If we fly thieves that steal our goods, shall we follow murderers that cut our throats? If we be heedy” to come where wasps be, lest we be stung, shall we hazard to run where Cupid is, where we shall be stifled? Truly, Martius, in my opinion there is nothing either more repugnant to reason, or abhorring from nature, than to seek that we should shun, leaving the clear stream to drink of the muddy ditch, or in the extremity of heat to lie in the parching sun, when he may sleep in the cold shadow, or, being free from fancy, to seek after love, which is as much as to cool a hot liver with strong wine, or to cure a weak stomach with raw flesh. In this I would hear thy sentence, induced the rather to this discourse, for that Surius and Camilla have begun it, than that I like it: love in me hath neither power to command, nor persuasion to entreat. Which how idle a thing it is, and how pestilent to youth, I partly know, and you I am sure can guess.” Martius not very young to discourse of these matters, yet desirous to utter his mind, whether it were to flatter Surius in his will, or to make trial of the lady's wit: began thus to frame his answer: “Madam, there is in Chio the Image of Diana, which to those that enter seemeth sharp and sour, but returning after their suits made, looketh with a merry and pleasant countenance. And it may be that at the entrance of my discourse ye will bend your brows, as one dis; pleased, but hearing my proof, be delighted and satisfied. “The question you move, is whether it be requisite, that gentlemen and gentlewomen

* a fabulous animal * headful

should meet. Truly among lovers it is convenient to augment desire, amongst those that are firm, necessary to maintain society. For to take away all meeting for fear of love, were to kindle amongst all, the fire of hate. There is greater danger, Madam, by absence, which breedeth melancholy, than by presence, which engendereth affection. “If the sight be so perilous, that the company should be barred, why then admit you those to see banquets that may thereby surfeit, or suffer them to eat their meat by a candle that have sore eyes? To be separated from one I love, would make me more constant, and to keep company with her I love not, would not kindle desire. Love cometh as well in at the ears, by the report of good conditions, as in at the eyes by the amiable countenance, which is the cause, that divers have loved those they never saw, and seen those they never loved. “You allege that those that fear drowning, come near no wells, nor they that dread burning, near no fire. Why then, let them stand in doubt also to wash their hands in a shallow brook, for that Serapus falling into a channel was drowned: and let him that is cold never warm his hands, for that a spark fell into the eyes of Actine, whereof she died. Let none come into the company of women, for that divers have been allured to love, and being refused, have used violence to themselves. “Let this be set down for a law, that none walk abroad in the day but men, lest meeting a beautiful woman, he fall in love, and lose his liberty. “I think, Madam, you will not be so precise, to cut off all conference, because love cometh by often communication, which if you do, let us all now presently depart, lest in seeing the beauty which dazzleth our eyes, and hearing the wisdom which tickleth our ears, we be enflamed with love. “But you shall never beat the fly from the candle though he burn, nor the quail from hemlock though it be poison, nor the lover from the company of his lady though it be rilous. “It falleth out sundry times, that company is the cause to shake off love, working the effects of the root rhubarb, which being full of choler, purgeth choler, or of the scorpion's sting, which being full of poison, is a remedy for lson. “But this I conclude, that to bar one that is in love of the company of his lady, maketh him rather mad, than mortified, for him to refrain that never knew love, is either to suspect him of folly without cause, or the next way for him to fall into folly when he knoweth the cause. “A lover is like the herb heliotropium, which always inclineth to that place where the sun shineth, and being deprived of the sun, dieth. For as lunaris herb, as long as the moon waxeth, bringeth forth leaves, and in the waning shaketh them off: so a lover whilst he is in the company of his lady, where all joys increase, uttereth many pleasant conceits, but banished from the sight of his mistress, where all mirth decreaseth, either liveth in melancholy, or dieth with desperation.” The Lady Flavia speaking in his cast,' proceeded in this manner: “Truly, Martius, I had not thought that as yet your colt's tooth stuck in your mouth, or that so old a truant in love, could hitherto remember his lesson. You seem not to infer that it is requisite they should meet, but being in love that it is convenient, lest, falling into a mad mood, they pine in their own peevishness. Why then let it follow, that the drunkard which Surfeiteth with wine be always quaffing, because he liketh it, or the epicure which glutteth himself with meat be ever eating, for that it contenteth him, not seeking at any time the means to redress their vices, but to renew them. But it fareth with the lover as it doth with him that poureth in much wine, who is ever more thirsty, than he that drinketh moderately, for having once tasted the delights of love, he desireth most the thing that hurteth him most, not laying a plaster to the wound, but a corTOSlWe. "I am of this mind, that if it be dangerous, to lay flax to the fire, salt to the eyes, sulphur to the nose, that then it cannot be but perilous 19 let one lover come in presence of the other.” Surius overhearing the lady, and seeing her so tamest, although he were more earnest in his suit to Camilla, cut her off with these words: "Good Madam, give me leave either to depart, or to speak, for in truth you gall me more with these terms, than you wist,” in seem"g to inveigh so bitterly against the meeting of lovers, which is the only marrow of love, and though I doubt not but that Martius is ificiently armed to answer you, yet would !, not have those reasons refeiled, which |loathe to have repeated. It may be you utter them not of malice you bear to love, but only

'style, manner * know * refuted

to move controversy where there is no question. for if thou envy to have lovers meet, why did you grant us; if allow it, why seek you to separate us?” The good lady could not refrain from laughter, when she saw Surius so angry, who in the midst of his own tale, was troubled with hers, whom she thus again answered. “I cry you mercy," gentleman, I had not thought to have catched you, when I fished for another, but I perceive now that with one bean it is easy to get two pigeons, and with one bait to have divers bites. I see that others may guess where the shoe wrings, besides him that wears it.” “Madam,” quoth Surius, “you have caught a frog, if I be not deceived, and therefore as good it were not to hurt him, as not to eat him, but if all this while you angled to have a bite at a lover, you should have used no bitter medicines, but pleasant baits.” “I cannot tell,” answered Flavia, “whether my bait were bitter or not, but sure I am I have the fish by the gill, that doth me good.” Camilla not thinking to be silent, put in her spoke as she thought into the best wheel, saying, “Lady, your cunning may deceive you in fishing with an angle, therefore to catch him you would have, you were best to use a net.” “A net!” quoth Flavia, “I need none, for my fish playeth in a net already.” With that Surius began to wince, replying immediately, “So doth many a fish, good lady, that slippeth out, when the fisher thinketh him fast in, and it may be, that either your net is too weak to hold him, or your hand too wet.” “A wet hand,” quoth Flavia, “will hold a dead her. ring:” “Aye,” quoth Surius, “but eels are no herrings.” “But lovers are,” said Flavia. Surius, not willing to have the grass mown, whereof he meant to make his hay, began thus to conclude: “Good Lady, leave off fishing for this time, and though it be Lent, rather break a statute which is but penal, than sew” a pond that may be perpetual.”. “I am content,” quoth Flavia, “rather to fast for once, than to want a pleasure forever: yet, Surius, betwixt us two, I will at large prove, that there is nothing in love more venomous than meeting, which filleth the mind with grief and the body with diseases: for having the one, he cannot fail of the other. But now, Philautus and niece Francis, since I am cut off, begin you: but be short, because

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the time is short, and that I was more short than I would.”


They came no sooner nigh the folds, but they might see where their discontented forester was walking in his melancholy. As soon as Aliena saw him, she smiled, and said to Ganimede: “Wipe your eyes, sweeting, for yonder is your sweetheart this morning in deep prayers no doubt to Venus, that she may make you as pitiful as he is passionate. Come on, Ganimede, I pray thee let's have a little sport with him.” “Content,” quoth Ganimede, and with that, to waken him out of his deep memento, he” began thus:

“Forester, good fortune to thy thoughts, and ease to thy passions! What makes you so early abroad this morn, in contemplation, no doubt, of your Rosalynde 2 Take heed, forester, step not too far; the ford may be deep, and you slip over the shoes. I tell thee, flies have their spleen, the ants choler, the least hairs shadows, and the smallest loves great desires. 'Tis good, forester, to love, but not to overlove, lest, in loving her that likes not thee, thou fold thyself in an endless labyrinth.” Rosader seeing the fair shepherdess and her pretty swain, in whose company he felt the greatest ease of his care, he returned them a salute on this manner:

“Gentle shepherds, all hail, and as healthful be your flocks as you happy in content. Love is restless, and my bed is but the cell of my bane, in that there I find busy thoughts and broken slumbers. Here, although everywhere passionate,” yet I brook love with more patience, in that every object feeds mine eye with variety of fancies. When I look on Flora's beauteous tapestry, checkered with the pride of all her treasure, I call to mind the fair face of Rosalynde, whose heavenly hue exceeds the rose and the lily in their highest excellence. The brightness of Phoebus' shine puts me in mind to think of the sparkling flames that flew from her eyes and set my heart first on fire; the sweet harmonie of the birds puts me in remembrance of the rare melody of her voice, which like the Syren enchanteth the ears of the hearer. Thus in contemplation I salve my sorrows, with applying the perfection of every object to the excellence of her qualities.”

1 meditation *he - Rosalynde disguised as Gani

mede "troubled

“She is much beholding unto you,” quoth Aliena, “and so much that I have oft wished with myself that if I should ever prove as amorous as GEnone, I might find as faithful a Paris as yourself.”

“How say you by this Item, forester?” quoth Ganimede. “The fair shepherdess favours you, who is mistress of so many flocks. Leave off, man, the supposition of Rosalynde's love, whenas, watching at her, you rove beyond the moon; and cast your looks upon my mistress, who no doubt is as fair though not so royal. One bird in the hand is worth two in the wood; better possess the love of Aliena, than catch frivolously at the shadow of Rosalynde.”

“I’ll tell thee, boy,” quoth Ganimede; “so is my fancy fixed on my Rosalynde, that were thy mistress as fair as Leda or Danae, whom Jove courted in transformed shapes, mine eyes would not vouch' to entertain their beauties; and so hath Love locked me in her perfections, that I had rather only contemplate in her beauties, than absolutely possess the excellence of any other. Venus is to blame, forester, if, having so true a servant of you, she reward you not with Rosalynde, if Rosalynde were more fairer than herself. But leaving this prattle, now I'll put you in mind of your promise, about those sonnets which you said were at home in your lodge.” “I have them about me,” quoth Rosader; “let us sit down, and then you shall hear what a poetical fury Love will infuse into a man.” With that they sat down upon a green bank shadowed with fig trees, and Rosader, fetching a deep sigh, read them this sonnet:


In sorrow's cell I laid me down to sleep,
But waking woes were jealous of mine eyes.
They made them watch, and bend themselves
to weep;
But weeping tears their want could not suffice.
Yet since for her they wept who guides my
heart, - -
They, weeping, smile and triumph in their

Of these my tears a fountain fiercely springs, Where Venus bains’ herself incensed with love; Where Cupid boweth his fair feathered wings. But I behold what pains I must approve; , Care drinks it dry; but when on her I think, Love makes me weep it full unto the brink.

1 condescend 2 bathes

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